Thursday, January 31, 2019

Comparing Tough Times :: essays research papers

Comparing Tough Times          Authors have make many essays on learning and teaching. In devil particular essays, the authors center on more on examineing and learning to blab good, which is also associated with reading. The narrators in Frederick Douglass essay reading to subscribe to and Write and Maxine Hong Kingstons Learning to Speak worry and American Girl not only when tell the reader about their conflict of relationship between confederations plethoric culture and their own sense of identity, but coach the reader and explain the choices the characters make which determine the direction of their lives.     In Learning to Read and Write the speaker tells about his life as a young slave boy. He is twelve years old, and is thought of by others as being a slave for life (1003) His desire and yearning to read and redeem is not allowed as a slave. He meets a a couple of(prenominal) young white boys who are w illing to teach him how to read and write if he will bring them bread. As many of these I could, I converted into instructors.(1003) Kingstons essay Learning to Speak Like and American Girl is similar to Learning to Read and Write because of the beat period and the controversy. During this time, which is set during World War II, Chinese girls were just begining to be sent to American schools and taught how to speak and read English. The students in the class and the teacher would give these students a hard time because they were not loud or fluent enough. When I went to kindergarten and had to speak English for the first time, I became silent.(1007) these two stories are similar in society because they are both challenged with the dominant culture. The authors gestate their own sense of identity by relative the readers their pagan background and their significance in the story. The speaker in the Learning to Read and Write shows his identity as a young slave lacking(p) to read and write. The speaker in Learning to Speak Like and American Girl is a young Chinese girl learning to speak and read English fluently. Both authors have similar conflicts yet they intend a different era in history.      In these essays, the authors are telling a story about the characters life. The stories are directed towards the audience to express the kind of pain and suffering the characters went through to learn and apply what they had been yearning for.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Philosophical Analysis Essay

History of the domesticateNational College of Science & technology (NCST) was born in the historical and progressive Municipality of Dasmarias, Cavite, Philippines in 1998. As a brainchild of a 23-year-old ethereal entrepreneur in the person of Emerson B. Atanacio, NCST has slowly yet steadily work its niche in the fast growing and very competitive educational argonna non only in the province scarcely in the entire CALABARZON region. With an initial enrollment of 550 scholars in 1998, the tutor has now increase tenfold from its original number as it now has a innate population of 5,000 students in its conventional programs. The cultivate has been faithful in its explosive charge to provide industry responsive graduates.Thus, in 2005, it ventured into its first institutionally developed word form offerings the Certificate in Manu situationuring Technology and the Diploma in intersection Technology. Both curricular programs are under the Dual Training corpse where s tudents are being trained in two avenues of learning the school and the industry. With an initial enrollment of only 18 students in 2005, it has increased to 1,592 in 2008 and 1,026 as of August 2009. The university town of Dasmarias is an inland town situated some 32 kilometres south of Manila, and 27 kilometres south of Tagaytay City. As a rapidly developing municipality, it is situated along the western industrial corridor of the lagoon de Bay basin. It has an area of 234 hectares comprising 6.4 percent of the total area of the province of Cavite.It is bound in the north and west by General Trias, in the north-east by Imus and east by General Mariano Alvarez and Carmona and in the south by Silang. The National College of Science and Technology (NCST) is one of the leading educational institutions in the vast growing locality of Dasmarias, Cavite. NCST has chosen Cavite as its place of wear due to its strategic location having numerous technology-based industries and companie s operating in the diametric techno parks within the province, which is in cognizant with the institutional commitment of constituent the youth of CALABARZON.With its call upable resources, NCST is continuously engaged in the research and development of revolutionary courses as well as the enhancement of existing curricula and the move on improvement of its facilities to support the various program offerings. Close linkage with the divergent business and industrial sector has brought forth enhanced training programs where students are simultaneously capable to both academic and actual work environments ensuring that upon their graduation, they are equipped with employable skills, work knowledge and proper attitude. The NCST Campus is located along the stretch of Emilio Aguinaldo High fashion and near the Congressional Avenue East in the university town of Dasmarias, which is a strategic location, and sticks it comingible to all personas of the provence of Cavite and of Ma nila.The campus itself has a two building, 4-storey structure, with fifty-seven (57) classrooms inclusive of fifteen (15) laboratories, all of which are richly air-conditioned. In night club to bowl over the students the relevant training required in their respective fields of study, a special laboratory for each course is provided and which include a network of four hundred (400) computer systems and was the creative activity of five (5) servers that guarantees 11 student/computer ratio.Furthermore, Internet access in the World Wide Web is also provided in order to familiarize the student with the sophistication of the information superhighway. Skills development is constantly upgraded to escort the challenging demands of the future. As such(prenominal), technology-based courses in NCST are equipped with state-of-the-art skilful equipment as well as the backing of personnel with technological expertness who ensure that a well-rounded and comprehensive training program, and re sponds to the demands of the industry for tonicity and productivity.II Philosophical AnalysisThe National College of Science & Technology (NCST) systems envision to become one of the provinces leading industry-based educational institution with campuses in samara areas around the Philippines. NCST will be a top choice for human resources of every industry. NCST leads to become the institute for nation building, where student excellence is not an extra run-of-the-mine achievement but a daily way of life.NCST, in response to the commercial and industrial sectors motive of highly professional and skilled manpower, provides advanced technology and industry-based education, and sets standard of improvement and competency compatible to the demands of industry, enduring positive work values, engagement and tone among its graduates.They aim to contribute to the national development by providing functional and relevant education thereby producing quality and responsible graduates with a strong root word in character, faith, and love of bucolic. Our graduates will become the change agents who will make a difference for this nation. We will produce professionals, leaders, entrepreneurs or skilled hands who will become assets to the society and productive citizens of our nation.MISSIONNCST under absents the responsibility of providing the farming with quality graduates who are trained with industry-responsive knowledge and skills and founded with underpinning values of faith, love of country and humanity, hope, justice, mutual respect and peace. Their academic community accepts the challenge to work overweight as a team in the spirit of excellence to watch over that our vision and mission turn into glorious reality.Furthermore, NCST has its spirit values such as MAKADIYOS ,the foremost value that seeks to experience a lasting kind with GOD. It inspires the muckle of NCST with courage, spirit and confidence through faith, love and commitment to divin ity Almighty. MAKABAYAN, this value to kindle the nationalistic spirit of the people. Such aspiration gives the people of NCST a mission and a sense of dedication to work with the stovepipe of their skills and abilities by promoting science and technology for the advancement of the nation. MAPAGMALASAKIT , this value promotes understanding of the students welfare the NCSTs primary concern by providing feel for environment and amenities conductive to learning.MAY PAGKAKAISA , this value lies on the kin arising from the common interest, purposes and responsibilities of the people. With this, the people of NCST think, feel and act together towards the attainment of the schools mission. MAKAKALIKASAN , this value harbors on the ideal of NCST of having a high debate for the preservation and conversation of the countrys environment and natural resources.Having exposed to the mission, vision and core values of NCST, I could say that the institution neutered various philosophy. First and the most dominated philosophy is the Progressivism, a philosophic belief that argues that education must be based on the fact that humans are by nature social and learn outflank in real-life activities with former(a) people, since NCST aims to become the institute for nation building, where student excellence is not an extraordinary achievement but a daily way of life.The curriculum used by the school are somewhat tie in or has resemblance with progressivism wherein teachers should not only emphasize drill and practice, but should expose learners to activities that relate to the real life situations of students, emphasizing Learning by doing. Progressivists emphasize the study of the natural and social sciences. Teacher should introduce students to new scientific, technological, and social developments. To expand the personal experience of learners, learning should be related to to present community life. Believing that people learn best from what they consider most relevant to their lives, the curriculum should centre on the experiences, interests, and abilities of students.In NCST they not just study mathematics, literature, science but also courses that require students world power to apply what they learned in the four corners of the classroom to the world outside(a) the school courses like their TESDA courses Certificate in Manufacturing Technology, Diploma in fruit Technology, etc. In NCST, students are encouraged to interact with one some other and develop social virtues such as cooperation and tolerance for different points of view. The core value of being MAKADIYOS is also related to idealism because in idealism, the aim of education is to discover and develop item-by-items abilities and full honorable excellence in order to better serve society. On the other hand, their core value of MAKAKALIKASAN shows that they also adapted the philosophy of Naturalism or the love for nature.III Conclusion/ SummaryNCST is an institution that aims to p rovide the country with quality graduates who are trained with industry-responsive knowledge and skills and founded with underpinning values of faith, love of country and humanity, hope, justice, mutual respect and peace. The educational philosophy of this institution such as Values Formation, where in they aim to build the character of every individual and emphasize mutual respect, we put forth our belief in transforming ordinary students to become extraordinary is highly recommendable. Another thing that is good in this institution is their love for nature for they believe that it is our common responsibility to give environmental consciousness, care and protection.They believe that we are all responsible and should take our place in the ecological balance and management and be part of the solution instead of becoming the problem. We should inspire and influence our community in the implementation of our environment programs. Their program which offers courses that develops practi cal skills is now a key for the students to immediately be hired or have works after(prenominal) their graduation.They continuously aims to develop practical skill enhancement programs to sustain competitiveness among their graduates, creating an avenue of cooperation between the industry experts and the academic community in crafting a more relevant curriculum and more industry-relevant skills pertaining to the technical training requirements of our students. To nitty-gritty this up, their Values is their heart, their Environmental Concern and Protection represents their Soul, Theoretical Foundation represents their discernment and Practical Skills represents their Body.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Wealth and Power in the United States

Wealth and Power in the get together States Hugo Lindgren Chief Editor b ar-assed York Time Magazine email&160protected com This letter is to inform the public of how neighborly class division is related to the concentration of wealth in the United States and support the need to redistribute wealth in the States. Today our communities be divided by amicable class poor citizens red-hot in poor areas of the community while citizens who make to a greater extent m iodiney live in better areas of the community. Social class determines a great pack slightly citizens circumstances.Circumstances like education, health care, shelter, food and clothing. Generally the wealthiest or interior citizens only associate themselves with other citizens who are in the same kindly class. The same concept comes into play with the midriff, work and poor class. Today the fleet 1 part is increasing in wealth while the middle and working class are decreasing. This inequality of wealth in Ameri ca is becoming more and more of a problem for the middle and working class. Wealth is the positive value of what a citizen owns. For ex angstrom unitle if a citizen owns a house the bank ay own half of the house until the loan is remunerative off but whatever the value is of the other half is how very much wealth the citizen has from the house. Redistribution of wealth is raising taskes on citizens that fork out already do it to provide relief for the ones who havent. The sectionalisation theories best describes the distribution of wealth because it breaks down how the wealth is broken up amongst citizens of the United States. The rich have done much better than the middle or working class. The gratuity 1 percent had 22. 9 percent of national income in 2006 a number that hasnt been matched since 1929 said CBS News Jeff Green inAmericas Class Warfare. While a citizen from the top 1 percent has already achieved success, wealth and power. The middle and working class has not an d with a constant accession in cash flow for the wealthy and a constant pass in cash flow for the less successful come a concern for those in public office. President Obama proposes lowering taxes for the less fortunate and a small increase for the citizens who have achieved success with wealth and power. However, other Officials have opposed President Obamas approach to redistributing wealth.Mitt Romney stated I think its about envy, I think its about class warfare When you have a president encouraging the image of dividing America based on 99 percent vs. 1 percent those people who have been most successful bequeath be in the 1 percent youve opened up a whole new-sprung(prenominal) wave of approach to this country which is entirely inconsistent with concept of one nation under god. President Obama insists that by helping others will spread the wealth by having the rich pay a lowly more taxes so the middle class receive a tax credit because the middle class needs it most (Oba ma, 08).President Obama stated I believe in redistribution at least at a authoritative level to make sure that everybodys got a shot Everyone has the demote to maintain a roof over their heads and send their kids to college. Everybody that works challenging can make it. Social class segregation is visible in all 52 states of America. Upper, middle and working classes have their own geographic residential areas within communities. Ethnic segregation begins within the social class groups because the majority of working and poor classes of Americans are minorities. The high class and elites are mostly white Americans.Therefore, geographically America is in fact more divided by this social class system. In 2006 10 percent of whites have been recorded as being below the poverty controversy while 24 percent of blacks remain below the poverty banknote (Harrison &amp Dye, 2010). In 2010 the top 1 percent had a 35. 4 percentage over the bottom 80 percent with 11. 1 percent of total n et worth (Domhoff, 2005). However, it is this system that provides America with the remarkable opportunity that people from all over the world are raddled to. The fact that in America if you work hard and play by the rules you can reap he rewards by becoming successful and come up up the social class ladder. Power in America is achieving higher(prenominal) education, owning property, financial freedom, maintaining a good credit. Power is measured by cautious items such as expensive cars, jewelry, clothing, electronics, Vacations. It was William Thompson who said Our position in the social hierarchy affects our health, happiness, and even how long we will live (Thompson, 2005) Reference Harrison, B, C &ampDye, T. R. (2011) Power and society An introduction to the social sciences (12th Edition) Boston, Ma G.William Domhoff, September, 2005 retrieved October 15 2012 from http//www2. ucsc. Edu /who rules america/power/wealth. html Jeff Green (2006) Americas Class Warfare retrieve d October 15 2012 form http// www. youtube. Com /watch? v=bGS2G79IxTc&ampfeature=fvst Mitt Romney Quote retrieved October 15, 2012 from http//www. youtube. com/watch? v=5wtLKcAU4wQ tally Obama Retrieved October 15, 2012 from http//www. youtube. com/watch? v=BRPbCSSXyp0 Obama Loyola University, C-SPAN October 19, 1998. http//www. youtube. com/watch? v=z0PUUpa5X4E William Thompson, Joseph Hickey, Society in Focus, 2005

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Human Capital Management Essay

It is beta for HR Management in managing the experience slap-up of an giving medication and aligning it with cheeks strategic mean. Critic all(prenominal)y assess the strategic image of HCM and challenges of managing the experience heavy(p) in an organization that you ar familiar. The organization that I would like to choose is Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Terengganu (JPNT). JPNT exists of much than 400 contriveforce and this agency is obligated for administrative and policy executi atomic number 53r of Ministry of Education in the whole Terengganu. In JPNT, t here(predicate) is a puny unit of serviceman Resource Department and this department has 20 provides.However, until the final stage day of my service there, the HR department did not establish each single policy about valet heavy(p) focal point. accordingly I pull up stakes attempt to answer this question while recommending what should be through with(p) by JPNT to succeed in maximize their homosexual cap ital. Before we dis by nature further the strategic role of HCM and challenges that had to be overcome by HCM specialist, let us look at the technical definition of this question. fellowship capital is defined by Business Dictionary as the know how that results from the experience, information, familiarity, acquire, and skills of the employees of an organization.Of all the factors of production, knowledge capital creates the longest lasting matched advantage. It may consist entirely of technical information or may reside in the actual experience or skills acquired by the individuals (BusinessDictionary. com 2012) . Knowledge capital is an internal comp iodinnt of human capital. Human swell is defined by (Baron and Armstrong 2007) as the knowledge, skills, abilities and capacity to develop and innovate possessed by people in the organization. This is one of the attri exclusivelyes of the intellectual capital. talented capital is defined by the compar fit author as the stock s and flows of knowledge avail adequate to(p) to an organization. It is categorized into three categories videlicet human capital, social capital and organizational capital. These capitals be usually feature with the physical resources which be the financial and physical as qualifys for the purpose of treasure unveiling to the unbend equal. As cited by (Sveiby 1998)Tom Stewart who in his June 1991 article Brain Power How Intellectual Capital Is Becoming Americas Most Valuable Asset, proposed the impressiveness of intellectual capital to the management agenda.He defined intellectual capital in his article as the sum of everything everybody in your company knows that gives you a matched edge in the market place. Knowledge Management consists of managerial activities that focus on the maturation and control of knowledge in an organization to fulfill organizational objectives. (Sveiby 1998) Therefore it content that the integration of all management activities that focus on development and control of knowledge is what we call as knowledge management.Challenges of managing knowledge capital in JPNT result be easygoing unitedly as I explained about the role of HCM in the organization. Knowledge management is defined as the abut of storing and sharing the wisdom, at a lower placestanding and expertise accumulated in an organization about its processes, techniques and operations (Baron and Armstrong 2007). Therefore, the info that should be synthesized and acquired should explain the organizations activity for spokesperson the achievement of the employees in knowledge sharing among them and ensure that the knowledge is maximized in lines of its usage.Everybody must(prenominal) sh atomic number 18 their skill, knowledge and experience without any malicious intentions for the purpose of maximizing the performance of JPNT. However, it brings challenges to HR specialist in JPNT as it is not a culture of sharing. Some of the staves afraid to share th eir know how because they thought that by doing so, it might jeopardized their career envelopment in the future. HR specialist overcomes this by implementing a fair assessment indicator to cake their performance without favoritism, nepotism and biasness.In my opinion, the most important attributes that learn Human Resource (HR) with Human Capital Management is the element of the actors as assets. As discussed by (Baron and Armstrong 2007) human capital conjecture emphasized on regarding people as assets of the organization, and investment in people impart generate long run return. Scarborough and Elias noted that human capital speculation is similar to physical capital speculation but they differ in terms of the reference for human capital possible action is made to people and skills while in physical capital theory reference is made to plant and equipments.Both emphasized on think of creations to firm. Thus by applying this theory, JPNT demand to redefine the cost associat ed with genteelness and development and career progression as the investment that will create mensurate for the agency. Staff that undergoes training must be ensured that the new skills matched with their crease exposition and the staff is using that new knowledge in order to efficaciously execute their job. For instance, the weekly training is not supposed to be do by the JPNT if on the purpose of fulfilling the quotas of training hours.Remuneration is not under JPNTs jurisdictions however JPNT throw out recommend the salary of their staff to PSD (Public military service Department). Accepting staff as the asset of the organization will be mutually benefit to both parties involved. On the employees part, they will be feeling much motivated, appreciated so will contribute break-dance in their performances. As for the organization, it will boost the overall organizations performance, decrease turnover rate, absenteeism and early(a) negative behavior of the staffs.Howeve r this theory is not agreed by some scholar for instance Davenport(1999). Davenport argued that worker must not be treated as assets because of three briny reasons. The first reason is workers finishnot be brought, sold and replaced by their owner. Secondly, the principle of this theory is unacceptable and inappropriate in practice is because workers cannot be owned by the firm as the firm owned plants and machines. Lastly, there is not autocratic way of calculating human value-no convincing method of attaching financial value to human resources.Therefore, treating workers sorely based on assets can create drawback to the organization. The rendition of this concept should be made carefully and it should match with the objective of the organization. It is excessively not an easy task to convince the elevation management since the culture of bureaucracy is very strong in JPNT. The next part, I will discuss about the strategic role of HCM. HCMs role as stated in the book Human Capi tal Management by Baron and Armstrong, HCM acts as billet partner of the firm.Secondly, they are also responsible in developing, analyzing and using affair data. Thirdly, they are also responsible for enhancing job particular date and commitment, fourthly, they are responsible to build Business Case and lastly, they are also responsible for engaging with the other function of the organization. (Baron and Armstrong 2007)These points will be elaborated one by one in below. For the first one HCM acts as the cable partner with the top management of the organization.This concept was introduced by Ulrich in 1998 where the author proposed that HR specialist should be share duty with management people to run the business. They must withdraw the ability to understand and exploit opportunities and HR specialist themselves must understand how their role could help in achieving the objective of the organizations. Ulrich suggested that in order for the organization to create value, HR prof essionals must carry out their responsibility as strategic partners, administrative experts, employees advocates and as driver of changes.This can be done through schema execution, improved planning by thorough handling on how the firm should be organized to carry out the strategies. HR engagement with operate and marketing function is essentials in ensuring that all of their initiatives will belong triple-crown by answering the following issues- whether the initiatives is best aligned with strategy implementations, they recognise selection based on priority, and lastly the evaluations of the initiatives should be indicate positivistic linkage to business result.HR specialist must act as employee advocate, human capital developer, functional expert, strategic partner and lastly as leader in terms of HR function. However, the premise HCM act as business partner did not agreed by all practitioners. Tim moth miller and Alex Wilson reported by Smethurst(2005) and Pickard(2005) a re the examples of the top management who disagree with this premise. convince the top management will not going to be easy. quiesce HCM emphasized on the importance of evaluation of what had been happen inside the organization and it also proposes basis for value adding strategist.Therefore, according to this theory, HCM in this case the HR specialist in the human resource department should work together with the top management of JPNT in ensuring the creation of value to the firm. The value that we meant here is creating competitive human capital that at the end of the day this human capital will be able to serve successfully to their customers thus deliver excellence business service for the organizations. Secondly, HR is responsible to develop, hit the books and use human capital data.The measurements that must be developed by HR should be able to measure issues relating to workforce, capable of quantity the levels and trends in performance achieved by both individual and b usiness, can measure the preserve of HR policies and practices on business performance or what Mercer HR Consulting called as Business Impact Modeling. It is also expected that HR should be able in building an effective measurement to measure the effectivity of air manager in applying HR policies and the measurement tools should be able to measure the effectiveness of HR function (Baron and Armstrong 2007).The workforce matrix should provide data which allows the business to measure the key characteristics of the people it employs. Understanding the birth between workforce matrix and people management is very important because the workforce matrix focus on the influences business performance and target the business of what contain to be done to improved the added value from human capital resources. Therefore, HR cannot simply gain data without proper implementations of specialized procedures and standards because gaining accurate data will never be easy.The data trueness will face the current situation and trends of human capital within the organizations. In JPNT, the typical tool to measure the human capital is key Performance Indicator (KPI) in human resource department conjecture the organizational goal. They matched the number of training and types of training according to the need of the staff. Therefore KPIs adopt by Human Resource department is quantitative they are defined in terms of the feedback that they gain through hold out training survey. This KPI however is not emphasized on skills retention that the staff gained on the training.They are not focus workers as the assets of an organization therefore, I think there are a lot of improvement needs to be carried out to improve this measurement method. Next, is on the aspect of measuring the overall performance. Human Resource department use Balance hold Card that is developed by Beatty et. Al (2005) to measure them. Balance rank Card highlighted four important aspects which are customer perspectives, internal perspectives, innovations and learning perspectives and lastly the financial perspectives.This scorecard focuses on equilibrate representation and synopsis of data. In HR, four dimensions are being highlighted which are HR competencies, its practices, systems and deliverables. On the aspect of financial performance, the HR department always runs cost benefit analysis to choose the best trainer to train their staff or just simply using the internal sources that they have. Productivity is measure when the training course that undergo by the staff is beneficial and the new knowledge are continuously used by the staff.The operational impact or effectiveness is measure for instance creation of successful training course to the staff and when the staff perceived such programs contribute to their career developments. Lastly, is in terms of customer service. Through continuous training programs, the staffs become to a greater extent skillful in treating the custome rs thus more of them will be delighted. metre the impact of HR policies and practices are one of the toughest roles of HR specialist. This is because it is hard to match causation-what actions or factors that are specially cause the performance (Baron and Armstrong 2007).Genome II is a model that was developed by National Building fiat proved statistically that the more committed the employee, the happier the customer will. Genome project had focus on recruitment and retention, deeper understanding of the commitment of the employees, abide by system that is more transparent and flexible, increase the effectiveness of the execution on the first line management, promotes recognitions, and develop a culture where both managers and their subordinates demonstrate right behaviors. decoct area of GenomeII could act as a benchmark to be use in JPNT. Effectiveness of the line manager could be improved with the intervention HCM (Bohlander and Snell 2010). Guidance, help and further train ing is available in case where they need them. With this, it was hoped that line managers can carry out their people management responsibilities effectively. For instance if the line manager of JPNT encounter any unsolved problem or the problem is not routine, they can always refers to HCM specialist to guide them.Human resource should be measure to indicate whether they are executing their role and meet the target of their department. Tsui and Gomez-Mejia (1998) cited in (Baron and Armstrong 2007) had clarified the distinction between process criteria- how well things are done and output criteria- the effectiveness of the end result. To distinguish them, utility approach by Boudreau(1998) can be applied.Beside this approach, HR performances can also be measured using points suggested by Likierman (2005) that the budget allocation is in line with HR objectives- means HR has a order in changes in implementing the strategy, analyze and interpret the reason behind it, canvas internal and external benchmarking, enhance the usage face to face discussion to gain the feedback, and lastly the measurement should not expect to measure something that is impossible, and they should be noted that many problems just being mitigated, instead of being solved, and this is noisome to the JPNT.Another important role of HCM is in the terms of promoting job engagement and commitment. Job engagement happens when people are willing to commit to their work and willing to perform excellently in their job. Hay Group defined engage performance as a result that is stimulated by employees enthusiasm for their work and direct it to the success of the organizations. On the other hand, organizational commitment is defined as the recognition of goals and values of the organization, a sense of belonging to the organization and willingness to contribute effort for the organization (Baron and Armstrong 2007). presidency commitment and job engagement can be created by JPNT if JPNT set a great place to work, HR people promotes positive arbitrary behavior, create excellence total reward policy and constantly measure job engagement and commitments. JPNT should provide conductive working environment- comfortable in nature, ergonomics, make sure that the job prospect is parallel with training, appraisal, and the superior staff should take care of the welfare of their subordinates.JPNT can adopt the criteria suggested by The sunlight Times in rateing the best 100 companies which are leadership of cured management level, good relation with their superiors, have the opportunities of personal growth and developments, balanced work-life issues, cooperativeness between colleagues, my company- the way JPNT treats its staff and lastly the fair deal- stipend and benefits are provided to all, without nepotism and biasness.The superior should also act in discretion vogue it means that not everything must be solved black and white. For instance, if one of the subordinates absent fo r their work with a concrete reason, the superior should not penalise he or her. Reward is categorized into two which are transactional reward (tangible reward-the pay and benefits) and relational reward ( intangible asset reward-learning and development and work environment). That is the responsibility of HR to create the best reward model that can motivate their employees in the future.The tangible reward is easily to be copied by the competitors as everyone have the capability to pay and gives benefit for instance dental plan, but the intangible reward it harder to be imitated thus increase the chances of sustaining the firms competitive advantages. Next, another(prenominal) role for HR professionals is as strategist. Strategist here means HR professional should be able to address long term issues related to management and development of people and the employment relationships.This role is distinctly demonstrated when HR professional are being regarded as business partner- they have the persuasion power to influence the top managers to develop business strategies that are maximizing the potential of human capital. (Baron and Armstrong 2007) As we discussed earlier, people are the assets of the organizations, thus they are one of the resource to achieve and sustain competitive advantage of JPNT HCM is also responsible to develop a good business case. Baron and Armstrong 2007) As I discussed previously, HR specialist should be able to persuade top management, a good business case can act as one of the convincing evidences on why the top management should agree to HR specialists proposals. The case should show how the purposed course will add value in terms of income will exceed the cost or by executing the proposal, it will replication positive return on investments (Bohlander and Snell 2010).The business case should present on how the available human capital data will impact on key areas of organizations operation, show how it will the proposal will incre ase the business competitive edge, or presenting a successful original projects to be employ to the entire organization, the proposal can be implemented without much hassles, it will also able to enhance the employers defacement by promoting JPNT as the best place to work and lastly the points, data are presented in neat manner, simple and easy to understand.Challenges for managing knowledge are knowledge acquisition, knowledge modeling, knowledge retrieval, knowledge reuse and knowledge maintenance. In JPNT it is hard to get the information needed and turn the information to become useable. For instance, it is hard to transform the tacit knowledge to become explicit knowledge, to identify the gaps in knowledge, and difficult to acquire and integrate the knowledge that is cross departmental and different expertise.Therefore, it is important for the HR specialist in JPNT to be able to create an approach that is able to integrate all knowledge in the organization so that it can be benefited to all. On the top of that, knowledge modeling is also can be another obstacle for HR specialist in managing knowledge capital in the organization. The challenge that is approach by JPNT HR specialist is how to use the knowledge available in solving problems because knowledge possessed by staffs are varies from one another (Bhojaraju 2005).To overcome this, HR departments had introduce mentor and protege program. As a conclusion, the roles that are played by HCM are indeed complex and requires HR specialists to be able to multitasking, possessed multidisciplinary of knowledge and wide range of skills to execute their roles dead thus enable them to overcome the challenges of managing knowledge capital in JPNT. contribute managements should also give full cooperation in favor of HCM so that the usance of knowledge capital in JPNT could be maximized.

Thursday, January 24, 2019

English as a second language

Since some(prenominal) years ago in rib Rica has been implemented English as a plunk for language in educational institutions. Thence, there cook been a lot of teachers in pitch to teach this language to our students during elementary school and high school. However, this goal has been hold and in most cases is not met. This is beca social function mevery of the teachers do not have basis and rationale for teaching, in many schools across the country many of them do not enunciate the language or by 50%, do not have close pronunciation, grammar is incoherent and they don t have secretaries skills to teach.Taking this as a starting point we can come to the conclusion of the importance of linguistics and how some of its branches can help oneself teachers change their classes. Some of these branches that teachers must considered in order to improve their classes ar the pursuance sociolinguistic, phonology linguistic and second language acquisition. All teachers must disting uish how people mouth in the society, to understand this topic we have sociolinguistic that is precisely what is responsible for studying the way people speak in a precise society.Sociolinguistic contains many fields which is very important to get it on beca theatrical role it could help us improve the classes. Why? According with sociolinguistic unmatched of the aspect that it consider is education, the more educated you are the better you speak that is really important besides, gender is other aspect that you have to run specially when you need sort in which we are referring to man or woman, it said women speak better than men, they use more words and sentences it is something we should give when you are teaching.In other hands, the idioms should take into account, because we must pick out that in any region have idioms it means word that simplify a collection of words, students must go over more or less it because may be they will be in contact with foreign people in a furrow or they travel to another country.Also, is necessary to drive in about slang, this is what is k forthwith as vulgar vocabulary, as we student usually ask about expressions that they hear, as a teacher we must direct them which of these expressions must use consort to the context. In addition, there are phrases that people use to wear out the real meaning of a word (euphemism) for typeface, collapse love copulate, teachers should retire about these concepts because are synonyms in which is a topic that is taught in rib Rica s educative system.Race is another aspect very important to know, it check up on the way that some people speak a language, for example, if a teacher teach Spanish at USA, especially in a tell apart where most of the people speak Black American English, he or she must know that they reduce vowels, verb to be is de permited, they use you was and they was instead of you were and they were, etc. In order to understand the phrases.Also in sociolingu istic there is an especial meaning which is evolution, this is shared out into two categories nee of them is pidgin (using a language that is not our language is Just to survive) and the other is Creole or native language, this sensation is very important to take account because here at costa Rica we have Lemon is a province where most of the people speak Creole from Jamaica, this kind of language is not totally perfect for example obsolete me I GU mausoleum I is good and idiolect I am good if a teacher is teaching in Lemon must of knowing interpreter these terms and try to correct them to speak at a correct way.Another aspect teachers must consider is avocation, as we know occupations is another topic that needs to be taught at high school, according with professions people use technical words belong to a specific occupations, so teacher must teach to the student how to associate a specific word with an occupation, for example, legal-lower, trauma-doctor.To teach this topic the teacher can use cards, board games combining words adapted to occupations related to the profession and the profession name. Phonology study of phonemes-phoneme is the basic unit of sounds (pronunciation, accent, stress) with doubt, if a teacher has large knowledge about their class will e improved considerably, now days most of the schools in Costa Rica must teach mouth English, to make students acquire a good pronunciation teachers have to express vowel sounds.Also they need to know about diphthongs which is the combination of vowels. There are many kinds of activities to teach vowels especially in school, but the most impressive one is audiovisual, fortunately now days the technology is closer to everyone, in most of the schools have video beam, laptops and speakers with these tools teachers can play, songs, videos in order to learn vowel sounds.In other hands, consonants are very important, remember that consonants are divided by two categories mainly which are the follo wing voiced (vocal cords vibrate) and voiceless (vocal cords don t vibrate), one of the main challenges approach teachers is to get students learn the correctly pronounce the words, so they have to let students know about the differences between consonants one technique to obtain good results is make students work in multitudes, where they repeat the words make outing what has vibration and what not.To make easier this teaching the teacher would watch and guide students with the sounds and indicate when are blatant or stop, internal, alveolar-ridge, affricative or fricative and retroflex, certainly not collect to give many details about this, but if we can do a little explanation Just let students learn to identify sounds.To end this essay, we must recognize that linguistic is very important and it should be known by teachers to make their lessons better, we know that to teach a second language teachers must know how do people speak in a society determined with all the fields o f linguistic, such as, education, gender, idioms, slang, race, evolution, reversion, it is what we know as sociolinguistic.Also, teachers should implement techniques and activities such as audiovisual presentations to recognize the sounds of the vowels, in the other hand, for recognizing the consonant sounds one very effective technique is group formation where students learn to recognize when the consonants has vibration or not, of course, with the guidance and help of the teacher who must have extensive knowledge of all the implications in the pronunciation of consonants for example when are continuant or stop, internal, alveolar-ridge, affricative or fricative and retroflex.

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Preferred stock

The property costs IPPP,OOH 3 socio-economic classs ago and was carried on the promoters books at Pl 50,000. Jan. 31 Issued 30,000 sh ars of convertible like filiation at Pl 50 per share. Each share can be converted to five shares of universal stock. The corporation paid IPPP,OOH to an agent for selling the shares. Feb.. 15 Sold 9,000 shares of super C stock at IPPP per share. The corporation paid issue costs of p 75,000. May 30 Received subscriptions for 12,000 shares of prevalent stock at IPPP per share. Gag. 30 Issued 2,1 00 shares of prevalent stock and 4,200 shares of best-loved stock in exchanged for a building with a fair market care for Of Pl , 530,000.The building was sooner purchased for Pl , 140,000 by the investors and has a book value of IPPP,OOH. In addition, 1,800 shares of common stock were sold for IPPP,ooh cash. Novo. 15 Payments in full for half of the subscriptions and equatingtial payments for the alight of the subscriptions were received. Total cash r eceived was Shares of stock were issued for the fully paid subscriptions. Deck. declare a cash dividend of Pl O per share on favored stock, account payable on celestial latitude 31 to stockholders of record on December 1 5, and PEP per share cash dividend on common stock, payable on January 15, 2006 to stockholders f record on December 15.Deck. 31 Paid the preferred stock dividend. Net income for the first year of operations was Pl QUESTIONS Based on the above and the result of your audit, determine the adjacent as of December 31, 2005 1 . Common stock a. IPPP,ooh p 144, 000 c. IPPP,ooh 2. Paid-in detonating device in excess of par value of preferred stock a. P 1 b. Pl 275,000 d. Pl 86,000 AP-5901 Q Page 2 of 5 Paid-in capital in excess of par value of common stock 3. A. PA,21 1,000 4. Retained earnings d. IPPP,ooh 5. Total stockholders equity SUGGESTED ANSWERS C, C, C, D, B line NO. 2The Perseverance Corporation has requested you to audit its financial statements for the year 2005. During your audit, Perseverance presented to you its balance sheet as of December 31 , 2004 containing the following capital section Preferred stock POI par 60,000 shares authorized and issued, of which 6,000 are exchequer shares costing PEP,OOH and shown as an asset Common stock, par value PA 600,000 shares authorized, of which 450,000 are issued and outstanding special paid in capital (PA per share on preferred stock issued in 2000) Allowance for in question(predicate) accounts receivable Reserve for depreciationReserve for fire insurance Retained earnings IPPP,ooh 300,000 12,000 840,000 198,000 Additional information Of the preferred stock, 3,000 shares were sold for P 18 per share on August 30, 2005. Perseverance credited the proceeds to the Preferred Stock account. The treasury shares as of December 31, 2004 were acquired in one purchase in 2004. 2) The preferred stock carries an annual dividend of Pl per share. The dividend is cumulative. As of December 31, 2004, unpai d cumulative dividends amounted to AS per share. The entire accumulation was liquidated in June, 2005, by issuing to the preferred stockholders 54,000 shares of common tock. ) A cash dividend of Pl per share was declared on December 1, 2005 to preferred stockholders Of record December 1 5, 2005. The dividend is payable on January 15, 2006. 4) At December 31, 2005, the Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Receivable and Reserve for Depreciation had balances of PEP,ooh and Pl respectively. 5) On environ 1, 2005, the Reserve for Fire Insurance was increased by PEP,OOH Retained scratch was debited. 6) On December 31, 2005, the Reserve for Fire Insurance was decreased by PEP,000, which represents the carrying value of a machine destroyed by fire n that date.

Culture Assessment Essay

A widely accepted definition of organisational polish is it is the sh atomic number 18d meanings, artifacts, values, beliefs, norms, and assumptions that dictate how an institution works and its existence (Cameron & ampere Quinn, 2006). Organization nicety is shaped by more than one atom say individuals life experiences, background, education levels and so fourth. Undoubtedly, leadership also plays a critical role in defining what civilisation prevails in the organic law and their actions have a major influence on how the rest of the judicature follows suit.(Robbins et al, 2000) Addition whollyy organization gardening defines the strategies that a firm uses in intervention things like competition, growth, resource focussing and the like. (Goffee & Jones, 1996) A good judgment of the cultural orientation of a firm makes it likelier to promote interorganisational network and also implement changes that encourage member participation and productivity. The key indicators of organizational culture include organization structure, power and managerial styles, ways in which members of the organization interact and do their jobs among others.This paper takes a look at FedEx tum and gives a summary of the type of organization culture at FedEx, its benefits, hindrances as considerably as the recommendations of the federation. Company overview FedEx Corporation is a large company headquartered in the US that deals in printing, messenger services and logistics as well as cargo airline services. This company has been named one of the authorise 10 most admirable companies by Fortune magazine two years in a row. Since its founding in 1971 it has gr give birth from humble beginnings a leader in air courier industry.Its brands include the FedEx home delivery, FedEx smartness post and FedEx freight east and west, FedEx services among others. Its chief competitors atomic number 18 DHL, TNT, UPS, BAX ball-shaped and USPS. The company employs over 250,000 workers and has a net income of approximately 1. 8 billion dollars in 2006. Culture assessment The organization culture at FedEx blends sundry(a) kinds of organization culture but perhaps the most predominant culture is flexibility discretion and dynamism. This has been its major strategy of staying ahead.To support this, FedEx takes pride in their ability to adapt to change so as to enhance potential and war-riddenness. (Cameron & Quinn, 2006, p. 34) This it achieves by combining innovation, knowledge sharing, high experience and squad work in its key strategies to attaining competitive advantage. A good object lesson of FedEx external focus is evident in the numerous deliveries of relief supplies that FedEx do to hurricane Katrina victims for free in 2005, earning it more nodes and goodwill. Adhocracy orientation at FedEx is fostered at top level management down to the junior staff.The CEO of FedEx encourages employees to be cut back setters and nonconformist and d be to take calculated risk. The management encourages employees to be all ears on current events and look for opportunities. The guiding philosophy is that an innovation failed is get out than a thousand years lost in risk loath(predicate) dealings. Innovation at FedEx is held with high regard and employees are rewarded handsomely for development fresh ideas. The management supports viable projects from employees financially or otherwise. This is one cerebrate why FedEx distinguishes itself as an evergreen company in the air courier industry.This culture is underscored when creative attempts that fail are rewarded as well as the successful innovations. The familiar slogan absolutely, positively gets it there overnight is do real by the culture ingrained in the employees towards importance of customer service, efficiency at work, speed and accurate scheduling. This culture leverages FedEx for competitive advantage. Basically, the FedEx integrated culture emphasizes urgency, speed and teamwork, exceeding customers expectations, initiative, flexibility and active listening (OReilly, Tushman & Michael, 1997)Aside from the flexible nature at FedEx, it also adopts an outwardly and raw(a) approach to the environs that it operates. Competitiveness fosters the company to always look for opportunities to wave and grow. While the opposite of this culture is to foster integration and unity deep down the organization as well as knowledge some elements of this culture are also stand for at FedEx. This is because FedEx emphasizes high skills among employees. Employees at FedEx are highly learned individuals as the company tho picks the best of the best. running(a) ones way up the unified ladder requires that ones knowledge base also increases. In addition, the internal focus of FedEx organizational culture provides an appropriate environment that enables employees to grow and exercise their skills as seen in the various training and lying-in assignments delega ted to employees. In order for knowledge sharing to be maximized then form of labor, job enrichment, team building and so forth have to be conducted regularly (Murray, Poole & Jones, 2005) some aspects of these are present at FedEx.FedEx corporate culture values hard work and rewards such appropriately. It also disregards discriminations and fosters extend to opportunities for its employees in areas of promotion, transfer and recruitment. The hands off team oriented management style promote progressive and diversified work culture. Communication is a key strength for FedEx organization culture and regular surveys on employees views on the job are taken to monitor and modify areas of universal discontent. Notably, the employees at FedEx are highly experienced and skilled individuals.The culture therefore is ground on letting employees be free agents who direct their jobs in their own direction. The management ensures that employees are proactive and take initiative to learn fro m mistakes of others. The employees are not reprimanded or penalized for slip-ups rather management takes the blunder as an hazard to teach the rest. Most of the tasks done at FedEx are assigned to teams which are given sufficient power and authority to fulfill their responsibilities and be responsible for the results. Seemingly this is the reason behind the great success of FedEx.The benefit of the cultures present at FedEx is that the company is maintains its competitiveness amid intense competition from the competitors. Additionally, it deals with less conflicts, fewer staff turnover and enjoys increase in employees job satisfaction, higher military operation less resistance to change, higher productivity and better customer service and so forth. The hindrances of this kind of organization culture are that it requires major investiture in time and money. The management needs to be patient with employee mistakes which are most times costly.Additionally it is difficult to moni tor this practice in the FedEx Company because of the large workforce and the busy schedules that the employees have. Conclusion The organizational culture at FedEx has both benefits and detrimental aspects although many are the benefits. In the competitive faced paced industry that FedEx operates their culture seem most fitting. Perhaps the only thing that I would improve is the hierarchal structure and the communication impart for free flow of information and faster decision making passim the organization.

Sunday, January 20, 2019

The Thin Red Line

prove on The Red Line by Charles Higson Society contains a gigantic majority of diametrical types of people, and altogether of them look, act, and think differently. How we as individuals do these things, are greatly influenced by the people around us, as our differences makes us tag differents. In creating our own indistinguishability, our reliance on others is consequently grand, which git be either a fine or a dreadful matter. For some, the bias in the perceptions of others sess cause the truth to be exceedingly twisted. It hatful be disturbed to such a degree, that the image of others is completely frigid of how it is in reality.This is what severally character in Higsons short legend The Red Line experiences. Higson questions and plays with the role identity subscribe to in our postmodernist friendship by using irony in the characterization and by the use of a can-do imply of lieu. Berto and the unnamed composition separately have contradictory personaliti es and looks. This is seen because the reader and the characters are introduced to different sides of the people in the story. As the reader gets a sense of the characters looks, personalities and thoughts, the persons in the story solo get to see distributively other from the outside.Denises descriptions of the two men could non be much wrong, and therefore displays the contradictories perfectly. She sees the nameless man as someone innocent, child-like and defenseless, and she sees Berto as one who has the look of a hunter. Cold, superior, in charge. 1 She thinks Berto leave behind hurt her, merely he is actually the one who assumes fondly of her and the nameless man in reality dislikes her. None of that is played out though as the characters do not interact with each other, as their narrow-mindedness stop them.The characters are prejudiced towards each other, which prove to be wrong, making the situation ironic. Denises thoughts of the two indicates the dramatic irony in the story, because we as readers know that Berto is the naive and innocent one, while the nameless man is the hunter, who kills Berto in the end. Berto sees the nameless man as someone harmless, but as he kills him, it creates situational irony. He had hoped that the man would have helped him find his way around London, and in a way he does, since Bertos blood trail reminds him that he needed to take the red line It was ot the preferable outcome Berto could have hoped for though, of course, as he dies. The nameless man deems very negative of the two, for the most trigger Berto that is so contrary himself, both in appearance and personality. The nameless man considers Berto to be iniquitous, while we as readers know the opposite is true. He as well as supposes that Berto and Denise are eyeing each other up across the aisle2, but none of the two has romantic interest in each other, and Denise til now ends up running from the former.The reader must question each character, ground on their view on the others and how this changes their persona, and how each one of them is considered by our selves. The point of view shifts in a way that it both creates suspense, and plays with our impression of personality. With each chapter, titled by a train station name, we follow a different characters day. In Goodge Street, a chapter towards the end, the characters stories intertwine, but the shifting continues. The composition is therefore not linear, which is typical of postmodern literature, as it creates suspense.There is dynamic and a sense of reflection in the story, which are besides postmodern traits. Differing at all times, the point of view creates a sense that postal code is settled, especially because of the conflicting information we obtain of the characters. We must therefore view the story and the characters all the time, thus forcing us to reconsider the personas constantly. The role identity plays in the story is a reflection of how it functions in po stmodern society. This is part of the authors intention, as Higson wants us to question what we see, as not everyone/everything is what it seems.He also questions and makes us think about our own prejudices towards others, and how we view each other. He plays with the role appearance have in our society, and how outstanding it can be. Berto gets murdered solely because of the way he looks. Higson also critiques the emphasis society puts on perception of others, as too much prejudice can kill the ingenuous and righteousness in life. The nameless man is also extremely narcissitic, as he took to staying in, standing in front of the reverberate for hours on end, shaving and looking at his reflection3, thus he is an archetype of someone in society Higson critiques.Alas, appearance plays an incredibly important role, as Denise run away from Berto and the nameless man kills the latter because of it, redden though we as readers know Berto is a respectable guy. The situation in the story is of course extreme, but Higson does this to get the point across more clearly and create irony. The contradictions are solar clear and the prejudices have sound consequences for the characters. It goes gravely wrong for the guy the reader sees as kind of a protagonist, and the characters see the antagonist as the innocent and harmless one.We get different impressions of Denise, Berto and the nameless man based on their thoughts on each other and their life situation. These are obtained in a dynamic way, because the point of view shifts and the composition is not linear. Thus, we must reconsider the story at all times, and sense how we ourselves perceive each other. As Higson questions the concept of identity, he also makes us question ourselves, how we view others, and on what grounds we judge each other by. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212 1 Higson, Charles. The Thin Red Line, p. 69 l. 4 2 Ibid. p. 69, l. 25 3 Ibid. p. 66, l. 30-31

Thursday, January 17, 2019

Advertising Objectives Essay

Furthermore, Budweisers mission is to pursue a long-term growth system by pursuing high consumption securities industrys and attaining a firm market share among competitors. Budweiser has a strong blemish name domestically, but for this exceptional region it go forth need to implement a penetration strategy. Also, Budweiser leave focus on securing valuable distribution channels including pubs and supermarkets. The product position strategy reflects rivalrous pricing and product specialization.Inherently, the product reflects cultural determine of the derriere country, with attributes much(prenominal) as caffeine and local flavors that represent regional preferences. The brand may potentially growth market share via scholarship of equity investment. Tactical Details Product Various product attributes go out be localized to appeal to consumer tastes such as a provender/lighter version beer with caffeine. Offering smaller glass bottles, which align with European consumpti on gaudiness trends, pull up stakesing differentiate product packaging. The beer base cognitive content leave be standardized but with local flavors establish on market look for.Also, based on potential research findings there is a possible product extension for an all-natural beer within the Austrian market. Additionally, products will be available in mini kegs to support the younger market particle behavioral characteristics. advertise Implementing TV, Radio, Direct mail, Print ads, and Internet will be necessary to keep up with competitive advertise within this region. communicate will focus on initially creating awareness. Ultimately, message strategies will present a global brand through localized messaging.Internet advertising will be highly influential for the demographic market segment. Advertising will include viral ads, flash advertisements, and promotional incentives and incorporate sites such as MySpace and blogs (for the younger generation). Furthermore, spons orship from popular celebrities or musicians for events and products will appeal to the target market. Personal Selling Face to face education via account executives with clubs/pubs will be imperitive to puddle awareness and motivate front-line distributors.Additionally, face-to-face points of contact in grocery stores and super/hypermarkets will be important in influence to impact this a vast portion of purchases. These tasks will be undertake out to a local sales force that understands the culture, industry and competitive environment. Routine follow-ups and frequent interactions will be emphasized in come out to maintain strong distributor relationships. Sales Promotion Incentives will be offered to club owners, super markets and so forth that will be based on volume discounts.A sales contest will likewise be commenced across the club/pub segment and the supermarket segment to increase purchases, emphasize product push through distribution channels and create awareness for c affeinated beer. Sub-brand specific websites will offer promotional incentives as fountainhead (BOGO, etc). Sleek, appealing point of purchase displays will be exhibited in supermarkets. promotional partnerships with record a company, such as free iTunes downloads with purchase will be implemented to appeal to youthful market.Distribution Distribution will primarily focus on clubs/pubs, closely following the Red mark distribution model and its flourishing success within this region. Distribution will also be emphasized in super and hypermarkets. Price insurance policy Pricing will remain competitive, but not premium. Also, based on market research, pricing will reflect that of energy drinks. Product differentiation and promotional efforts will not focus on price, but instead aim to increase purchasing through incentives such as volume discounts. investigateA partnership with an experienced European market research agency (i. e. EURO, RSCG) will be imperative to monitoring qualit y cognition and target market acceptance. Research will closely examine brand recognition development over time. Data mining from distributors to track trends will also be influential in understanding consumption behaviors. Research will also be needed in evaluating the possibility of first appearance a more mainstream bud beer. Finally, based upon success within Austria, however research into surrounding countries will be necessary.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Management perspective

A upstart, womanish chief executive officer was brought in and she began implementing a wave of channels. The areas where there was a clutch of focus was culture, improving technology and module retention. The current piazza of the infirmary Trust from indicates that there are problems within the trust, which is causing a ill- delineate performance and quality. These problems need to be addressed in order to correct performance and quality. Staff and patient surveys showed major problems with moral and colloquy. It also indicates that staffs were disquieted with the current style of direction.And although there were diversitys little improvement in pay and staff was complaining of overwork, too much transplant, they knew little Of he new CEO and that their own managers style was unchanged. All this could be due to inadequacy of communication between the CEO, staffs and patients. In order to address this major problem, the CEO needs to put in place a clear communicati on strategy, for example deliver regular monthly updates in the Hospital as an open forum updating staff on new developments and listen to staff concerns and their ideas.Maybe set up a diverse committee of managers, staffs, and patients that comes together frequently to address the current problems, ideas and feedbacks with the CEO This form of immunization could suspensor structure ways performance and quality can be improved, obliterate the barrier between the new CEO and her staffs and also improving their relationship. there are various aspects of loss leave alvirtuoso and cultures that can be important to this consequence I. E. Types of leaders, their styles and theories, relationship, scheme culture etc. Leadership is much than just wielding power, as this shows.The Great Man theory by Thomas Carlyle says that leaders are natural non made however it can be argued that a great leader is not merely born m twain leaders develop their leadership skills and Tyler fro m trial and error, studies and experience of success (Edgar et al. 1954). Generally, there can be cloudiness between management and leadership (Smyth 1 989) because they both have a lot in common. Managers and leaders both have power, which is use in the running of operation or businesses efficiently (Smyth 1989). They both have concourse that depend on them for ideas, information and direction on a daytime to day basic.However, there are some major differences between them. attention direct and control people and resource, in a group or organization according to the aloes or principles already established or provided to them by the organization (Mullions 2005). They manage resources to retain the current situation or make sure things occur according to established plans and policies, there is no new direction or change. On the other hand, leadership is the top executive of an individual to provide inspiration and lead a group of people efficaciously for the benefit of an ac tivity or organization, but still maintaining legitimate ideas and principles.Because just talking nigh the vision and showing passion is not enough. A leader (inspirational leader) listens to the people in heir organization this allows the thoughts and ideas of the staff to uphold shape the mission and vision (Mullions 2005). People are more supportive of a direction they partly form. Because just talking nearly the vision and showing direction they partly form. The new CEO in this organization need to combine her leadership skills with her management skills. This will help to set direction and manage resources to achieve SUcceSS.Because leadership without management is mount a vision or direction for others to follow without taking into answer for too much on how the vision is going to be achieved. terzetto KEY AREAS CULTURE A number of authors suggest that culture is a vital determinant of organizational performance. Research carried out by lorry (2003) shows a link bet ween positive cultural views among employees and proactive leadership behaviors. What is organization culture? Literature review shows countless definitions for organization culture, with perhaps the more common definition being the way we do things around here by Deal and Kennedy (1982).Organizational culture is demonstrated usually in the characteristics of the organization. It is regarded as the way things are done or understood in an organization (Shill 2008). Tall BRB (1983) regarded organization culture as a network of beliefs and divided values that combine companys people, control systems and organization structures, to produce behavioral norms. for the first time a SOOT analyses was done to be able to assess the situation and put a strategy in place. A soot analyses is utile as it helps the organization to exploit its opportunities and strengths and avoid mistakes and correct its weak areas.An paygrade and of opportunities and threats provides information on what an org anization might do. While strengths and weaknesses enables the organization to check up on what it can do (Davidson ND Griffin 2006). The SOOT for the NASH Trust shows posture Part of a Large organization, Skilled Manpower and Labor take in Weakness Needs Leadership, lack of motivation for staff, old IT system Opportunities advance efficiency for patients, improve the IT systems Threats Organizational Culture TO begin the process Of rescue in planned changes the CEO decided to upgrade the hospital IT systems.This was indispensable to provide employees with state-of-the-art computer hardware and software equipment to work more effectively and to assist the organization to respond remediate to the competitive environment. Secondly, empowering employees with extra motives and trio begin a process of cultural change that would help the organization to overcome workforce difficulties and conflicts. The chief executive officer and managing directors allowed the external consultant s to have access to any kind of documents relevant to the organization.External consultants formed the team that would lead the change initiative with other internal managers from human resources, IT manager and about 15 employees of the IT service division and the Clinical Directors from the Medical and Surgical Departments and ward Managers, nurses and some allied staff. It was very important that the Trust included the more or less influential people in the team, as they are vital to any change process. The inclusion of senior managers helps to have lines of accountability and clearly defined expectations from managers, as they have to manage the changes successfully.According to Pascal and Those (1982) shared values is one of the levers of management and managers could manipulate this culture. Therefore managers can use culture as a tool to bring about change. Stakeholders involvement was a list aspect of achieving these goals. According to Freeman (1984) the concept of stake holders is to assist with the tragic management within organizations (Marinades et al. 2011). In terms of organizational change strategies, stakeholders are both those who are mingled in making decisions about change and those who are affected by the change.The software and hardware advancement led to founder design and implementation of information systems and service for the organization especially spotlight areas where improvements could be made to achieve short term gains and make a difference to the service to patients like cutting waiting lists for patients and better engagement times thereby improving efficiency. In terms of organizational change strategies, stakeholders are those who are involved in making decisions about change and those who are affected by the change.First, the employees of the organization are the internal clients, as the cultural and technological changes concern them. The external clients of the change are the commonplace and government organizatio ns to which the NASH provides services to. The software and hardware development led to better design and implementation of information systems and lead to an improvement in the services for the organization and the patients. Many searchers characterize organizational change as a chaotic process (Burns 2005).Therefore it is very important to identify who will be your change agents in the organization, to drive the change forward. In this case the main people Were the organizations medical and surgical directors and human resource manager who was involved with cultural changes, the fifteen employees of the IT services division who made the software and hardware updates, the ward managers and the external consultants. Lastly the sponsor is the person that provides the budget for the change project and influences session making in this case the CEO (Goldenberg et al. 011 engineering science A planned changed approach managers were able to use a evening gown process to identify what t he changes will be and setting about it in a planned way. Linens three Steps change framework of unfreezing, doing and refreezing was used (Lenin 1951 The unfreezing phrase breaks down the resistance to change and sets up a malleable organization. The movement phase establishes the new systems or tasks and the refreezing stage embeds the changes in the organizational systems. Managers are able to have clear goals that can be measured and completed within a set timeshare.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Discuss How the Concepts of ‘Race’ and ‘Ethnicity’ Essay

Australia is know for its multicultural society, but rush and ethnicity are a huge ingredient of persistent racism and inequality in this soil. The driving force base this is the strong belief that some of the population lock in hold against deal who appear divers(prenominal) to themselves. To gain a clear understanding of this small topic oneness must look at the origins, forms and effects of racism. This seek will look at how the concepts of race and ethnicity perpetuate inequality in our society, a brief history of Australia in relation to racism and how community experience these inequalities to daylight in a society that we call multicultural. recent Australia was established as a region of recent settlement in 1788 which was a small part of a larger process of European colonisation (Bessant &type A Watts, 2002, p. 219). They had a set of ideas, values and beliefs and assumed that aborigines had no carcass of land ownership, agriculture, animal husbandry. endemic raft defy been in Australia for more than 100,000 years (Bessant & Watts, 2002, p. 222). The White Australia Policy in the twentieth century encouraged immigration except from Britain, but didnt impart Asians and Non-whites (Economou N, 1998, p.363).By 1950s batch from all countries were al starting timeed to migrate into Australia to help grade war reconstruction. The colonial immigration saw a mass migration of European people mostly from Britain to Australia. It is state that between 1788 and 1852 approximately 170,000 people move to Australia, and the gold rush era after 1851 made it a super desirable country for migrating (Bessant & Watts, 2002, p. 231). By end of World fight two, as war forced Australia to grow closer to other countries, which resulted in the first significant weakening of the policy in 1951.Later in the 1950s and 1960s other parts of the White Australia Policy were precise by little dismantled. By the 1970s the federal goernment had removed a ll racial restrictions from its immigration law (Bessant & Watts, 2002). Various writers lead contradictory approaches and shipway of looking at racism, making it a complex topic. It takes many contrasting forms, ranging from physical violence to derogatory lyric. A person or multitudes belief that their race is superior or inferior, or their moral and social traits are predetermined, based on biological differences can be termed racism.A group of people sharing the same beat colour, same values, coming from the similar backgrounds may constitute as race. One of the most common forms of racism found today is institutional Racism, which stems from established corporations, and other powerful forces in society, thus making it gruelling to question and faces less public condemnation. Examples include housing, employment, businesses, direction, religion and media (Healey, 2002). Typically, the basis of this role of discrimination is from irrational fear of people at the rece iving end who blend to a different culture or race.Although, there fall in been ongoing debates about racism all around us for centuries, it is an attaint on human rights as it methodically refuses people of different caste, colour, race, agitate or their country of origin basic values underlined by familiar Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) which states that human rights are e very(prenominal)ones birthright and consent to all without difference (Healey, 2002). Common perception of shared origins, culture, lifestyle and traditions amongst a group of people or society is the universal definition of ethnicity (Bessant & Watts, 2002).People can share the same nationality but have different ethnicities. A few writers have put forward fascinating explanations of ethnicity. Edward Shils in his primordial approach argues that he believes everyone has a primordial attachment to their motherland, people and religion which brings out strong emotional ties by socialising, which furt her gives overture to the need to have a separate identity and belonging. Then the Mobilisationist go up suggests that nonhing is predictable or normal about ethnicity.Rather, ethnic identities arrest into sight and are toughened in political contexts where groups struggle to get admission price to inadequate and valued resources (Van Krieken et al, 2000, p. 519). The basis of ethnocentrism is a conscious or unconscious belief that ones ethnic group, culture, religion, custom or behaviour is superior to another ethnic group. Politicians boast that Australia is a multicultural, inconsiderate and consortless society. Despite the well known image of Australias everyone have a fair go, the country is still full of some(prenominal) institutional and popular racism.Education has always been very important when it comes to piteous up in class and has been very liberating in Australian society. However, native and ethnic groups have been somewhat disadvantaged in opportunities to acquire education. consort to the Australian Bureau of Statistics only five autochthonous Australians per 1,000 obtain 3rd qualification, compared to 70-80 per 1,000 for Anglo Australians. In the 1990s welfare, wellness care and education support for Aborigines accounted only to 2% of tally budget outlay (ABS 200021).In order to call for an education a person requires an income, but to get an income one need a job, and a job is challenging to find without an appropriate aim of education. at that placefore an individuals chance of education is influenced by the socio- frugal term of ones parents which is a cyclic social inequality sound to break. Migrants and their children often find it challenging to adjust to the Australian school system as they often come from countries that have a poor education system, and even if they have tertiary qualifications they mostly are not recognised, resulting in them victorious turn down nonrecreational and lower status jobs.Working cl ass children often attend schools in working class suburbs where pupils are enjoin into working-class jobs. A high number of students leave school archaean and the expectation that they will attend university is low. In comparison, upper-class children attend clubby schools, and the expectation that they will attend university is high. Migrants and ethnic groups are often at a lower end of the socioeconomic scale (Aspin, 1996, p. 87) Migrants arrive with little money and few skills.Already at a disadvantage with language barriers, migrants and ethnic groups are to a fault faced with racism and discrimination in their search for employment. In 1996, One Nation political party attracter Pauline Hanson made a speech that claimed that Australia was being overwhelmed by Asians and feared that Asians were taking over jobs. The fact is that Asians at the time only accounted for 5% of total population and there is little evidence to support the claim that high rates of immigration caus e unemployment or cause Australians to lose their jobs (Bessant, 2002, p. 219).Indigenous people had a 24. 3% unemployment rate according to 1996 census (ABS 200023). Indigenous people are usually poorer than most non-indigenous Australians and receive a lower income on average than the total population. The household income for Aborigines in 1994 was $158 compared to $310 for white Australians (ABS 2000C23) This besides reflects the fact the there is a higher reliance by the primaeval population on social security payments (ABS 1996b 122-4) Socioeconomic status is a major determinant of inequality as it influences access an individual has to the economic resources of a society.L. J. Aspin (1996) explains that white Australian-born males have a better chance of obtaining access to the resources of society. Inequality is in addition reflected in the differential access to housing and health services. For people who are paying rent and on a low income, it is almost impossible to sa ve for a deposit on a house at the same time. Aborigines and migrants suffer discrimination in letting accommodation, where landlords preferring a two-parent, white, Anglo-Saxon families. Only 10% of Aborigines own housing compared to 70% of white Australia population (Aspin, 1996, p.87). Most Aborigines live in rural and eclogue Australia (Bessant, 2002, p. 226) far from big cities where there are more jobs, higher paid jobs, better education, better housing, good water and sanitation services, hospital checkup services and other community amenities. Some ethnic backgrounds are still not accepted in our society and are treated differently and unequally. We see and hear about them on a day to day basis. In recent months the Indian community in Australia, especially students have become a vulnerable target for attacks, whether racist or not.On 31 May 2009 in Melbourne, about 5000 students marched through the streets of Melbourne protesting against these attacks on Indian, Pakista ni and Bangladeshi students. 25-year-old Sravan Kumar Theerthala was in a serious condition in intensive care after being stabbed in the head with a screwdriver one week earlier (Bolton & Peterson, 2009). In an article in The come along newspaper on February 19 Victorian police claimed that these attacks are not racially motivated, but opportunistic where Indian students are over representing themselves as victims and can be looked upon as soft targets.The police also hash out them not to speak in their native language loudly or display signs of wealth. Attacks on Indians arent the only allegation Australia has faced over the years. It seems that anyone in power, including police, politicians or the media has had the tendency to somehow flare these attacks. In the trumpeter swan Sun on 11 June 2009, 3AWs Neil Mitchell said Australians are also bashed and die in India, which does not provoke parades of chanting ocker backpackers in the streets of Mumbai.In 2007, the then immigr ation minister Kevin Andrews referred to the Sudanese community when he said Some groups dont seem to be settling and adjusting into the Australian way of life as quickly as we would hope. A quite a little of violent attacks were then unleashed against Sudanese migrants, and one was bashed to death by a group of white men (Bolton & Peterson, 2009). As Australia continues to argue that it is a just, tolerant, open and classless society, there is still evidence of race and inequality among us and affecting the many lives of migrants and Indigenous people.It is interesting to note that the very determinants of class power, money, education, family background, occupation, health and general way of life are also the same factors where others experience inequalities. Race and ethnicity perpetuate inequality, and in any country including Australia, one would find that there are always some people with very strong values of racism, and media outlets which help in manipulating the view s of general public. There still needs to be a massive drive by communities and governments on racism and inequality and it will be long onwards we will be a happy multicultural Australia.Bibliography Aspin, L J 1996, Social stratification and inequality, Focus on Australian society, second edn, Longman, Melbourne. Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, Australian Bureau of Statistics, viewed 28 November 2009, < http//www. abs. gov. au/ >. Bessant, J & Watts, R 2002, Neighbours and nations ethnic identity and multiculturalism, Sociology Australia, 2nd edn, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, NSW. Bolton, S & Peterson, C 2009, Indian students speak Stop the racist attacks , viewed 28 November 2009, < http//www.greenleft. org. au/2009/798/41083>.Economou, N 1998, The Politics of Citizenship identity, ethnicity and race, in Alan Fenna, Introduction to Australian Public Policy, Vol 1, Addison Wesley Longman, Melbourne. Healey, J 2002, Racism Beyond Tolerance, A Fair Go, Racism in Australia, Vol 180, The Spinney Press, Rozelle, NSW. Van Krieken, R, Smith, P, Hobbis, D & McDonald, K 2000, Migration, ethnicity and Australian Aboriginality, Sociology themes and perspectives, 2nd edn, Pearson Education, Frenchs Forest, NSW.

A Reaction on Aliens’ Ownership Right of Real Property in the Philippines Essay

A Reaction on Aliens Ownership Right of Real Property in the FilipinosAng Pilipinas ay para sa mga Pilipino. (The Philippines is for the Filipinos)Does it go bad patriotic or nationalistic? Or does it pertain to selfish motives or mercenary actions?It is a fact that many aliens have been invading to the Philippines. Yes, they ar aliens the non-Philippine nationals or foreigners. Most of them atomic number 18 fascinated and attracted to the beautiful sceneries around the Philippine archipelago. Others also pursue their business c atomic number 18ers in the coun study, they are the investors, and the business orient great deal who wish to put up their capitals and trade whether in a form of sole proprietorship, partnership or corporation.The aliens are granted the expert to acquire a land or real property (immovable property) provided that they ordain consider the provisions chthonic the Philippine Anti-Dummy Law the limitations on certain(p) economic activity including the enj oyment of rights. In line with the Condominium operation of the Philippines, Republic Act 4726, the aliens are given the right to completely sustain a condominium unit but when it comes to project, the corporation must be composed of only 40%foreign investors. On the other hand, under the Investors Lease Act of the Philippines, foreign nationals or corporation whitethorn enter into lease agreement with Filipino landowners for an initial period of cubic decimeter years and a renewable extension of 25 years.As we try to comprehend to the law, it is really pro-Filipino. We noticed that the there are only 40% foreign investors or the stockholders and the 60% come from Filipinos. Its also intelligible that the aliens are prohibited to completely possess lands which are really in accordance to Article XII, Section 7 of the Philippine Constitution.Talking roughlywhat the 40% foreign capitalists and investors, the Philippine government can gain taxes from them which in turn can b e used to accommodate common goodish for the Filipinos.The issue on Priority Development Assistance Fund (PDAF) or prominently called pork barrel barges in. That huge amount of money came from the taxpayers, twain the Philippine nationals and non-Philippine nationals. But due to institutionalized corruption, the money which is intended for the people in the society are being stole by some of the national officials. This is another dilemma that the Philippine government should take into devotion and action.Back to the issue on aliens, the mediocre are skeptical whether the foreigners are given the right to fully own resources in the country or not. This is to clarify that they are not given the full authority they are good given the opportunity to get into the business world which in turn both the aliens the Filipinos can gain something. It does not mean that though they have been advancing to the country, they steal whats ours. There are laws for them to follow, thus, theres no way for us to worry.The law has been already promulgated. all(prenominal) we can do is to deal with it, just no racial deviation, just focus for the common good of all Filipinos.The aliens are striving for their benefits, the uniform way should we act for ourselves. Lets do our part and bewilder to our virtues as we keep burning the Filipino spirit

Monday, January 14, 2019

Educational Psychology Essay

REFLECTION ESSAY ON cultivation EXPERIENCES for didacticsal Psychology Cecille Ann C. Pilapil, MS, MA, CIOP Name of Student KO, KATHERINE Y. Section 2PSY4 I actu whollyy want to be a t separatelyer. Children argon my passion and it has al trend of lifes been my biggest ideate to help them, to impart my knowledge to them, and to be adapted to belowstand and tie to them.In this world that rapidly flip-flops and grows, the role of a t separatelyer proves actu t appear ensembley essential in e precise kidskins process of examine. In the past, I admit that I intaked to take the easy way out in studying I relied immensely on rote memorization to pass my subjects. I would spend hours and hours just memorizing antithetic legal injury and concepts, without truly reasonableness what this or that means.It was non that I didnt veneration round the courses I took, still scarcely if because I wanted to involve high grades and I thought that just memorizing in all(prenominal)thing would sacrifice it easier, but short came to catch that it simply did not. When it came to practical situations, I had a builda hard-fought beat applying myself. I didnt know how to put words into action, and I became quite anxious because if I wanted to be palmy in the future, I had to learn how to adapt.If I wanted to be a instructor, first, I had to appreciate the process of study and understanding. What I re on the whole(prenominal)y loved about my Educ Psych class is that I was able to learn a lot with doing the things I enjoy, bid watching films to help go bad understand antithetical concepts, engaging in group discussions, interacting with my classmates, and just laughing and having fun with each other.As a class, we were taught the set of team work we cash in peerlesss chips as a single unit. This re wholey brought me and my classmates closer to champion another. Educ Psych had really helped us see why it is so substantial for us to know each other and why we should patronage and respect one another all of these argon necessary to compass integrity. Our motto was Do what you say, say what you do, and this has helped us in so many a(prenominal) ways, not only in civilize but withal at theater, and in our relationships with others. This subject did not only give me insight on what it would be like to be a instructor, but I was as healthful able to take a sizable glimpse on how much a teacher stinkpot fling students lives, simply by listening to them, by encouraging them, by put not only academic larn clock time but to a fault quality time with them, and simply, by be their friend and caring for them. another(prenominal) authoritative lesson for me is that being a good student is not at all about looking good in front of your professors and classmates, or receiving high grades. What really defines a good student is how she is able to value the knowledge she obtains inside the c lassroom and applies all those lessons learned in real life.This class has helped me mature in so many ways in relating with my classmates, in relating with my professors, and in relating with myself. This class had pried open my mind and helped me learn how to trust my knowledge with action. schoolingal Psychology Essay principal 1 Education more(prenominal)(prenominal) or less definitely plays a key role in edifice the future of our nation but many pupils argon still deficient the unsoundeds of a basic quality teaching method. The south Afri poop personality represent was passed in 1996 and came into operation on 4 February 1997 26 (Duma, 1995). Chapter 2 of this Act contains the Bill of Rights in which the State guarantees the protection of individuals fundamental rights (Duma, 1995). Section 29 talks about the right to Education (Duma, 1995). This scratch recognizes that every person has a right to basic upbringing and to lucifer access to bringing upal inst itutions (Duma, 1995).It is intelligibly evident though that this has not interpreted dictate because black learners, especially in the rural beas argon not receiving the necessary quality education that they be entitled to. Many schools in the rural beas still lack basic facilities such(prenominal) as trial weewee, toilets, desks and electricity (Seroto, 2004). To worsen the situation some schools are built only of mud (Finnemore, 2009). Many township schools are in a good state of dilapidation, partly due to theft of infrastructure and other forms of malicious mischief (Seroto, 2004).The shortage of classrooms, equipment and other teaching resources is evident in many schools instantly (Finnemore, 2009). Poor school management practices and dysfunctional teacher evaluation are contributory accompanimentors (Finnemore, 2009). The poor state of our school buildings and facilities is reflective of the current figureary crisis (Tedla, 1995). This lack of access to resource s and materials by children in the rural areas leads to inequalities in spite of appearance our education transcription. Children in urban areas and white schools have access to a better quality education than children in the rural black areas.Read also Memory ForgettingThese inequalities today whitethorn be as a conduct of the Bantu education system. There has been inequality of access to education amidst the white and black schools in the past, and the evidence is brought forth when the political un constantness led to the disruptions of schools and centres for political indoctrination, leading to strikes and class boycotts, with the aim of demanding a change in the Black institutions of schooling (Sedibe, 2011). According to teachers in Kwa-Mashu schools the core of all the problems facing schools today was the whole system of Bantu Education (Sedibe, 2011).This implies that what is in brief happening in schools today is the result of years of oppressive education (Sedibe , 2011). Due to in satisfactory and unequal access of resources these schools in rural areas seatnot function effectively (Sedibe, 2011). It is therefore the obligation of the Department of Education to supply adequate resources and bring them available to all schools equally, in order to enhance a culture of teaching and scholarship inside schools (Sedibe, 2011). This is a very important issue that deprivations to be taken seriously if we are talk of the town about investing in the future of our children.This means that rural areas need much more support from government than urban areas do in terms of education. They need to be allocated a fair share of the calculate that will help remedy the bad conditions they are faced with. This potbelly be achieved by providing them with all the necessary learning resources they need, which in morsel will enable them to adequately equip themselves and thus guarantee them a bright future. Another issue that arises in our schools today is having teachers who are either unqualified or under-qualified.This was as a result of the clo incontestable of most mission schools and teacher didactics facilities in 1953 which forced all teacher procreation into racially separated government training colleges, geared to extending the push-down stack base of Bantu Education (Douglas, 2005). Since other professions were closed to them on racial or economic grounds, many pot of colour became teachers by default on (Douglas, 2005). As a result, under-qualified, unqualified and even un-matriculated teachers were employed (Douglas, 2005).Training centres for our teachers today are a sine qua non if we desire to see pupils succeeding and achieving their tendencys. Teachers need to be equipped with the relevant skills and knowledge to carry out their roles take overly and confidently. regimes budget for education involve to set aside funds that will invest in training centres for teachers thus investing in the future and s uccess of our learners, and in turn leading to a healthy, stable and developing nation. Another matter that arises is that of the apartheid system.During the apartheid era black people were discriminated against and this was clearly evident in the area of education. The implementation of Bantu education ensured that the direct of education provided to Africans could be differentiated, with a small urban population obtaining education beyond the primary level, while the majority of the African migrant elbow grease force received only minimal primary education (Mabokela, 2000). steady focusing on the apartheid era, systems and laws were put in place that made sure that black people were excluded from certain opportunities and benefits.For example, apprenticeship training programs designed for development of skills at workplaces were also for many years reserved solely for white persons (Finnemore, 2009). Overcoming the ache shadow of apartheid education is proving a major hurdle t o the development of our nation. In terms of governments budget for education, has there been a ill to equally allocate resources? regimen needs to revisit this budget to restrain sure that it is being fairly and equally distributed, so that every learner can have the opportunity to benefit from it.Governments spending on education has declined over the years (Tedla, 1995). Although many students are found in primary schools, and although this level of education is less expensive than secondary or tertiary levels, the financial support for it has steadily decreased (Tedla, 1995). Formerly sporty education was financed at 185 percent of the national average whereas the education departments of the precedent non- single-handed homelands were funded at 74 percent of the national average and the former independent homelands at 67 percent (Seroto, 2004).This clearly shows funding disparities with regard to the cookery of education for White learners and for Black learners perpetuat ed by the former apartheid government (Seroto, 2004). This apartheid system has had an effect on our education system today. The southeastward African budget also suffers from the effects of apartheid. The economy is still reeling from the economic downfalls of apartheid and there is a major problem in maintaining current levels of spending with the solution being unclear (Education in sec Africa, 2005).All the factors discussed above play a little role in the development of our education system today and unless we make a conscious decision to take the necessary steps to make better these problems, the future of our children cannot be guaranteed. QUESTION 2 In the article provided it is very clear that the conditions for learning are not conducive at all for the students to learn. These conditions instead can lead to the demotivation and discouragement of the students.Some of the negative learning conditions they are exposed to are a tremendous shortage of learning facilities, r esources and materials like desks, chairs, picture books and workbooks. The classroom floors are described by the teacher as a dirt road. This is definitely detrimental to the health and well-being of the learners. The classroom walls are described as raw and bare. We know that children need a stimulating and motivating environment to grow and without things like paintings, drawings and pictures on the walls it becomes very difficult for them to develop.All these conditions that have been described above stand as a barrier to the ability of students to learn. These conditions could lead to the students failure to learn anything, not because they are incapable or incompetent but because of the poor and bad learning conditions they have been exposed to, leading to their failure to bed. For these students who attend school in these conditions, little can be learned, surely, on a day under a leaky roof or with no roof at all (Tedla, 1995). These problems can and do discourage pupil att endance (Tedla, 1995).The authority of the Psychologist The role of the psychologist in such a context would be, first and foremost to understand the nature of each child within this context so that they may be able to assist them. For example, different children will expect and react differently to different situations. Some children may be bouncy to such conditions and view them as opportunities to learn, instead of viewing them as barriers to learning. In such circumstances these children would do whatever it takes to work hard and achieve their goals no matter the circumstances.Other children might end up discouraged, demotivated, depressed, frustrated, stressed and unhappy. It would be the responsibility of the psychologist to find out about the nature of each child by conducting perspicacitys. Assessment of children requires special adaptation of assessment procedures and particular hearing techniques (Holford et al. , 2001). These assessments could include one-on-one sessions with the child. In addition to interviewing children, using developmentally give up language, drawing techniques and imaginative play can elicit valuable nformation (Holford et al. , 2001). This could also include observing each child within the classroom shot and seeing how they react and react within that classroom environment. For any complete assessment of a child, direct observation of activity level, motor skills, oral expression, and vocabulary are also essential (Holford et al. , 2001). Any kind of assessment used by the psychologist should not be complex but rather simplified so that learners are able to understand.Questions must be aboveboard and appropriate for the childs developmental level (Holford et al. , 2001). This in turn will ensure that there is communication between the learner and the psychologist. It will also help to ensure that learners benefit from these sessions. It is also very important that the psychologist understands how the child views the circumstances in his or her environment. Therefore the primary goal of the interviewing technique is to gain the childs own opinion (Holford et al. , 2001).Teachers can also collaborate with the psychologists to help the learners. This is what is referred to as unified collaboration. It can a good deal be useful for the psychologist to speak to the childs teacher(s) as their reports can give valuable supplementary information (Holford et al. , 2001). A standard questionnaire could be given over to the teacher to provide information about the childs learning skills, ability to cope in a group situation, confederate relationships, and relationships with adults in authority (Holford et al. , 2001). Possible Interventions by the PsychologistA key component of Bronfenbrenners model (the ecological systems theory) is the understanding that children are also active participants in their own development, and the environment therefore does not simply impact on the child (Swart & Pettipher, 2005). Childrens perceptions of their context are central to understanding how they interact with their environments (Swart & Pettipher, 2005). The way they perceive their circumstances influences the way they respond to their human and physical contexts (Swart & Pettipher, 2005).The microsystem refers to the activities or interactions in the childs immediate surroundings (Swart & Pettipher, 2005). The mesosystem refers to connections or interrelationships among microsystems of homes, schools, and peer groups (Swart & Pettipher,). The psychologist could use both the microsystem and mesosystem in coming up with different kinds of interventions. For example, the psychologist could include general interventions with parents, teachers or the school itself (Landsberg, 2011).A systemic intervention with parents would involve finding out more about the child in the home environment, how the child interacts with them as parents, how the child interacts with his or h er peers and any other difficulties or problems the child may be experiencing at home. Another intervention could involve parent and teacher workshops (Landsberg, 2011). Parents and teachers could come together to discuss the progress of the children, the problems they are experiencing at home and at school and how parents can support teachers and vice versa, in assisting the children to outdo any obstacles or barriers they may be facing.They could also assist the children in making their learning experience a more pleasurable and successful one. The school itself can also be involved in this intervention, by, for example, shrewd programs and projects (Landsberg, 2011). This could help students in developing their capacity to learn and work together in groups, as well as developing their communication skills within groups. It could also teach them how to love and support one another in such an environment.These interventions used by psychologists should not only focus on the chil drens weaknesses but should also focus on their strengths that can be used to compensate for their areas of weakness (Landsberg, 2011). These interventions should provide the learners with immediate benefits that can be acknowledged, including the identification of social or emotional difficulties, considerations and coping strategies to enhance learning and methods for increasing motivation and interest in affected areas as essential (Landsberg, 2011). QUESTION3In this article, owning a toy is a dream rather than a realism for these children. They desire to have toys but because their parents are unemployed and the school cannot commit to provide them with these toys this is not a reality for them. Having toys should not be seen as a luxury but rather as a necessity for children of this age to grow and develop appropriately. They desire to have desks, chairs, picture books and many more resources. For them without these basic resources they feel they will not be able to realize their goals.They also desire playgrounds, see-saws, pencils, toys and most importantly food. These desires are the kind that any child of school going age would have. Food is one of the very important and basic necessities for anyone to survive, no matter the age. If these children cannot even give way to get a decent meal it becomes very difficult for them to learn anything at school. They also desire water and toilets, which once again are basic necessities of life that one cannot live without. It is a sad fact that at this young age, these children have been denied the opportunity to the basic necessities of life.Pupils dream of computers but they are yet to see one. In this fast-paced technological and world(a) environment, every child should be exposed to a computer and given the basic skills of how to operate one. These children need to be given the opportunity to realize their goals and aspirations in life. At their young age it is difficult to expect them to understand wha t is going on. Therefore teachers, the government, the education department and parents all have a big role to play in the lives of these children in order to make sure that they realize and achieve their dreams.Material conditions definitely need to be ameliorate to enhance the learning of these children but they also need a sanitary support system from both parents and teachers to help them through their learning experience. unrivalled needs to get into the childs world and see things from their perspective (Holford et al. , 2001). In this way they will be able to understand the children and what they are experiencing and thus be able to assist them. It is the responsibility of government to alter the conditions of these impoverished schools so that children can be able to learn and be productive in their learning experience.They also need to provide more learning resources for the children so that they can enhance their ability to learn. Basic facilities such as running water , toilets, desks, chairs and electricity should be made available and slowly accessible for these children. Parents within these communities also need assistance in finding employment or loans to start small businesses so that they too can be able to support their children and contribute to the schools they attend. The risk of children falling maladjusted because they do not have access to clean and healthy water must be reduced.This problem stands as a barrier to achieving their goals and dreams. It is the responsibility of our order, government, parents and teachers to work together in making sure that children overcome these barriers to learning by adequately equipping them in every possible way to realize their goals. All these factors that have been mentioned greatly contribute to the emancipation of these children and unless we all work together to see that these children are emancipated, their future cannot be secured. QUESTION 4A detailed ideal education system within a m ultidisciplinary context that can improve the educational outcomes of children of school going age would be one that firstly offers quality education for all learners. This means that all learners should have equal access to adequate facilities and resources (for example, clean running water, toilets, desks, chairs and electricity) within their school environment regardless of their race (whether they are black or white), regardless of where they live (in the rural or urban areas) and regardless of whether they are disabled or disadvantaged.Secondly, this system should accommodate the different learning styles of different learners within schools. Some learners may need visual material to support them in their learning experience some learners may need learning material to be abject up into smaller amounts other learners may want to see the whole picture before the material is broken up some learners may prefer studying with background medicinal drug others may prefer studying in a quiet place (Swart & Pettipher, 2005 ). This system should make provision for all these different learning styles of learners.This system also needs to move away from the apartheid system that accommodated incline more than anything. Schools now need to embrace the diversity of cultures and languages within our society by finding a way to accommodate each and every learner, no matter their background or culture. At the same time they need to help learners realize the continued importance of developing their slope language skills. This can be done through the use of appropriate reading materials, writing skills and appropriate teaching methodology. Thirdly, this system should be one that accommodates the diversity of learners within our society and community.In this case, teachers need to be given more time to plan their teaching activities to include a diversity of learners (Landsberg, 2011). not only do teachers need to be given more time to plan their teaching activities bu t they also need helpers or special teacher assistants (also called classroom assistants) who can support them in teaching a diversity of learners as well as support from specialized people for advice and guidance (Landsberg, 2011). Teachers also need administrative support as well as adequate learning support materials and assistive devices appropriate for the needs of learners with disabilities (Landsberg, 2011).This system can only be successful in better the educational outcomes of children of school going age if teachers are given all the support they need to deal with the different kinds of learners within the different schools. Government also needs to invest in teachers by sending them to training centers that will adequately equip them with the required skills and knowledge necessary for them to cope in their diverse school environments. REFERENCE LIST Douglas, J. (2005). Transformation of the South African schooling system. Teacher Professionalism and Education Transform ation.Braamfontein The Centre for Education indemnity Development. Duma, M. (1995). Community Involvement in arcadian schools in Pietermaritzburg Area. (Masters Thesis, University of South Africa. ). Education in South Africa. Retrieved October 19, 2005 from www. southafrica. info/ess_info/saglance. education/education. htm Erasmus, BJ, Loedolff, PvZ, Mda, T & Nel, PS. (2009). Managing training and development in South Africa (5th ed. ). Cape Town Oxford. Finnermore, M. (2009). Introduction to compass Relations in South Africa (10th ed. ). Durban Butterworths. Holford, L. Ziervogel, C. & Smith C. (2001). Child and childlike psychiatry. 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