Saturday, August 31, 2019

Islamic Women

Islamic Women†¦ Is There an End to their sufferings? The question proposed in the title is basically a direct response after going through Geraldine Brooks’ essay â€Å"Nine Parts of Desire; The Hidden World of Islamic Women† in its second chapter. Geraldine poses several ideas and personal experiences in which she tries to understand the mystery of the perpetuating repressive and barbaric practices (genital mutilation, infibulations, hysterectomy, and honor killings) that have nothing to do with Koranic teachings.She starts her essay in a detailed description of a gruesome and shocking scene of a hysterectomy procedure that took place under poor and unequipped conditions (Brooks 33). Many women that were subjected to such practices ended up dead. For such manner, Dr. Abrehet Gebrekidan, a gynecologist, offered the Eritreans help since her skills will ensure their survival (Brooks 34). Furthermore, the Kuran refused the existence of the dreadful genital mutilation procedures, but the women were not educated enough to read it (Brooks 35).And despite the consequences of such procedures, they believed that such procedures were to safeguard the girls’ chastity where the honor of the fathers and brothers depended on (Brooks 37). As for men, they believed that these operations are equivalent to their honors, therefore they must repress women sexualities by turning off their pleasure sites otherwise they will end up as prostitutes (Brooks 35). The prophet Muhammad, who is the ideal person of all Muslims, believed that women should enjoy sexual intercourse with their husbands. And that it is forbidden to take away women desires (Brooks 39).According to Muslims, specifically Shiite, adultery â€Å"sigheh or muta† is acceptable and sanctioned by a cleric where the couple are together mainly for having sex and providing money (Brooks 43). Brooks also mentions the idea of honor killings that were and still adopted in some Islamic tribes. Th ey believe that fathers and brothers have the right to kill their own daughters or sisters when suspecting that they are having sexual intercourse without marriage (Brooks 49). Brooks obviously mentions that the Kuran (Islam) is not a mean of oppression to women, but then why are there so many women oppressed?All this leads to my personal stand towards such an essential and critical issue. I agree with Geraldine Brooks that Islamic women should strive against such unfair practices and beliefs, and to free themselves from the power of ruled Islamic men for they are suffering from severe consequences. Islamic women should articulate spokeswomen to put an end to their miseries where they can maintain physical, social, and emotional stability. Imagine you were one of the African women who were subjected to such horrifying operation, how would you feel? Frightened, disgusted, hopeless, and worthless.Genital mutilation is a result of delusions of men where they think that their honor will be preserved and maintained through such operations. It is devastating what they do to such women. Their clitoris is cut off in an unprofessional way with poor and unclean equipment which led them to suffer from a lot of pain during sexual intercourse. Moreover, such women used to bleed to death during such operations or if not during the operation then later by suffering from severe infections and debilitating anemia (Brooks 34). To prove such point, Brooks reflected the real life experience of a woman that had her clitoris cut off when she was eight.After getting married, she was subjected to pain every time she had sex with her husband. And giving birth to her last fifth child ended her life (Brooks 33). Women are suffering from physical malfunctions and even death for something they are born with. Is it fair for men to have their honors preserved at the expense of losing so many innocent women? Isn’t there another way? According to the Kuran in Islam, and the hadith of t he prophet Mohammad, women have the complete right to enjoy sex and satisfy their pleasures with their husbands.Men and women are equal when it comes to sex; however they should be married as the Sharia (Law) of Islam states (Brooks 39). The Islamic religion did not mention about hysterectomy and did not approve of it as a way to reflect man’s honor. The prophet Muhammad considered sex to be not only a mean to have children but an enjoyable and pleasurable relation between the couple, and he himself enjoyed it with all his wives (Brooks 41). Moreover, some people might think that the citizens in Saudi Arabia are always confused about sex since they’re women are covered with a veil.However, these people talk about sex all the time and it is not a shy topic for them. For example, Brooks knew a couple in Saudi Arabia that fell in love over the phone and agreed to instantly marry. When Brooks was invited to their home, she was surprised that women there talk about sex all the time and it is a mean for pleasure (Brooks 40). This ensures and proves that women who are having sex while married and enjoying it, is socially and religiously acceptable. But despite that, people are ignoring such issues and girls that did not even reach the age of ten don’t have a choice.They are just taught that it is important for them to undergo hysterectomy for the sake of their families. The horrors of these operations keep haunting them throughout their lives until they are long gone. One by one, all these women are being killed for the sake of their spouses believing that it is the right choice. It is so ironic to me that women get married to die instead of living happily ever after. Women are definitely imprisoned by the power of men. Till now, the sufferings of women that I’ve explained are because of men’s demands and authorities.To be more precise, here comes the notion of so-called â€Å"honor killing†. To men, and especially Islamic me n, honor is extremely important to them and the family in their own society. It is so important that they would kill their own flesh and blood for the sake of preserving their honors. In her essay, Brooks mentions the example of the nineteen years old girl that was found tied up in a burned-out car. She was murdered by her own father because the girl was pregnant and unmarried (Brooks 51). The poor little girl had an affair probably with her loved one, and for that she faced her miserable destiny.Isn’t it all cleared out now? All these crimes, inhumane acts, and the never ending miseries of women are the result of the demands and satisfaction of the ruling men. Therefore, gynecologists revealed a new modern way for such girls to protect themselves for death by undergoing a procedure called hymenoplasty, also known as hymen reconstruction surgery. Lebanon is one of the Arab countries that adopted such procedure (Hankir 387). In Lebanon, the majority of people find having sex b efore marriage a taboo and a sin. To them, virginity of a girl is something so sacred and it determines her honor.Therefore, a girl must remain virgin until she gets married otherwise no man will accept her, and it will cause a lot of problems in her family (Hankir 387). For example, a twenty five-year-old Diana wants to get her hymen reconstructed because she is afraid of losing the one she wants to marry, and she can’t risk having her family find out. Obviously, the man she loves doesn’t accept her as a non virgin (Hankir 387). But the generation now a days is very much different than the generation of our parents and their parents. Sexuality, and especially in Lebanon, has become something normal between two couples.Many teenagers are having sex since their beliefs and mentalities are more up to date and westernized. Also, they can always resort to hymenoplasty as a solution for their â€Å"sins†. I believe that this procedure is somehow helpful in certain ca ses. For example, when a girl gets raped, she can undergo hymenoplasty to cover up for something she had nothing to do with. If she didn’t, many boys will refuse to marry her, and she will be judged wrongly all her life. Genital mutilation is definitely not a substitution for honor killing and vice versa. Both highlight and reflect crimes, inhumanity, and barbarity.Can’t we all just build a society where it is banned from men controlling women and having the right to kill their daughters? A society where women are as much powerful as men and are not afraid to hide their reality with a plastic surgery? Also, there should exist an acceptable punishment for those girls far away from ending their lives since God only is responsible for such duty. To sum up, we live in the Arab world where man was and is still dominant over women. Men tend to control the lives of women as they want to as if they are nothing more than slaves.Honor killing, genital mutilation, and no educatio n are all part of the plan of men. Women are just for satisfying the pleasure of men, and giving birth. Men fear the idea of educating women since they will become as powerful as men and seek to free and protect themselves from the captivation of men. And this leads me to my final stand. Women are capable of living a much more healthy and happy life by strengthening their will and educating themselves. They should not tolerate the demands of men for they bring nothing but miseries and severe consequences on their lives.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Observation Essay

Asian game was running in Inches. Since my friend from Hong Kong Is one of the representatives for Hong Kong girl squash team, and I wanted to watch any of the Aslant game matches, therefore, I chose to watch squash competition at last. It was on the 24th September. The competition was held in Hourly Squash Court. I took the wrong line of the subway since it was quite far from SHCOON and still, I was not too familiar with the subway system. As I interchanged station In Guru to Donnas of blue line 1, I saw a slight difference for people In the train from the milliamp green line 2.There were more elderly In the train. I was surprised to be asked to sit down by a kind lady. I felt like people have warmer hospitality than those from the city centre. After I entered the competition venue, I sit in front of the court that Hong Kong was playing with China. There were a few spectators as I expected. As know, squash is not a popular sport among all so it is really common to have a few spectat ors. There were 4 courts undergoing competitions In the venue. I looked around and I was shocked to see at the middle of the venue, there were full of people.I was wondering if the game was exciting so I walked towards that court. It was hard to get there because there were really a lot of people. Even the staffs heading there to see the game. I finally found a space. It was the women game which South Korea versus Japan and the score was even. I was really shocked by the full house spectators. Most of them are Korean and what surprised me most Is that many of them got banners or cheering tools. They yelled the cheering songs and slogans loudly to support the Korean team. At the same time, my Hong Kong friend had finished the game and came to me.She as also attracted by the loud cheering sound and was curious about the people. She said, â€Å"It would be so good If Hong Kong would ever have so many people supporting me. † I asked, † Would there ever be that many people w atching squash game In Hong Kong? ‘ she answered, † Even If there Is many spectators, they would never bring banners and cheer together loudly! † It was a tight game. Both Japanese and Korean players were well trained and passionate to win. I was amazed by Koreans passion to support the national team because when I went out of the venue to another venue, I could still hear their cheering sound.Korea finally won the game. After the game, there were so many questions pop-up In my mind. The first question is why is Korean so passionate to cheer for the team? I have come up with this question because squash is really not a popular sport and especially for women's match, it is not exciting as the men's. I have think of some possible answers. Firstly, since South Korea is the host country of the Asian game, people are proud and so they put their effort in supporting the team. Secondly, because the match was battling with Japan, which Is a country who always has rivalries with Korea, so Korean Observation essay I came across this situation between a Chills employee and a guest. I walked in through the to-go area, to pick up an order. As I approached the register I noticed a lady just standing there on her cell phone ignoring the to-go specialist. Since she was there before I was I kindly waited till she spoke to the young man. I heard him say repetitively welcome to chills† in the most friendliest tone ever. The lady was standing with her one hand on her hip and continued to have her conversation on her phone. The young man opened the register and began to count the money InsideIt. After he called her once again welcoming her, but at this point he was a bit agitated and you could tell within his voice. The women finally hung up her phone, yet still made no eye contact with the young man. She looked around the area grabbed a to-go menu, while glancing she said her name and was wondering why her order was taking so long. Already frustrated with the phone call she Just had, she just deci ded to take It out on the young man. Blaming him for getting her food late. According to her it was horrible service.Aggravatingly yelling â€Å"where Is your anger, I demand to speak to him! † with her hands in his face. He calmly said â€Å"yes ma'am, Ill go ahead and call him over here. † The manager approached both of them and asked what the problem was. The women went off saying he was rude because he ignored her presence, never welcomed her, nor asked for her name. Rolling her eyes claiming the employee was on his cell phone, testing people instead of doing his lob. The Chills manager apologized and to please the guest he gave the women a discount as well.After everything was taken care of she put on her black sunglasses ND as she was walking away she turned around and impolitely told the employee â€Å"thank for the horrible experience! † When I went up for my order I made sure I helped the young man clear his name. He did his Job, and he did it very well . The woman was obviously already in a bad mood as she walked into the restaurant, maybe she was having a bad day and that one phone call did not help. For her to take out her anger on a complete stranger is Just not right. Observation essay By bind lady Just standing there on her cell phone ignoring the to-go specialist.Since she was ere phone. The young man opened the register and began to count the money inside it. After he called her once again welcoming her, but at this point he was a bit she Just decided to take it out on the young man. Blaming him for getting her food late, according to her it was horrible service. Aggravatingly yelling â€Å"where is your ma'am, I'll go ahead and call him over here. † The manager approached both of them job. The Chills manager apologized and to please the guest he gave the women a â€Å"thank you for the horrible experience! † When I went up for my order I made sure I

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Bullies Should Be Held Legally Responsible Essay

We all know what bullying is. We usually tend to think of it as some huge kid threatening to beat you up if you don’t give them your lunch money. But sometimes, bullying goes so much further than that. Sometimes bullies go too far, and their victims make the unfortunate choice of ending their own lives. As awful as it is, it happens every day, and the worst part about it is those bullies aren’t held legally accountable for their actions, but they should be. Bullying is a form of harassment. It damages people physically and mentally. Even though the â€Å"normal† type of harassment is illegal, bullying someone literally to death isn’t. Rebecca Ann Sedwick was one of those victims who were bullied to death. She was a 12 year old girl in high school, and several other girls began taunting and making fun of her over a boyfriend issue. The taunting and teasing didn’t let up. Rebecca was both verbally and physically assaulted. One girl was reported tellin g Rebecca to â€Å"drink bleach and die†. Eventually Rebecca couldn’t take it anymore and she climbed to a concrete tower and hurled herself to her death. Rebecca was harassed, which is against the law, but people don’t seem to understand that. In addition to being a form of harassment, bullies should be held legally accountable for their actions because those who bully know the difference between right and wrong. In the case of minors, when bullying gets brought up, many people bring up the fact that their brains are not fully developed until the age of 20 or so. This is true, and I do not dispute it. However, just because their brains aren’t entirely developed does not mean that shouldn’t be held accountable for their actions. If a minor cheated on a test, would the claim about their brains be considered legitimate and make it to where they don’t receive punishment? Of course not, so why should bullying someone to death be any different? Finally, bullies should be legally responsible for their actions because it would act as a deterrent. When most people bully, they don’t really have any fear of consequences because they know that there really aren’t any, which is exactly why there should be serious consequences. Because of the lack of punishment, people just say hurtful things constantly without any thought about what might happen as a result. That is completely ridiculous and something must be done about it. If people knew that their bullying harassment might land them in jail, they would certainly think twice before making those nasty, attacking comments that cause such tremendous harm.  Those who have been victimized to their breaking point deserve justice, and holding their tormenters legally responsible is the only way they will receive it. The problem is, when someone has finally had enough of being bullied and they end their lives, no one sees it as anyone else’s fault but their own. Somehow suicide isn’t as bad as murder, when in fact, its every bit as devastating, if not even more.

EC5--Movie, book, TV show, or song Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

EC5--Movie, book, TV show, or song - Essay Example According to the law, the figure or value that is expressed in words is meant to govern over the value expressed in words as the figures expressed in words are much more difficult to alter. In essence, the words control the figures up until the point where the words are considered ambiguous. â€Å"Catch me if You Can† is a biography that is founded on the life and experiences Frank Abagnale, a young man who managed to rip off millions of dollars from the bank through check fraud. He manages to do this by posing as pilot from Pan American World Airways, a doctor from Georgia and a parish prosecutor from Louisiana. This is relevant to the theme by virtue of highlighting the different loopholes within the security and scrutiny of checks and how individuals manage to circumvent these loopholes. The movie shows how check fraud is conducted by individuals and/or corporates with the aim of ripping of financial institutions. However, the law has prescribed different measures for punishing the culprits and recovering the fraudulently obtained

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Final Comprehensive Activity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Final Comprehensive Activity - Essay Example Interviews of approximately twelve couples will be used to create a minimum of six case studies. Secondary research will be used to support the findings of the primary research. Questionnaires will be used as a basis of understanding cultural perceptions The question of the research proposal The Anatomy of Romance is in what way do two people in a long-term relationship that is designated by the emotion of love relate to one another in order to sustain that love? Of the most unanswered questions in the human experience, the question of how people successfully navigate a relationship is one of the more prominent. Self-help books, advertising, and talk shows all make use of the topic to promote the sale of their product. However, a deconstruction of romance to examine the components that create this state can help further the understanding of the phenomenon of love. According to Marshall and Rossman (2006), a sense of ‘Should-do-ability‘, ‘Do-ability’ and ‘Want-to-do-ability’ should be examined when approaching a project. Under the ‘Should-do-ability‘ category, a researcher must decide if the research should be done. The research study on romance should be done to further the understanding of this particular human experience. The research can definitely be approached as the concept of romance is highly prevalent in the cultural experience so therefore has a capacity for ‘Do- The question that the research will attempt to answer is best answered from a narrow perspective. The participants in the study will be from a specific parameter of possible relationship types. The main assumption that has been made is that love is a valid state of emotion, but this assumption should be backed by physiological and psychological foundation. In attempting to answer the core question, it will be essential to both observe and interview those who believe they have successfully attained a consistency in the way

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Global Operations Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Global Operations Management - Essay Example 2) The organization identity must be aligned with the business structure the company chooses to implement. The expansion project can be set up using different managerial structures including centralized, decentralized, and matrix structures. Assuming that the company wants to start small with an emphasis on a specific project my recommendation is for the firm to use a matrix organization structure. â€Å"Matrix organizations are often set up to make organizations more flexible, to break down the old functions or geographic â€Å"silos† and encourage more cooperation across the business† (Global-integration, 2012). 3) There are plenty of legal factors that must be considered when expanding to a foreign country. The firm has to evaluate the environmental laws of the country. Secondly the company must study and carefully analyze the labor laws. A good strategy is to hire a human resource manager from the native country. The tax code of the country must be followed to maintain good relations with the government. A fourth legal consideration is local laws relating to the relationship between a manufacturer and local agents or distributors (Kentuckianabusinessforum, 2012). Kentuckianabusinessforum.com (2012). Legal Considerations in Operating in Foreign Markets. Retrieved February 17, 2012 from

Monday, August 26, 2019

Labor issue paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6500 words

Labor issue paper - Essay Example Analysis of resemblance in cases where workers were reinstated and kept on the payroll, and features of cases where workers resigned, despite their intention to return, revealed that whether or not the workers were allowed an opportunity to argue about labor conditions with their employer in a group before their dismissal probably has a significant effect on the possibility of reinstatement. 1. Introduction Based on cross-country comparisons regarding which out of compensation and reinstatement is primarily granted as a remedy for unjust dismissal, it was revealed that remedies in Japan are reinstatement-centered. A ranking on a scale of one to four regarding the possibility of reinstatement in cases of unjust dismissal among 40 OECD and non-OECD countries shows that 9 countries, including Japan, are ranked first as countries where reinstatement is possible on almost every occasion. Some of the 9 countries also offer options for compensation depending upon types of dismissal and inte nt of workers2. However, in Japan, reinstatement is always possible regardless of types of dismissal and intent of workers and, therefore, it is safe to say that remedies in Japan are reinstatement-centered. In Japan, courts have decided that dismissal without rational reasons and social adequacy is not valid. Also, workers unjustly dismissed in Japan may claim compensation for damages. Further, it has been said that many workers do not choose the option to return to their former employer or quickly resign after reinstatement even if the court rejects the dismissal as invalid. This goes to show that reinstatement-centered remedies do not always entail high rate of actual reinstatement. How often does reinstatement take place and what are the decisive factors of reinstatement possibilities? Driven by these questions in mind, the author investigated how often reinstatement is realized and the effectiveness of reinstatement remedies in the past3. Though direct investigation of dismisse d workers was not possible in that investigative study, the author had a chance to hold interviews of dismissed workers later4. This study is aimed at describing decisive factors of possibilities of reinstatement5 that are implied by data acquired through the interviews survey. In Section 2, a brief overview of findings of Yamaguchi (2001) is provided and data used in this study are described. In Section 3, findings regarding the correlation between Japanese employment practices and reinstatement-centered remedies are reviewed. In Section 4 common factors among cases where returners keep working in their former organizations are considered. In Section 5, reasons workers did not return to their former positions despite their actions to the court for reinstatement are discussed. The last section is the conclusion. 2. Findings of Yamaguchi (2001) and Data Used in This Study For Yamaguchi (2001), the author could not directly contact the dismissed workers and, therefore, made questionna ire surveys and interviewed14 lawyers familiar with labor issues: 9 lawyers primarily working for workers and 5 lawyers primarily working for employers. This study defined the primary factors of possibilities of reinstatement as follows: (1) Employer factor: level of employer's acceptance of reinstatement; (2) Dismissed worker factor: (a) the fact that some workers seek to return to their job as a remedy but others do not, and (b) persistence

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Fundamental Finance Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Fundamental Finance - Research Paper Example Significantly, its financial policy in the funding of its expansion in operational capacity is sound. It has a mix variety of funding sources: (a) from cash from operations, (b) long-term debt instruments, and (c) increase in paid up capital. The growth of revenues and consequently the net income is the result of the company's expansion on its investment on revenue producing assets which are the container vessels and dry-bulk carriers. With 20 vessels, including those under construction in 2006 it had grown to 33 vessels. The revenues increased by 37% in 2007 over 2006, and net income increase of 40% over the preceding year. Moneywise, the investment on property and equipment on vessels alone was $244,684 million in 2007 against $131,720 million in 2006, or an increase in investment totalling $112,974 million. The company had been financing from the same mix of sources. However, since it was listed in the London Stock Exchange it was able to raise larger amounts of funds. Table below is a summary of the funding source and the changes over the last two years: Prior to its listing the company had been funding its operations mostly from cash generated by operations and to a small extent long-term debt. However, in recent years Goldenport Holdings, Inc. has availed more on both the sale of its shares and much larger issuance of long-term debt instrument. ... However, in recent years Goldenport Holdings, Inc. has availed more on both the sale of its shares and much larger issuance of long-term debt instrument. Below is a table showing the relationship of debt and equity and the gearing ratio: (in US$) In US$ 2007 2006 Total debt 193,001,000 93,961,000 Total equity 181,442,000149,528,000 Debt/equity 1.06/1 0.63 /1 The company increased its debt in 2007 to further finance the acquisition/construction of vessels. In 2006 the company had a favourable debt to equity ratio of $.063 debt for every $ of equity. However, in 2007 as a result of additional borrowings the debt to equity ratio or gearing ratio has deteriorated to $1.06 debt to $1 of equity. In a sense, the company went into trading on the equity. The gearing ratio in 2006 was favourable to the firm because it was on that year that it was listed on the Exchange, and has raised funds on this IPO in the amount of $115,465,000. The company has a policy to declare dividends equivalent to 50% of net income during the year, and retained the balance for reinvestment on property and equipment, more particularly its marine fleet of containers and dry-bulk cargo. However, in 2007 the Board decided to declare dividends equivalent to 52% payout on the its net income for the year. This means a lesser retention of income for reinvestment. Dividends The company has a policy to declare dividends equivalent to 50% of net income for the year. However, for the year ended 2007 the company declared 52% of the net come, or an increase of 4% over the preceding year. This policy had twin objectives. It improved its dividend image with its current and potential

Saturday, August 24, 2019

My Life Stage Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

My Life Stage - Essay Example Personally, as a student of 21 years and in a foreign country, can be considered to be in this phase following migration to a new country that is away from home and following attempts to take a job away from their parents. The above shows my attempts, according to Levinson, to establish independence away from my parents and away from my comfort zone, in which emotional, attitudinal, and physical attachment as new relationships are established. As a student studying abroad, this phase is evident as parents and all familial ties are left in the mother nation as one seeks independence a classic application in real life. In addition, Levinson talks of the transitional stage, where one makes choices in his or her own life that may alter their means of living although not drastically. This is considered a transition as one makes choices for himself aside from parental decisions that have been made since childhood. As a foreign student, am left me in a position to make crucial life-changing decisions for myself as opposed to living with the parents, who tend to make all the important decisions. In conclusion, as a 21-year-old student my life clearly illustrates the Levinson model quite well due to severance of dependency and attachment on familial basis, as well as decision-making. As a result, the Levinson perspective evidences one as a young adult in the transitional phase from dependence to

Friday, August 23, 2019

Dominant Theological Issue at Stake in the Resolution of the Nicene Essay

Dominant Theological Issue at Stake in the Resolution of the Nicene Creed - Essay Example ext that they formed. In order to truly be able to understand the Nicene Creed, as well as the matters that are significant in relation to it, such as the fact of what was the dominant theological issue at stake and who was represented in regards to the Nicene Creed, then you need to first understand the history of the Nicene Creed itself, where it came from, why it was brought about, and the importance that it plays in the world today. This is what will be dissertated in the following. Basically the Nicene Creed goes as follows: "And in one Jesus Christ, the only-begotten son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of Very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father by whom all things were made; who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from Heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the Virgin Mary, and was made man, and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried, and the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures, and ascended into Heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And he shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead, whose kingdom shall have no end. And we believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of Life, who proceedeth from the Father and the Son, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spoke by the prophets. And we believe one holy catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for the remissions of sins. And we look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen." (Creeds, 1997). The Nicene Creed was written by the early Church and adopted in a slightly different version by the Church Council at Nicaea in AD 325 and appears in its present form by the Council at Chalcedon in AD 451. It is has remained in use since that time, and it is truly an essential part of the doctrine and liturgy of the Lutheran Church. As well, the Lutheran Church gives the option of the Apostles' Creed or the Nicene Creed, suggesting the Nicene Creed as the more festive or solemn of the two. It is incredibly important to recognize the fact that the New Testament and the Nicene Creed are deeply entangled with each other, and the wording and the actual concepts in the Nicene Creed, for example, actually come from the New Testament, and in fact, one of the most important debates at the Council of Nicea concerned the matter of whether or not it is proper to include a word in the Nicene Creed that does not occur in the New Testament. "On the other hand, at the time that the Church issued the official canon of the New Testament, it customarily compared writings to the Nicene Creed to determine if they were orthodox. So you are correct if you say that the Nicene Creed proceeds from the New Testament, and you are correct if you say that the New Testament is certified by the Nicene Creed." (Collins, 2006). The interrelation between the Nicene Creed and the Trinity is one of great importance, and it is a matter of which discussion is essential in order to be able to get a better grasp on the matter of the Nicene Creed in general; basically, the Nicene Council truly did not invent the Trinity in the

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Project management yara2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Project management yara2 - Essay Example From the fact that resources will always remain limited, managers are required to manage the limited resources using systematic ideas, effective methods and theories and good setting of standards to ensure the project succeeds without unnecessary expenditures. Most project managers whose projects have failed can be traced to the poor interpretation of resource availability. It is on this point that the project managers are required to involve all round resource management skills to avoid failing vital company products. An all-round resource management in this case includes both financial and human capital. The elements needed for effective project management under the limited resources include the ability of the managers to plan, organize, direct, coordinate, control and evaluation of the whole process. These elements are always expected to form a key part of any project at the starting point. Knowing or noting the importance of these elements during project is not enough to steer th e project towards success. Leadership traits and practical aspects of the project management must take center stage. A number of projects have failed despite the availability of resources due poor leadership. One of the elements of project management leadership is involvement of all and accurate communication. Good project management must involve a gradual process of introduction of any new items or changes. This study will focus on good project management from leadership to the practical point (Meredith and Mantel, 2012). Organizations and individual managers have experienced a series of project failures. These failures can be traced to poor management within the organization and the project team. The difference between successful and failed projects has been pointed out to be the management aspect. Successful project management as portrayed by this study requires effective management from the

City Planners Analysis Essay Example for Free

City Planners Analysis Essay The City-Planners is an indictment on the superficiality of progress, and the attribution of incorrigible rationality to the same. The poem views modern life as empty, artificial, and its inhabitants as robotic and lacking in spirit. The land in the city has a great contrast with the rural land. The influx of people moving from rural to urban areas keeps on increasing to this day. Living in such an environment with only concrete, steel and buildings, man consequently becomes more mechanical, stressed and partially dehumanized. The absence of vast land in cities deprives the harmony that a huge area of empty land provides. This absence of land in cities is severely criticized by Margaret Atwood in this poem where the houses in pedantic rows shows lack of warmth. The theme of this poem is perfection, uniformity, man’s attempts to control nature, and its lust of power (the city planners). As the poet moves about in a residential area, she is offended by the sanities of the area. The word sanities may possess a double meaning here. Firstly, it may allude to the unnatural sanitariness of the place. Secondly, it may denote the saneness of minds, or soundness that render them sophisticated, uniform and therefore boring. The dry August sunlight alludes to the province from which the speaker hails: Canada. The houses in rows appear too pedantic to be real. The trees have the appearance of being planted to render the scene picture-perfect. The levelness of surface further provokes the poetess as it appears to be a rebuke to the dent in their car door. There is no shouting there, no shatter of glass. No instinctive action takes place here: everything is after-thought and preplanned. There are no shouts here, no loud wants as people are economically well-off and complacent. The only noise is the rational whine of a power mower. It is that rationality that makes this noise a voice. In the era of applied technology, this sound is more pleasing to the ears than emotional echoes. The power mower cut a straight swath in the discouraged grass; and thus established the victory of Science over Nature. Throughout the second stanza there has been absolutely no mention of any human movement, making it seem as if the sub-division is empty. This could metaphorically indicate that the people living here live empty, monotonous lives that are without meaning. The driveways neatly revealing even roads, appear like mathematical units. Even a domestic entity like a coiled pipe appears as poisonous as a snake, as it is out of place. The windows portray a fixed-stare as though everything is static, and nothing is kinetic. The natural scenery appears to be at the back of this residential area. Mans mistakes seem to offer more than his creations in this stanza. The poetess seems to plead and demand at the same time when she opines give momentary access. The speaker hopes that the future cracks in the plaster will enable one to view the breathtaking natural view behind. She also admits that, â€Å"the houses in pedantic rows, the planted sanitary trees, offend us with their transitory lines, rigid as wooden borders†. Mans mistakes seem to offer more than his creations in this stanza. The poet is trying to give power back to nature here, and stating that nature will eventually, definitely rise once again and break down these suburbs. Margaret Atwood claims that there will come an inevitable stage when nature will ultimately conquer. Houses will capsize into clay seas. Is the poetess foreboding a natural disaster, most probably a Tsunami? It would only take a minute to put to years of city-planning to naught. They will appear like glaciers then. The speaker utilizes the metaphor of ice to connote transience. Nobody notices how fleeting all this is. Blizzards and snows are used as an extended metaphor for the blindness and confusion of a city that is completely bland and uniform, in which the people do not even realise how routine and structured their lives and the suburbia in general are in reality. These City Planners-calculating and manipulative in their approach to reach their ends are no less than political conspirators. In such a situation, they will be subjected to unsurveyed territories they had not even envisaged. They will be hidden from each other, where competitiveness will take a back-seat. The poem eventually envisages the city planners’ consequences of being greedy, and ends by saying that, the creations of these city planners will inevitably be destroyed by nature. To counteract the disturbing effect upon the human mind, land must be used in an effective manner. Land is essential to instil serenity in peoples lives. To sustain the availability of land in cities, housing must be carefully planned so as to minimize the use of land. Green architects are required to maintain this balance between building and nature. The driveways neatly side-step hysteria by revealing even roads that appear like mathematical units. Hysteria is conveniently side-stepped as nothing can defy logic. The roofs also display the same slant to the hot sky. The act of displaying a slant also means the projection of an angle. This angle of avoidance is everywhere whether it to the hot sun, the smell of spilled oil, or a faint sick smell lingering in the garage. Even a splash of paint on a brick is as amazing as a bruise. A domestic entity like a coiled pipe appears as poisonous as a snake, as it is out of place. The windows portray a fixed-stare as though everything is static, and nothing is kinetic.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Some Distractions While Driving English Language Essay

Some Distractions While Driving English Language Essay Im driving down the road on a highway in a yellow Sun Fire, bumping to the radio with three other friends in the car as passengers, looking down in my lap, not glancing at the road, when all of a sudden I look up and see a green car coming toward me. I swerve to stop an accident from happening. Close, but everyone is safe. A year has past since I almost well, I dont know what could have happened. If I hadnt started paying attention we would have been gone. Be careful of your surroundings and what you are concentrating on while driving because you might just end up taking someones life just like I almost did. Ever since my incident in Hubbard, Ohio, I never talk and text while Im driving; however, if I have to talk or text, I pull over to the side of the road or into a parking lot. I never would have learned that, if I didnt experience it for myself. I didnt want to drive for a month, and if I really had to, I would make sure my phone was kept away so I wasnt tempted by it. I also received anxiety from my situation. I would become anxious when I got on the road and a car pulled out in front of me, or if a car would just tailgate me. Not only did my personal experience help me learn, but it helped me think about others on the road, instead of worrying about the friend or person that I was texting. When I realized what I was doing, I also realized, if I wouldve hit that car, I could have injured my friends and myself. If that were to happen as an accident, that wouldve been something I would have to deal with for life. Secondly, it was not my car, so therefore my insurance would have risen, and my best friend wouldnt have a car. If you ever witnessed an accident or were a part of one like me, take it as a lesson learned. In my case, I did because I didnt realize so many consequences that go along with distractions while driving. Its a big responsibility to take as a teenager. A lot of teenagers would want to party, hang with friends, and be with their boyfriends; they do not want to be in a hospital under critical condition because of an accident that happened from texting and talking while driving. So pay attention to the road, and not your phone. Talking and texting could be very deadly. Im here to tell you, how we can save a life by cutting out a lot of distractions while driving. The top ten distractions that are caused by accidents are eating, texting/talking, pets, radio, friends/family, moving objects, and lighting a cigarette (Insure.com 16, 2009). These top ten distractions are the cause of the high rates of accidents. All of these distractions while driving are deadly weapons, and we as college student/adults dont really take it seriously. There are three main distractions identified by (NHTSA) National Highway Traffic Safety Association: Visual, Manual, and Cognitive. Visual- is taking your eyes off the road, Manual- taking your hands off the wheel and Cognitive- taking your mind off what youre doing (UDT, pg.1). Dprimarily drive with edare (fragment) using while driving: , you listed six Drivers should avoid distractions while driving to prevent fatal crashes. Laws have been implemented; therefore, we would be at a lower risk for accidents, injuries, and deaths. The seven states that banned cell phones, found out that there were less accidents because they implemented the law (source?). Even if cell phones did become illegal, I understand we would still use them but they should be used for emergency purposes only. It may seem like common sense handling and dialing while driving but it makes it less safe because your eyes are off the road. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration three percent of drivers are talking on hand-held cell phones at any given time. The NHTS explains that fifty-four percent of drivers who usually have a wireless phone on their vehicle, and seventy-three percent are reported using their phones while driving (Lance, n.d. 2010, p.1). Since technology has advanced in society, there are so many things we can use on our cell phones while driving in a car. One of the most commonly used are blue tooths, (plural not possessive) which would help prevent some of our high accident rates. Bluetooth is a known method for data that uses short-range radio links to replace cables between computers and their connected units (Fitzgerald, 2006). The state of Minnesota has an all out ban on cell phones while driving; the law says a pProvisional driver may not operate a vehicle while using a cell phone. The other states will permit using a cell phone if it is not being held to your ear.   Ã‚  You can still use a cell phone while driving if you use a headset.   The wireless headsets are popular due to the new Bluetooth technology.   With the combination of the Bluetooth technology in your cell phone and headset it allows your headset to automatically connect to your cell phone without any set up (Wilson, Nov 4, 2005). According to Officer Gary Fernandez of the California Highway Patrols, he investigated that 1,119 accidents during 2008, which amounted to an 8 percent increase over the amount 1,036 accidents investigated in 2007. is a word missing from the quote? Fernandez also stated the amount of accidents while driving under the influence rose in 2008 over the amount in 2007 (Aelusive, n.d. 1). Relevancy? In Wisconsin within the last thirty days, they showed the statistics of each distraction with the percentage. Most of the distractions just cause injury, but some injuries might lead to death. Seventy-nine percent of teens listen to the radio, sixty-one percent of the drivers go over the speed limit, sixty-one percent drivers drive with no hands at all, and uses their knees, fifty-one percent of teens text/talk, and forty-five percent eat and drink while driving. These percentages are very high for us teenagers, and it puts us at a higher risk than everyone else. The comparison to teenagers driving with distractions is worse than an elderly person thats on the road going twenty miles per hour. At least the older people are going slower to prevent an accident, but were going over the speed limit, because were becoming distracted in the car. This isnt a good combination. Statistics also show that, the decreasing rate of distractions while driving doesnt slow down until we hit our fifty , because thats the age where they dont always have to use technology to communicate. in MLA numbers 20 and above are written as numerals unless they begin a sentence In conclusion, I would like to say and hope we, as teenagers and adults, learned that distractions while driving can be, and are very deadly. Not only can it cause accidents, deaths, injuries, and fatal car crashes, but it can save someones life. Or in my case, it saved my friends and me. However, the saying while your driving is, you always know what youre going to do while driving, but you dont know what the other driver is thinking. Thats so true, you always have to pay attention to the road and others action, but you cant, if youre always concentrating on a distraction in the car that can wait. All it takes is a split second for your eyes to focus on something else, and it could be your last. I really hope we can stop being selfish and worry about others that are on the roads, instead of ourselves. At times, we all take life for granted and dont realize what we have until its gone. So hopefully we can focus on the road instead of the phone, because luckily I was saved just in tim e. Im so blessed that God lifted my head up just in time, to prevent an accident, or maybe just my life. Work Cited entries not to style Insure.com. The 10 most dangerous foods to eat while driving. Insure.com, 09-16-2009. Web 13 Oct 2010. Lance, Kim. Cell Phone Statistics. NEWSdial.com. NEWSdial.com, Web. 13 Oct 2010. . Fitzgerald, P. (2006). Are Bluetooths headsets safe? U.S Department of Transportation. Washington: Web. 13 Oct 2010. . Wilson, N. (2005, November 4th). Legal and safe driving while talking on cell phone with Bluetooth enabled wireless headset. Retrieved from http://www.bestsyndication.com/2005/Nicole-WILSON/110405-Legal_and_Safe_Driving_while_talking_on_Cell_Phone_with_Bluetooth_Enabled_Wireless_Headsetl.htm Joslyn, You chose a good case claim and supported it with a good variety of evidence. Your introduction and your conclusion work well together. I would have liked the conclusion to be shorter and less wordy because your last line is very powerful. This would have given it more focus. Your organization could be improved by grouping evidence with each main point consecutively. Im glad to see you went to the Writing Center, and you improved your grammar and mechanics significantly. There are still some issues as indicated above, but, again, its going in the right direction for sure. The assignment required 10 sources to include a personal interview, which you didnt include, meaning the paper does not meet the assignment requirements. This is a significant subtraction from your grade. Also, you have gone back and forth between APA and MLA style. 65/100 Grading Rubric Persuasive Essay Criteria Excellent A Good B OK C Not OK D or F Comments INTRODUCTION hooks the reader and provides necessary context. x CASE CLAIM clearly states a position on an arguable issue. x MAIN POINTS are relevant and clear. Word count dictates if all or most important points are included. x EVIDENCE from a variety of credible sources is used to support each main point. x x personal interview: none OPPOSING POINTS are relevant, with all essential opposing points included. x REBUTTAL fairly and reasonably counters each opposing point. x CONCLUSION serves to further strengthen the argument. x wordy, but the last line is excellent CALL TO ACTION is reasonable, actionable, and made as easy as possible to execute. x WORKS CITED PAGE follows the required style and is nearly error free. At least 10 (10) sources must be consulted. At least 7 sources must be cited. You must include a RELEVANT personal, email, or telephone interview from a credible source (not a relative, friend, etc.). At least four different genres must be used (i.e. book, journal, field research, website, online database, video, etc.). You may access sources on the Internet, however. x 10 sources: 8 not to style CITATIONS follow the required style and are nearly error free. x not to style ORGANIZATION of main points, case claim, evidence, etc. follows assignment requirements and shows proper planning. x TRANSITIONS provide that sentences, paragraphs, and essay all flow naturally. x GRAMMAR is almost free of interruptive error. x PUNCTUATION is almost free of interruptive error. x SPELLING is almost free of interruptive error. x AUDIENCE is considered in the selection of the issue, style, tone, and vocabulary. x LENGTH AND FORMAT meet the assignment requirements. A paper that is too short or too long is penalized by the percentage of words over or under count. x Heading: not in format Header: good Length: long works page not to format OVERALL INTEREST FACTOR x

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Mother Courage :: essays research papers

MOTHER COURAGE The education system has always tried to figure out new ways of teaching certain matters of interest, like history, where there are many points to be discuss that can be left out by authors. Text books do not fill everything that should be filled, and it is impossible to do so because there are too many things to tell and not enough space to write. There is also the fact that every professor wants to give his or her own approach to the topic, and sometimes there is not one source that tells everything the way he or she wants. At that point lectures become more and more important and those are only to be complemented with text of a variety of styles. Those sources were not initially designed to fill that requirement, but with the right approach and background information those new sources can be even better than any textbook any written. These kinds of sources give a different approach to history and can be more enjoyable than boring textbooks. On the other hand, these variety of sour ces can also been incorrectly chosen and may difficult the learning process for students. Sometimes sources are not efficient transmitting the message that wants to be transmitted, and students can simply not understand beyond the history that is been told. For instance Mother Courage and Her Children, by Bertolt Brecht, it’s a story that occurs during the Thirty Years War in Europe, and can be used to help students understand this war. Is this play a good source for understanding the Thirty Years War? Or it only stays in the basic story with minimum helpful information that would help understand this event. The Thirty Years war was caused mainly by the protestant reformation, a process caused by the split of the Catholic Church. It was all because of the lack of tolerance and the extremist ways of thought of people. In this area for example, the play is not as deep an as informative as desired, it stays only in the basics and mentioning Catholics and Protestants as rivals but it does not go deeper. â€Å"The Catholics! Surprise attack!.† â€Å"And the war is a war of religion.† It does mention Religion as a point of disagreement, but it fails to really explain that this entire situation is mainly caused by religious differences. As the world is right now, with all the polemic issues started by Iraq’s invasion by the United States and the terrorist attacks perpetrated by Islam extremists, more described facts would be very useful.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Free Color Purple Essays: Strength of the Black Woman Revealed :: Color Purple Essays

Strength of the Black Woman Revealed in The Color Purple  Ã‚   The story tells of one lady who, through fruition and hardship, discovers the proficient, content, and proud woman repressed inside of a young "shut-mouthed" girl. The Color Purple, the third novel written by the Pulitzer Prize winning author Alice Walker, has been both respected and berated in numerous essays and reviews. Although the critics agree to disagree about many aspects of this novel one thing is clear, The Color Purple affirms "the survival and liberation of black women through the strength and wisdom of others." (Draper, 1810) In Walker's personal view, the black woman's history falls into three stages; the woman suspended, the artist thwarted and hindered in her desires to create, living through two centuries when her main role was to be cheap source of cheap labor in the American society, and the modern woman. (Washington, 139) The feminist Alice Walker writes in a circulatory pattern. Her female characters move in a common three-stage cycle: 1)the suspended woman-cruelly exploited, and spirits and bodies mutilated, 2)the thwarted woman-desires most to be a part of mainstream American life, and 3)the modern woman-exhibits the qualities of the developing emergent model. Before Celie, our main character, makes her way into the cycle the story sets her as a child, eager to learn, love, and enjoying life. She and Nettie, her, sister attend school on a regular basis, complete all of their chores, and still make time to talk, to play, and/or to just spend time together. Then, just as Celie reaches womanhood, s he finds her way into the first stage: the suspended woman. The suspended woman plays the role of the inclement exploit with a warped spirit as well as body. Celie's body is first desecrated through her stepfather's sexual misconduct. Succeeding this comes continuing sexual and physical abuse by her husband Mr. ______. Here, Celie slips into the second stage: the thwarted woman. In this stage the character desires most to become a part of mainstream American society. In most cases, they are also victims of psychological abuse that alienates them from their roots and real contact to the world. The desecration and abuse her body survives, notwithstanding, her spirit is broken when not only have her children been taken away from her by her stepfather, but Nettie is forced, by Albert, to leave he and Celie's house.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Hotel management :: essays research papers

Hotel management Assignment One Table Of Contents Introduction HRM Defines Traditional Approach Contemporary approach to HR Change Management Murrindindi Shire Council Experience Back Ground Human Resource Roles Organisational HRM Conclusion Introduction Human Resource management (HRM) has been seen as either having a traditional or contemporary approach. This paper will define both approaches. The HR aproach undertaken by the Murrindindi Shire Council (MSC) which was my organisation up to three months ago will be reviewed in this context as well as identifiable costs or opportunities that exist. HRM Defined Human Resource Management is the management of an organisations staff/personnel to meet the needs and achieve the purpose of the business in an efficient and effective manner. HRM is defined by Kramer McGraw Shulder (1997,p.10) as having having three purposes being „h To improve productivity „h To ensure quality of worklife and „h To ensure legal compliance It has been observed in particular that organisations tend to be very good at the legal compliance as it is legislated as it has some serious consequences if not adhered to. What is generally overlooked is the financial implications of dot points one and two. Effective human management can contribute to not only product output but also product quality. HRM managers are operating at three distinct levels as explained by Kramer McGraw Shulder (1997,p.30) strategic, managerial and operational - Operational levels (short term) can be disseminated down to lower level management or team leaders as they involve straight forward and traditional levels of HR - Staff Recruitment - Monitoring Systems - Wages, benefits packages - Annual appraisal systems - Training etc. - Managerial Level (short term) This level and following tend to be the levels of strategic importance to the organisation - Recruitment marketing plans - Long term compensation plans - Validation systems - Management development programs - Strategi c (long term) - to gain competitive advantage - link functions to organisational strategies Strategy as a process is defined by (Shaun Tyson 1997 p. 278) is  ¡Ã‚ ¥a mechanism for achieving a desired objective ¡Ã‚ ¦. It can then be said that the Human Resource Strategy needs to be aligned with the organisations  ¡Ã‚ ¥business strategies ¡Ã‚ ¦ or corporate objectives. In effect one of the mechanisms to be used is that of Human Resources. Miller defined strategic HRM as  ¡Ã‚ ¥those decisions and actions which concern the management of employees at all levels in the business and which are related to the implementation of strategies directed towards creating and sustaining competitive advantage (Miller, 1987 p.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Rethinking Project Management Essay

The systemic models show behaviour arising from the complex interactions of the various parts of the project; they demonstrate how behaviour arises that would not be predicted from an analysis of the individual parts of the project and thus show how the traditional decomposition models in some circumstances can be inadequate. The project behaviour shown in this body of work is complex and non-intuitive. It shows causal feed-back, leading to nonlinear behaviour, and produces e? ects which can sometimes manifest themselves after signi? cant time-delays; and the behaviour of such systems is di? cult for the human brain to predict and understand intuitively. Furthermore, the models di? er from the bodies of knowledge in their empha- is on ‘‘soft’’ factors; the factors within the feedback loops are not only hard ‘‘concrete’’ factors: ‘‘soft’’ variables are often important links in the chains of causality and are thus critical in determining the project behaviour; such variables might include morale, schedule pressure, client changing his mind and so on; in addition, there is a recognition that the models need to incorporate not only ‘‘real’’ data but management perceptions of data. ‘‘Systemic’’ models have been used to explain failures occurring in projects which might have been well-managed by traditional project-management methods. The failures analysed by these methods are in complex projects subject to uncertainty. Conventional techniques are designed for projects with large numbers of elements, but the assumed structures are subject to very limited types of interdependence, and conventional methods are even more unsuited to projects under high uncertainty. It is when uncertainty a? ects a traditionally-managed project that is structurally complex that the systemic e? ects discussed above start to occur. But the systemic models demonstrated an important aspect: it is management actions to accelerate perturbed projects which particularly exacerbate the feedback; when the project is heavily time-constrained, so the project manager feels forced to take acceleration actions, and this produces the problems from feedback. Thus we have identi? ed the three compounding factors which come together in complex structures of positive feedback to cause extreme over-runs when projects are managed conventionally: structural complexity, uncertainty and a tight time-constraint. Recognition of the problems inherent in conventional prescriptive procedures has led to the development of contrasting project management methodologies. While being within a strategic framework, these methodologies are usually identi? ed by words such as ‘‘lean’’ or ‘‘agile’’, and are particularly prevalent in the software industry [55] (perhaps due to the particular goal-uncertainties of such projects). These methods contradict the underlying emphases of conventional approaches: the project emerges rather than being entirely pre-planned; the management style is much more co-operative, recognising that the Plan prepared pre-project is fallible and incomplete, and there is acceptance that the plan cannot be fully prepared because of the in? uence of the external environment. The systemic modelling work analysed the reasons for project over-runs for many seriously over-run project, giving explanations in terms of positive feedback, often exacerbated by management actions, and importantly including both ‘‘hard’’ and ‘‘soft’’ factors in the causal analysis; the analysis shows that conventional methods can be inappropriate and potentially disadvantageous for projects that are structurally complex, uncertain, and heavily time-limited. Projects which exhibit these three characteristics would appear to lend themselves less to conventional methods and newer methods might be more appropriate, such as ‘‘agile’’/’’lean’’ methods often called ‘‘agile’’ or ‘‘lean’’. However, the thesis of Williams [54] is not that we should simply ignore conventional project 684 S. Cicmil et al. / International Journal of Project Management 24 (2006) 675–686 management methods and move to these opposing techniques. Rather, with the understanding gained from this analysis of the systemic modelling work, we need to move our discourse to take account of the e? ects encompassed in this work; then we need to categorise projects according to the dimensions which give projects a propensity for the type of systemic e? ects, so that an appropriate management style can be speci? d, in particular an appropriate balance between conventiona l methods as espoused in the bodies of knowledge and these contrasting methods. This work suggests that once a project is subject to disruptions and delays dynamics then the traditional project management tools are probably inappropriate for managing the project. The use of traditional tools is likely to unintentionally exacerbate the undesirable consequences and lead to greater overruns than need be the case. Even the nature of the agenda at project progress meetings needs to have a di? erent focus and emphasis. Awareness of the potential consequences of mitigation becomes important as possible traditionally ‘obvious’ actions are proposed. 7. Conclusions, implications and the way forward Our aim in this paper has been to discuss critically the nature of knowledge that could be created about the actuality of projects and how it contributes to our understanding of project environments, to improvements in practice, and to educational and developmental e? orts. We attempted to shed some light on the assumptions behind theoretical and methodological approaches to researching the actuality of projects and project management that, in our view, can be helpful in broadening the boundaries of the project management body of thought and contributing to more satisfactory processes and outcomes of contemporary projects. Researching the actuality of projects, as presented in this article, draws on: – a combination of practical philosophical considerations and concrete empirical analyses towards understanding human action, and for that matter, managerial action in the concrete situation and – requires a theoretical shift from more common normative rational approaches to individual and project performance towards a more developmental one which focuses on practical action, lived experience, quality of social interaction and communicative relating, operations of power in context, identity, and the relationship between agency and structure in project environments. The research presented in this paper as exemplars of actuality research provide some compelling and interesting insights into the actuality of managing projects addressing on-going gaps in our knowledge of how to e? ectively manage complex undertakings. Cicmil and Marshall develop an empirically grounded understanding of project complexity that incorporates processes of communicative and power relating among project actors dealing with ambiguity and equivocality related to project performance criteria (success/failure) over time that is in constant ? ux. Cicmil and Hodgson’s work casts light on the traditional foundations of project management practitioner development and demonstrates the need for developing both instrumental and value rationality as the basis for project management practice. The research by Thomas and Buckle questions the underlying assumptions embedded in traditional project management discourse and explores the impact of these embedded assumptions on the practice and practical discourse of practitioners. The Strathclyde research team’s work on understanding complex project failures contributes signi? cantly to our understanding of the complex interactions between the actuality of projects and the unintentional consequences of applying traditional ‘‘best practice’’ control oriented project management to complete projects under extreme time pressures. All of these research studies make signi? cant contributions to an understanding of the actuality of projects and provide insights into how project management practitioner development needs to change to address these project realities. Methodological issues (epistemology, ontology, and representation) are also of dominant concern in these studies. The argument is that theory and empirical research must proceed simultaneously on micro and macro levels of analysis and within both objective and subjective methodological traditions, focusing on action which is habituated, practical, tacit, dispositional, and at the same time structured. From this perspective, it is important not only to explore or explain what is but also to examine why it is as it is and what activities are encouraged or discouraged by this focus, and how it comes to be. The recommended methodological approaches are capable of addressing a much wider range of mportant project issues such as: the social responsibility of management, ethical conduct, bounded rationality, anxiety, emotions, the operation of dominant discourses, power/knowledge relationship, culture, and identity. Despite this, we do not promote ‘actuality research’ as a comp eting or privileged stream of thought to the more mainstream ones. We argue for it as an alternative lens through which new insights into projects and project management practice can be generated. One of the key assertions is that the understanding which drives much of project management literature does not satisfactorily explain the richness of what actually occurs in project environments. http://www.uwe.ac.uk/bbs/trr/Is7-cont.htm

Friday, August 16, 2019

Cinema Only Entertains; But Does Not Educate the Masses Essay

Cinema Only Entertains; But Does Not Educate the Masses Cinema is one of the major upcoming entertainments in this global village. There are prodigious numbers of films released worldwide every year. It was in those days that cinema both entertained and educated the masses; but in these days it is only just meant for entertainment and it does not teach moral values to the people. There is no doubt that cinema from Hollywood to Kollywood entertains the masses; but it does not educate them. Today, people do not like taking advices and films based on giving pieces of advices to the audience fails miserably. Hence, the director whose sole aim is to gain a profit from these films gives all such kind of non-sense in order to gain peoples interest and money. Certain planned murders are based on the small pieces of advices that are given by the director in such films. Some thrillers bring to the notice of the audience, the latest equipments and devices brought into the market which can be used for criminal purposes. Today’s films can be broadly classified into two (1): films for the teenagers (2): films for the children. A film for teens often consists of love, friendship and thrilling action; which most probably do not occur in real life. These sorts of films often suggest that family and relations can be regretted for the sake of love. This can generally be right for that moment; but this relationship disappears as life progresses and time passes. Finally, the couple would be proven wrong by their piece of judgment which was actually taken from a suggestion in those films. Secondly it is the films for the children. These types of films generally consist of unreal and imaginative things that there has been no record of it over the years. It would be greatly based of a superhero with super powers, which after a long unending struggle defeats the atrocious villain. There have been cases of young children, losing their lives in the attempt to fly like their super hero’s. And things of this kind do not educate the children  in any manner; but films like these are the one’s that receive a golden profit and high comments. Hence, directors continue their hunt for more and more imaginative stories. They then shape them out into a brilliant film which would ear him credit. Hence, therefore I do not at all, for heaven’s sake agree to the fact that cinema educates the masses and all it is worth of is to induce people with stupid ideas, silly characters, unreal things, criminal plans, etc.

Swot of Taobao

Business: Taobao online trading platform Strengths: 1. The leading individual trading online platform in Asia provided B2C and C2C e-commerce business model. 2. Create (Lead) a convenient and easy online shopping channel for consumer without using traditional retail channels. 3. Connect with a reliable payment method and online trading & paying system (Alipay ) 4. A well-known brand for online trading platform in business field that can attract businesses to join and be the alliance with Taobao. 5.Gather millions of domestic businesses, personal customers, global businesses and global customers (users) to trade and access to a variety of products and services (in a lower price) without constrains of time and distance. 6. Self-help system is promoted to make users have better personal trading place. 7. Strategies like 7-day/30-day Safety Guarantee for Shopping and Shipping/ Shopping Insurance, in Taobao build up customers’ confidence. 8. Rich human resources to have a better de velopment for the business.Weaknesses: 1. There are many counterfeit and pirated goods appeared in Taobao as the supervision is poor. It damages the confidence of the buyers who have bought the fake one while the sale of sellers who are selling genuine is also affected. 2. Credit evaluation system is not comprehensive with poor management while sellers can easily delete a bad comment or evaluation from users (or they can pay and hire someone to evaluate positive comments). It provides low reference values for users. 3.Without effective control, Thousands of online advertisement increased causes the falsity of the advertising also increased. 4. The trading models of Taobao are easily being copied. For example, the Group buying nowadays in Hong Kong was originally started in Taobao. 5. Businesses might withdraw from Taobao and to have their own trading and shopping platform/ they will distribute their resources in different online trading platform when they expand to a certain busines s scale. Then those businesses will become the competitor of Taobao. . Personal information leak may happen, including names, phone numbers and home addresses when businesses get all these information. 7. Taobao does not provide a natively English version for the platform. It limited its expansion in global market. Opportunities: 1. The increasing usage of the Internet and technology development helps the expansion of Taobao. 2. The smartphone technology increases the efficiency and convenience of online shopping and builds up an efficient network business culture.People are confident and motivated to buy more. 3. Government launched a lot of policies to standardize the operation and development of different industries. It indirectly provides an elastic and loose developing environment for online trading platform. 4. Different banking system corporates with Taobao (alipay) to launch different system to provide more services for online users, such as bills payment, insurance or auto paying expenses. 5. The growing economy in China encourages people’s consumption on online shopping platform.Threats: 1. Different competitors in Asia is following behind Taobao and sometimes that its position is threatened, such as QQ Mall, 360buy, Amazon. cn etc. 2. There are many new online paying platforms appeared to challenge the position of Alipay, such as Tenpay (by Tencent) , Baifubao (by Baidu) as they fail to corporate with some third parties (banks, insurance companies) . 3. The quality of different logistic service providers is uneven. There are many complaints about courier stealing goods/damaging goods from customers at Taobao.It will affect Taobao’s expansion until they build up their own systematic and uniform logistic system. 4. Government policy about e-commerce business model is not fully established. Existing law and regulations always fall behind to define the attribution of the burden of proof. It somehow causes online transaction disputes betwee n buyers and sellers. 5. Traditional shopping platform provide a direct way for customers to look, feel and touch with the product. A big market will still stick with traditional trading platform (like malls, markets or shops in real).

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Communication Ethics

Vasquez, Maria Josefina Clara I. Purposive Communication 1BES2 Prof. Gloria Ward Communication Ethics The videos posted were about how people now a days are being unsocial, communication ethics, ethical issues and generation Z. Allison Graham's â€Å"How social media makes us unsocial† talks about the differences back then when it was simpler and how it has affected us now. According to (Transcriber, 2014) she said in her video, â€Å"I remember we had pagers time seemed a little simpler back then you get to be you may return the call you may not return the call.† And now she said (Transcriber, 2014) â€Å"I see families like this out to dinner all the time and it drives me nuts and I see couples on dates clearly together but on their cell phones.† You can see how back then there was no such thing as social media and now we are so dependent on this platform that we forget to socialize. Communication ethics is a term the most of us know because we need this in our daily lives may it be at school, home, or work. According to (Lipari, 2017) â€Å"Communication ethics concerns the creation and evaluation of goodness in all aspects and manifestations of communicative interaction.† For us to be able to have a healthy relationship with the people around us we need communication ethics because not everything that we say is acceptable to them vice versa. Even though we have communication ethics there are still ethical issues mainly in social media. In a YouTube video of Tyler Adams and Jenna Payne (2014) they shared 10 ethical issues in social media, but I will just input 5 Once you put something out there, it's there forever, Copyright, what you say can reach a lot of people, be aware of current events and trends, and Never lie or use misguiding information. These ethical issues are very important because one mistake can lead to another just like a domino effect. Generation Z are the ones who were born 1995 onwards while Millennials were born from 1980-1994 (Ahmad, 2018). According to (Beall, 2017), â€Å"Generation Z (also known as Post-Millennials, the iGeneration, Founders, Plurals, or the Homeland Generation) is the demographic cohort following the Millennials.† The Generation Z and Millennials have their own differences, in George Beall's article he wrote about 8 key differences between Gen Z and Millennials. Generation Z tends to be less focused than Millennials because this is due to the fact that by using social media the process for information is faster and this leads to low attention span (Beall, 2017). The videos posted was able to help me grasp the importance of communication ethics. It also made me realize how reliant I am to my phone and especially social media. The topics discussed was important because we use this daily from the moment we wake up until we fall back to sleep. It is important to know what we are supposed to do and not supposed to do. Social media is a way for us to connect with our family, friends, or even strangers (accan, n.d.). The social media platforms that most of us know is Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram (accan, n.d.). These are platforms where you can share anything from posts to pictures or it can be used as a way to talk to your family, friends, or strangers. But even though social media helped us connect with people there is still a need to know how to be responsible in social media. Not everything that we delete in social media is deleted permanently it is still there. Social media is a platform to share ideas and insights it is not supposed to be used for bullying or sending hate messages. A research done by Sameer Hinduja, Ph.D. and Justin W. Patchin, Ph.D. (2009) on Safe and Responsible Social Networking was able to give ways on how to be safe in social media, they stated that the profile in social media should be private even though you know your friends well, secondly make sure that the pictures that you post is decent and not party pictures because this may be not good in your workplace, lastly don't put information on your social media that you want other people to know about because this could be used against you. Even though the videos posted on blackboard is helpful having readings about the topics is a need because it will add to the knowledge that we already know. The topic needs research because there are a lot of ways to be responsible in social media and there are also different ways to be ethical. All in all, the videos were helpful because there was enough information for someone to have a general background of the topics. These topics should be taught to students because our generation is reliant on our gadgets and social media and this topic helps everyone know thee do's and don'ts in social media. Communication ethics is a need in a daily basis because every day we socialize, and it is good to know how we are supposed to socialize with other people. BibliographyT. (2014, November 10). Transcriber.wiki. Retrieved October 12, 2018, from https://transcriber.wiki/?transcription=0f39ad0d7919c21e1074c253c43ae3d5Lipari, L. A. (2018, April 18). Communication Ethics. Retrieved October 12, 2018, from http://communication.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228613-e-58Adams, T., & Payne,J. (2014, September 12). 10 Ethical Issues in Social Media #CajigasSMLL. Retrieved October 12, 2018, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_fulKc5wh0&t=4sAhmad, I. (2018, February 27). Comparing The Differences BetweenGeneration Z and Millennials [Infographic]. Retrieved October 12, 2018, from https://www.socialmediatoday.com/news/comparing-the-differences-between-generation-z-and-millennials-infographic/517903/Beall, G. (2017, November 06). 8 Key Differences betweenGen Z and Millennials. Retrieved October 12, 2018, from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/george-beall/8-key-differences-between_b_12814200.htmlAccan. (n.d.). Introduction to social media. Retrieved October 12, 2018, from https://accan.org.au/files/TipSheets/Introduction to Social Media.pdfHinduja, S., Ph.D., & Patchin, J. W., Ph.D. (2009). Safe and Responsible Social Networking. Retrieved October 12, 2018, from https://cyberbullying.org/safe-responsible-social-networking.pdf

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

It’s Time for a Change Essay

Social issues have lingered in the shadows of American history since the day that our independence was signed in 1776, a mere two hundred and thirty ­nine years ago. At that time, social issues consisted of our founding father’s debate over which men were to be considered equal, and the social issue of slavery as a whole became prominent to our young nation. From slavery to suffrage, the United States is no stranger to defining these particular social wrongs, and striving to make them right. As time has developed, the issues of old have passed, but now, new ones have arose. Currently, sitting in 2015, the United States is again being subjected to another social issueÍ ¾ that is police brutality and the use of body cameras as a means of holding all parties involved accountable for their actions. It is simply irresponsible not to implement this new means of technology and I believe that it’s use is a key factor in solving the social issue of police brutality, and the u ntrust and stigmas that stem from this abuse of power. Names like Trayvon Martin, Michael Brown, and Eric Garner have dominated headlines of many major news outlets for the past two years. The common factor between the three being the excessive use of force upon unarmed civilians. In the cases of Martin and Brown, both men were fatally shot, both were unarmed, and both had two conflicting sides of the story detailing the events leading up to and after their respective shootings. In each instance, many in the public were led to believe that racial stigmas were the determining reasons for the pulling of the trigger, and as a result mass protests and riots have occurred in towns such as but not limited to, Ferguson, Missouri and New York City. This is where body cameras demonstrate their necessity in our society and culture. As previously mentioned, both Michael Brown and Trayvon Martin’s deaths both went unrecorded, and the only substantial evidence of what occurred is the accounts of those who fired the fatal bullets. This is a defined problem. Despite either the positive or negative intentions of the officers who fired their weapons, each one has a bias, and with that, it can lead to that party giving a skewed opinion on how the events of each occurrence actually went down. The idea of a human source is just simply too unreliable, and it comes down our own human nature with bias’, and the fact that every single person has one. The use of body cameras instead in these instances would ultimately resolve this problem. Real footage would clearly display whether or not the use of fatal force was indeed necessary to use upon an unarmed civilian, and if not, it would hold the actually guilty party accountable for their actions. By simply attaching a recording device to an officer’s person, society is able to cut out human bias, and reveal the true nature of the event. The benefit alone in these new technologies makes the investment worth every dollar.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Business Law and Ethics Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Business Law and Ethics Assignment - Essay Example 249-253, 2005). However, the modern market environment has altered the true essence and fundamental nature of competition and has given a shape of cruel war and fight amongst rivalries where everybody existing in the global market wants to gain the competitive edge over others. In addition, their prime motive had turned out to generate profit with acceleration at any cost and has become the leading cause of organisational effectiveness. This shifting in the global economies and recession on a worldwide basis has become one of the dominant reasons of the changing perceptions and mindsets of the business (Maheshwari, pp. 30-31, 2005). As profit maximisation has become their primary source of organisational effectiveness due to utter competition in the recent times, therefore, enterprises are moreover focusing and emphasising on business process reengineering and through innovative ideas and strategies developing their products and services into an exclusive and inimitable one (Kotler & Armstrong, pp. 293- 300, 2008). Furthermore, business owners also view the profit as a valuable and powerful source of judgment, assessment, and analysis of the organisation’s effectiveness. While living in a society or a community, people comes under coercion to follow some norms and rules, which becomes their part of their inheritance, in the same manner, ethical principles or business ethics are also congenital in the world of commerce. In addition, these norms and values come under the definition with right and wrong and the people in the business community have to peruse a couple of elementary and vital ethics of impartiality,...4-11, 2007). The performance, actions and the conduct of the people in the business community comes under dominance and supremacy by the morality and the values of the business ethics. One of the facets of the professional ethics, business ethics, or corporate ethics highlights the significance of moral values, conducts, conventionalities, issue s, and difficulties that may emerge and derive in a trading situation or climate (Jones & Parker & Bos, pp. 12-18, 2005)...

Monday, August 12, 2019

Principles of Accounting-- ratio analysis Essay - 2

Principles of Accounting-- ratio analysis - Essay Example This report provides the financial analysis of e-Generation. Financial ratios will be used as the main approach of financial analysis. Horizontal analysis will also be provided to compare the financial performance of the business in different periods. The calculations will be provided based on the software generated financial information for the business. Although the ratios will be provided for the month of January, comparison will be made between the results at the end of January and the results on 10th of January. This analysis will be important in understanding and evaluating the performance of the business in order to acquire information necessary for decision making by stakeholders. The profit margin foe e-Generation for the month of January is 10.61%. This means that for every unit of sales the company makes 0.1061 profits (Sutton, 2004). This means that the company is making positive profit. This reflects an increase from the profit margin of 10th January which was 8.33%. Therefore, the company controlled its expenses towards the end of the moth better than at the beginning of the month. The gross profit at the end of the month of 26.3% means that the company made a gross profit of 0.263 for every unit of sales. This is a good performance. However, it is a decrease from the gross profit made at the beginning of the month (34.04%). This means that the business managed its cost of sales in period 1 (beginning of January) than period 2 (end of January). The return on assets ratio was 4.08% at the end of the month, which means that for every single unit of asset the business earns a profit of 0.0408. On 10th January the business record ROA of 0.57% which means that the company earned more profits for every unit of assets in the end of the month compared to the beginning of the month. The ROE at period 2 is 12.06% which indicates that the company made a profit of 0.1206 units for every unit of equity invested by owners. This is a good

Sunday, August 11, 2019

Aristotle Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Aristotle - Essay Example These are essentially two different systems believing and advocating in values that are quite different. They are not absolute systems, and hence might have their share of problems. Yet, Aristotle insists on comparing the voids between both theories as the same, by exemplifying that "all existing things do not have the same elements", thereby propagating the fact, that these two theorists may not have explained the concept in entirety. Precisely this last criticism by Aristotle also ironically becomes a criticism for his own critique. He questions in the book, "If forms are numbers, in what sense will they be causes. If ideas are numbers, how are they composed." This is precisely the point. The two theories are not compatible with each other, and hence their criticism on parallel grounds is also uncalled for. There is much more to their concept when taken individually, when taken both in forms of theory and practice even today. However, making a critical comparison of two notions, one of whom represents a numerical construct, while other propagates the concept of ideas as forms, seems harsh. The possible reason why this might have been done by Aristotle in the first place, is because he may be looking for 'voids' which have not been explained by these two great thinkers, so that when he would explain his own notions, they would be an 'addition' to the bank of knowledge, and not just a concurrence. Question 2 Both Aristotle (in Metaphysics Book I) and Lucretius (in On the Nature of the Universe), stress upon the usages of the sensory means for the processes and possibilities of gaining knowledge. They believe, that it is through the senses, that knowledge is gained, or simply, information about the... Both Aristotle (in Metaphysics Book I) and Lucretius, stress upon the usages of the sensory means for the processes and possibilities of gaining knowledge. They believe, that it is through the senses, that knowledge is gained, or simply, information about the outside world comes inside. The importance and value of every sense are unique in its own right, as elaborated by both, in that the domain of the eye cannot be overtaken by the ear. Aristotle puts forth the point that â€Å"all men naturally desire knowledge. [However there exist] degrees of intelligence, sense-perception, memory, experience, art, and experience†. This variation in processes of acquiring knowledge actually points out to the ability to gain, assimilate and reproduce knowledge. He went on to describe four kinds of ‘cause’, namely: formal, material, efficient and final. On the other hand, Lucretius also explains the nature of â€Å"vision, hearing, taste, and smell†, and the way things enter the mind and how the mind works. He explains at length the processes through which he believes information goes into the mental system, and also how each sense is performing their task in an exclusive way. However, there are certain variations between both schools of thought when it comes to the connotation of the truthfulness of the knowledge gained. Aristotle believed, that â€Å"wisdom is the knowledge of certain causes and principles†. He tried to present a rationale for the wise man, in that there would be an innate ability to reason better than the rest.

The Pursuit of Happyness Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Pursuit of Happyness - Essay Example With a tag-line, â€Å" How much can you know about yourself if you have never been in a fight?† [1] , the movie, through the character of played by Norton, thoroughly convinces us that even we are living a dead and a boring life like him. And getting into a ‘fight’ is the only way we can be alive again. The movie tells a story of an insurance agent suffering from insomnia who feels that he is the most miserable person on the earth. His doctor asks him to visit the support group of different disease to know that there are more miserable people than him. He starts feeling better by looking at them and feels little alive. But his life becomes hell when girl called Marla enters his life, as even she is a faker like him and this makes him feel exposed. Norton is shown to be a victim of a civilized and commercialized society. His drives are suppressed and his life becomes boring and dead. One day, when thinking if his life would have been different if he was a different person, a man called Tyler enters his life and from that moment Jack’s life changes completely. The movie is a commentary by an insurance agent who tells his story. The scenes and the people that he talks about are shot in such a way that we actually feel the boredom and the depression of his life. His office, his routine, his travels and his visits to the support groups are described in such a robotic and dull manner that it makes us believe how miserable he is. It shows how the external things like brands, products, corporate houses, career and artificialness in relationships have made our life dead. Through Norton’s character, we experience the deadness of our life. The

Saturday, August 10, 2019

Nike Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Nike - Essay Example I will further elaborate on the financial performance with the help of the following ratio analysis. For the ratio analysis, the figures have been taken from the 2008 and 2009 financial statements. The current Ratio evaluates the liquidity of the company. It represents a safety net for the creditors. Nike has improved its liquidity over the last year. It now holds $3 for every $1 of its short term debts as compared to $2.7 of last year. In comparison to the relevant industry, it is one of the most liquid companies’ (Bloomberg, 2010). The analysis further shows that Nike holds an excess of the working capital in current assets which should be invested in the marketable securities for generation of further income. The Quick Ratio is another measure of solvency and measures the liquidity of the company. This ratio removes the inventory and prepaid from the current assets as they are not as liquid as others. Nike has improved its liquidity position in the market with a ratio of 2.4 as compared to 2.1 in 2008. It now holds $2.4 for every dollar of short term obligations to the creditors. The analysis further shows that more than 50% of the assets are help up in the receivables and hence, the company depends on the collections for meeting of the obligations. Compared to the industry, Bloomberg again reflects on the liquidity position of the company as one of the better company’s income (Bloomberg, 2010). The Debt to Equity ratio indicates the strength of the balance sheet rather than the growth and earnings prospects. Nike has reduced its debt ratio from 6% to 5% in 2009. Even though, the company increased the lending but at the same time, it also increases its equity in the market. Nike has always maintained its strength in the balance sheet because of the less leverage. Nike generated $0.05 in addition to a dollar in equity. Industry comparison shows that the company is least risky but it must add on its debt more so that it can generate

Friday, August 9, 2019

Chines Leisure Industry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Chines Leisure Industry - Essay Example Similarly, gardening or cooking which can be considered a leisure activity for many, but that does not necessarily mean it is one for a gardener or a chef. Defining leisure is very difficult because of its complexities. Any activity that people enjoy doing after completing their obligations, which causes relaxation and peace of mind, can be considered a leisure activity. Because of its abstract nature, it is difficult to name all leisure activities. Leisure activities are likely to keep changing with time but it will always be something that a person enjoys doing and brings them happiness. The leisure industry refers to an industry that is closely related to people's leisure lifestyle, leisure activities and leisure requirements, including primarily the economic forms and industry systems such as entertainment, tourism, service, culture and sports industries, and groups that are generated from such industries (Yan, 2006). The People's Republic of China is the third largest country in the world in terms of area, and the first largest in terms of population (China National Tourism Administration). Until a few years ago, the leisure industry in China was unheard of. However, with changing times, this concept has been flourishing rapidly. Leisure and vacations have become very common and attracted the attention of many citizens and governmental organizations. According to statistics from China's National Tourism Administration, as a major representative of the leisure industry, China's domestic tourism industry recorded 1.2 billion in tourist volume and 768.6 billion Yuan in total tourism revenue in 2005, and has been growing ever since. Because the tourism industry is a significant impulse to consumption and economic growth, twenty-four Chinese provinces now consider the tourism industry as a pillar industry, or a leading industry (Yan, 2006). As many as twenty-four of China's thirty-one provinces, muni cipalities and autonomous regions have made tourism one of their leading industries, encouraging greater consumer spending in leisure activities (Access Asia, 2004). As China's consumer market expands, government and private companies are looking to exploit areas of potential opportunity in the theme and amusement park industry. The Chinese government recognizes the potentially massive boost that increased domestic demand. While foreign direct investment (FDI) provides valuable income, it cannot be compared with surging urban spending in the country's wealthy coastal provinces. Major cities down the eastern seaboard are home to China's expanding urban middle class younger generation of consumers with rising disposable income and an increasing tendency to spend rather than save. While, well to do consumers can afford to travel to other parts of the country on holidays, a vast majority of consumers look for entertainment destinations close to home. These typically include zoos and wildlife parks, aquariums and marine parks, and theme and amusement parks (Access Asia, 2004). Hence, the demand for this kind of entertainment has been increasing, and this industry has seen a rapid growth. Chinese theme parks advocate seeing the world through the ideas upon which many of the theme parks are built. Their aim is to promote and educate people on Chinese culture as well as world cultures. The parks portray beautiful sceneries, architectural