Monday, May 25, 2020

Political Symbolism In George Orwells Animal Farm

George Orwell’s classic emblematic novella â€Å"Animal Farm† is a political satire in which he criticises Josef Stalin and Stalinism. He felt that the Soviet Union, under Stalin, was starting to turn into a dictatorship, and that many people were holding Stalin under high reverence. It is a chilling story that besides symbolizing Russia, also conveys many important messages, one of the major ones being how power can corrupt people. Rather than using humans as characters in his story, Orwell uses different animals of different personalities to symbolize actual historical figures in Russia and their roles. Initially, seduced by the idea of a communist government, the animals worked to drive out their cruel master Mr. Jones. Life without Mr.†¦show more content†¦Instead, Napoleon told them that he would deal with the milk, and sent them to follow Snowball and do the harvest. Later, it was found that the milk was gone when the animals returned. In addition, the ap ples that were supposed to be for all the animals ended up being mixed in with the pigs’ mash only. In explanation for this, Napoleon got Squealer to speak to the animals and tell them that milk and apples contained nutrients that were essential to a pig’s well-being. If the pigs did not get these foodstuffs, Squealer said, then they would be unable to prevent Mr. Jones from taking over the farm again. The animals did not want this to happen at all, so they readily agreed with Squealer. Continually in the story, Squealer continues to make use of this point in order to make the animals agree with him. The animals continued to live life happily, except that there were now several some signs indicative that something bad might occur. Snowball and Napoleon were always found to be in disagreement with each other, even over the most insignificant matters. One issue they argued over was education for all versus education for the young only. Snowball worked to set up reading and writing classes for all the animals, whereas Napoleon took it upon himself to educate the newly born puppies, keeping them in such seclusion that everyone forgot their existence. This was not the most troubling issue though. Their biggest debateShow MoreRelatedAnimal Farm Literary Analysis710 Words   |  3 PagesGeorge Orwell, a writer of many novels and other literature, one of his most known is Animal Farm.This book is where Orwell’s political style as well as other techniques he used in his writing were used most. Animal Farm is about farm animals who are being neglected by their owner, and they deci des to overthrow him and take control of their farm. However, that is only the the outer layer of the story, looking under the surface, this is an allegory detailing the Russian Revolution. The author wroteRead MorePolitics And Language In Animal Farm, By George Orwell720 Words   |  3 PagesGeorge Orwell was a political writer who made it his life’s goal to expose the injustices he saw in the world. He does this through the many novels and essays he writes. Animal Farm, one of his better known pieces, depicts the hardships faced by a group of farm animals in an attempt to claim the farm that had been exploiting them for the entirety of their lives. His fable is written as an allegory to comment on the Russian Revolution and to warn his audience of the corruption that entails power;Read MoreAnimal Farm By George Orwell1397 Words   |  6 PagesAn important quote by the influential author of Animal Farm, George Orwell, is, â€Å"Every line of serious work that I have writ ten since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism.† George Orwell, a Democratic Socialist, wrote the book Animal Farm as an attack on the Communist country of Russia (â€Å"The Political Ideas of George Orwell,† worldsocialism.org). He had a very strong disliking of Communism and the Socialist party of Russia. However, he insisted on finding the truthRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Animal Farm1392 Words   |  6 Pages George Orwell Never Misuses Words In what was a vastly controversial novel published in 1945, George Orwell’s Animal Farm describes the horrific brand of communism in the Soviet Union and the conscious blindness that most of the West accepted at that time. Although Orwell labeled Animal Farm as a fairy tale, this historically parallel novel branches into the genres of political satire, fable, and allegory as well. What made Animal Farm so controversial among the â€Å"British socialists† and WesternRead MoreThe Subtext in Animal Farm by George Orwell740 Words   |  3 Pagesoffensive to compare such terrible historical events to an animal farm, I think this approach interests the reader and makes it more understandable and exciting. My position is that it is more effective to show George Orwells political views through an allegorical fable because this way the story seems less harsh, than if you were to read about what Stalin and Napoleon really did to the world in those weeks. In Animal Farm, George Orwell’s political views are shown in an entirely new light, as he explainsRead MoreHow Has George Orwell Used Animal Farm to Present His View of Human Nature?789 Words   |  4 PagesGeorge Orwell’s Animal Farm is a satirical allegory through which he presents his cynical view of human nature. He uses the animal fable effectively to expose the issues of injustice, exploitation and inequality in human society. Orwell uses the allegory, Animal Farm, to present the story of The Russian Revolution and essentially express his opinions on the matter. By plainly exposing the unjust and corrupt system that is communism, Orwell is ultimately presenting his pessimistic view of humanRead MorePolitical Allegory In Animal Farm, By George Orwell834 Words   |  4 PagesAnimal Farm is another book where the world is changed for the better yet life becomes either no different or worse. In George Orwells novel, â€Å" all animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others†. Animal farm in a short summary is a small farm where the animals plot a rebellion against the humans, which they believe are corrupt. Two pigs, Snowball and Napolean, find themselves becoming the leaders of the animal rebellion. Throughout the story the animals create a communist likeRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell And Animal Farm Essay2095 Words   |  9 PagesSharon Pittman HUM 314 13 December 2016 George Orwell and Animal Farm: The Provocative Written Word in Political Protest INTRODUCTION AND THESIS Many writers, artists, novelists, journalists, and the sort seek to bring awareness to political and cultural issues through their work. It is not often, though, that their work attains such critically acclaimed status and subsequently creates a platform by which people are moved to respond to the writing’s purpose. George Orwell, however, had a knack for thisRead MoreSymbolism and Allegory in Animal Farm1657 Words   |  7 PagesSymbolism and allegory in three aspects of Animal Farm : Old major, The Windmill and The Seven Commandments George Orwell uses symbols throughout the novel Animal Farm to show how the upper class groups use manipulation to their advantage. Animal Farm in simple terms is the allegory of a revolution gone sour. Animalism, Communism, and Fascism are all the symbols which are used by the pigs as a means of satisfying their greed and lust for power. As Lord Acton wrote: Power tends to corrupt; absoluteRead MoreAnimal Farm, By George Orwell1089 Words   |  5 PagesIn George Orwell’s â€Å"Animal Farm†, the pigs as the farm leaders, use unknown language, invoke scare tactics and create specific laws, thereby enabling them to control other animals, to suit their greedy desires, and to perform actions outside their realm of power. Because of the pigs’ use of broad language, and the implementation of these tactics they are able to get away with avoiding laws, and are able to convince other animals into believing untrue stories that are beneficial to the pigs. The first

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Hammerstone The Simplest and Oldest Stone Tool

A hammerstone (or hammer stone) is the archaeological term used for one of the oldest and simplest stone tools humans ever made: a rock used as a prehistoric hammer, to create percussion fractures on another rock. The end result is the creation of sharp-edged stone flakes from the second rock. Those flakes can then be used as ad hoc tools, or reworked into stone tools, depending on the technical skill and knowledge of the prehistoric flint knapper. Using a Hammerstone Hammerstones are typically made from a rounded cobble of medium-grained stone, such as quartzite or granite, weighing between 400 and 1000 grams (14-35 ounces or .8-2.2 pounds). The rock which is being fractured is typically of a finer-grained material, rocks such as flint, chert or obsidian. A right-handed flintknapper holds a hammerstone in her right (dominant) hand and bangs the stone on the flint core in her left, making thin flattish stone flakes come off the core. This process is sometimes called systematic flaking. A related technique called bipolar involves placing the flint core on a flat surface (called an anvil) and then using a hammerstone to smashing the top of the core into the anvils surface. Stones arent the only tool used to turn stone flakes into tools: bone or antler hammers (called batons) were used to complete the fine details. Using a hammerstone is called hard hammer percussion; using bone or antler batons is called soft hammer percussion. And, microscopic evidence of residues on hammerstones indicates that hammerstones were also used to butcher animals, in particular, to break animal bones to get at the marrow. Evidence of Hammerstone Use Archaeologists recognize rocks as hammerstones by the evidence of battering damage, pits and dimples on the original surface. They arent typically long-lived, either: an extensive study on hard hammer flake production (Moore et al. 2016) found that stone hammers used to strike flakes from large stone cobbles cause significant hammerstone attrition after a few blows and eventually they crack into several pieces. Archaeological and paleontological evidence proves that weve been using hammerstones for a very long time. The oldest stone flakes were made by African hominins 3.3 million years ago, and by 2.7 mya (at least), we were using those flakes to butcher animal carcasses (and probably wood-working as well). Technical Difficulty and Human Evolution Hammerstones are tools made not just by humans and our ancestors. Stone hammers are used by wild chimpanzees to crack nuts. When chimps use the same hammerstone more than once, the stones show the same kind of shallow dimpled and pitted surfaces as on human hammerstones. However, the bipolar technique is not used by chimpanzees, and that appears to be restricted to the hominins (humans and their ancestors). Wild chimpanzees do not systematically produce sharp-edged flakes: they can be taught to make flakes but they do not make or use stone-cutting tools in the wild. Hammerstones are part of the earliest identified human technology, called the Oldowan and found in hominin sites in the Ethiopian Rift valley. There, 2.5 million years ago, early hominins used hammerstones to butcher animals and extract marrow. Hammerstones used to deliberately produce flakes for other uses are also in the Oldowan technology, including evidence for the bipolar technique. Research Trends There has not been a lot of scholarly research specifically on hammerstones: most lithic studies are on the process and results of hard-hammer percussion, the flakes and tools made with the hammers. Faisal and colleagues (2010) asked people to make stone flakes using Lower Paleolithic methods (Oldowan and Acheulean) while wearing a data glove and electromagnetic position markers on their skulls. They found that the later Acheulean techniques use more diverse stable and dynamic left-hand grips on hammerstones and fire up different parts of the brain, including areas associated with language. Faisal and colleagues suggest this is evidence of the process of evolution of motor control of the hand-arm system by the Early Stone Age, with additional demands for the cognitive control of action by the Late Acheulean. Sources This article is part of the About.com guide to Stone Tool Categories, and part of the Dictionary of Archaeology Ambrose SH. 2001. Paleolithic Technology and Human Evolution. Science 291(5509):1748-1753. Eren MI, Roos CI, Story BA, von Cramon-Taubadel N, and Lycett SJ. 2014. The role of raw material differences in stone tool shape variation: an experimental assessment. Journal of Archaeological Science 49:472-487. Faisal A, Stout D, Apel J, and Bradley B. 2010. The Manipulative Complexity of Lower Paleolithic Stone Toolmaking. PLoS ONE 5(11):e13718. Hardy BL, Bolus M, and Conard NJ. 2008. Hammer or crescent wrench? Stone-tool form and function in the Aurignacian of southwest Germany. Journal of Human Evolution 54(5):648-662. Moore MW, and Perston Y. 2016. Experimental Insights into the Cognitive Significance of Early Stone Tools. PLoS ONE 11(7):e0158803. Shea JJ. 2007. Lithic archaeology, or, what stone tools can (and cant) tell us about early hominin diets. In: Ungar PS, editor. Evolution of the Human Diet: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Stout D, Hecht E, Khreisheh N, Bradley B, and Chaminade T. 2015. Cognitive Demands of Lower Paleolithic Toolmaking. PLoS ONE 10(4):e0121804. Stout D, Passingham R, Frith C, Apel J, and Chaminade T. 2011. Technology, expertise and social cognition in human evolution. European Journal of Neuroscience 33(7):1328-1338.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Research Paper On To Kill A Mockingbird - 2041 Words

Judicial Process Course Paper For my paper, I have chosen to analyze the movie â€Å"To Kill a Mockingbird.† This movie is based on the novel – by the same name – written by Harper Lee. The story has two major plotlines. One follows Jem, Scout, and Dill as they try to uncover the secrets behind the infamous â€Å"Boo† Radley. It’s only at the end of the movie that we learn â€Å"Boo’s† real name to be Arthur, and that we discover he actually tries to protect people, as he saved Jem and Scout’s lives. The other major plotline, and the one most relevant to this class, follows Atticus Finch, Jem and Scout’s father, as he tries to represent Tom Robinson. Mr. Robinson is an African American man who has been charged with raping Mayella Ewell. The movie then†¦show more content†¦Therefore, this portrayal was fairly accurate. However, we never hear of an initial appearance before the grand jury indictment. This phase is when the defendant appears before a magistrate judge and is informed of the charges against them and the constitutional rights they are afforded. Furthermore, after hearing about the grand jury the movie progresses directly to the trial. This is not an accurate portrayal because it entirely skips the arraignment phase. An arraignment is a very important step in the criminal justice process because it is at this point that the accused will enter a plea. The audience never saw this phase; therefore, we have no idea if Tom formally pleads guilty or not guilty to the charge of rape. However, it can be assumed Tom’s plea would’ve been not guilty as he denies the charges during the actual trial. Also towards the beginning, the judge approaches Atticus and tell him that he’d like to appoint him to be Tom Robinson’s attorney. Such does happen in the actual criminal justice system and is known as an assigned counsel. Not much later, Atticus asks for a postponement of the trial to give things a chance to calm down. This is also very common in the actual criminal justice process and is known as a continuance. Attorneys can ask for a continuance for several reasons, but most often they are used when a case has become largely popular in public opinion. When this happens, theShow MoreRelatedTo Kill a Mockingbird Research Paper1455 Words   |  6 PagesMoral Development of Scout in To Kill a Mockingbird Grace Mahoney Majewski 6/8/2012 Moral Development of Scout in To Kill a Mockingbird * Scout’s moral development throughout To Kill a Mockingbird has to do with how she is taught to see â€Å"the other†, her exposure to racism and injustice, and that she had Atticus as a parent to guide her through her childhood. These factors together create a stable learning environment for Scout to grow and develop in. Scouts relationship with the constantRead MoreRole Of Women During The 1930 S South And The Women 1156 Words   |  5 PagesRole of Women in the 1930’s South And the Women in To Kill a Mockingbird How would you feel if you were a woman that lived in the harsh 1930’s? A woman’s life was very hard, and some people wanted it to change in real life and the book. Scout and the married women in To Kill a Mockingbird are pushed by the men to work hard everywhere without a reward. Women had many responsibilities at home and also when they were working. Women were expected to be a housewife and working parent. Women believedRead MoreAnalysis Of More Than One Way1317 Words   |  6 PagesOleynik Mrs. Coad Honors Sophomore English March 19, 2015 Reevaluating the Mockingbird When one embarks on reading Jennifer Murray’s article, â€Å"More Than One Way to (Mis)Read a Mockingbird†, it becomes known that she is taking her readers through a thorough reanalysis of the novel To Kill a Mockingbird. Murray proclaims that Harper Lee’s novel is somewhat misunderstood and over appreciated. She claims that â€Å"To Kill a Mockingbird, despite its awards and popularity, is a less than great novel†, and insteadRead MoreHarper Lee Essay896 Words   |  4 PagesTimes and Life Research Paper Harper Lee’s Life Story Have you ever wondered who wrote â€Å"To Kill a Mockingbird† or who is the author that wrote it? Well I’m here telling you who that author is. The author who made the book is named Nelle Harper Lee but she is just called Harper Lee on the book. This paper is on Harper Lee’s life and times during the 1900’s. She is known from her best-selling book, â€Å"To Kill a Mockingbird†. Even thoughRead MoreRacial Issues In Harper Lees To Kill A Mockingbird775 Words   |  4 PagesTo Kill a Mockingbird Research Paper In To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee highlights racial profiling and how peoples perceptions change their actions towards others, which continues to be an issue in todays society. One racial issue we see during To Kill a Mockingbird is social injustice in the court system, shown through the Tom Robinson trial. For example, Jem doesnt quite understand the unfortunate, but true state of the injustice in the courts, so Atticus explains to him, Tom RobinsonsRead MoreCensorship Of Classic Books1325 Words   |  6 PagesTitle: Research Paper Censorship of Classic Novels in Canada and the United States Ashley Sprague 7607211 College Reading and Writing Skills/ COMM1085 Dawn Grimmer Many novelists in today’s society have the growing responsibility of censoring their work, ultimately loosing their freedom of expression. Canada is no different from other countries who have begun the long list of â€Å"banned and challenged classic novels.† Most of the Canadian population can remember studying Harper Lee’s ToRead MoreAnalysing Harper Lee and his Characters in To Kill a Mockingbird713 Words   |  3 PagesAlabama Academy of Honor Archives, Nelle Harper Lee was born on April 28, 1926 in Monroeville, Alabama to Amasa Coleman and Frances Finch Lee. In the south, it is customary to be called by your middle name. Therefore, throughout the rest of this paper, Nelle Harper Lee will be referred to as Harper Lee. Harper Lee went to college to become a lawyer. Shortly thereafter, she moved to New York where she worked as a reservations clerk for Eastern Airlines. Harper Lee was an avid writer who likedRead MoreTo Kill a Mockingbird Argumentative Essay881 Words   |  4 PagesTom Robinson, a black man in To Kill a Mockingbird is one of the main characters in this story that causes controversy because of his skin color. Is the story’s relevance based on Mr. Robinson and his skin color? In my opinion yes, the book revolves all around his skin color and racism of the time. Tom Robinson is treated unfairly because he was black not because of what he supposedly did. The controversial subject matter in this book is immense in numbers, but out of all them, racism stands outRead MoreLiterature : My Life As A Person s Life1104 Words   |  5 PagesLiteracy Memories What do you think of when you hear the word literature? Most people think that literature is just analyzing poems that have no real meaning behind them or writing a 10 page paper that your English teacher assigns you to do in one night. But recently I have learned that literature plays one of the biggest roles in a person s life. You use reading and writing every single day. Reading texts, reading signs, writing emails, and the music that you listen to are all examples of literatureRead MoreLiterature As A Person s Life Essay1081 Words   |  5 Pagesschool I was moving into the big middle school. The first class of the day that I had was English with Mrs. Levon. In this class she did a lot of reading out loud to the class. The first book we read was To Kill a Mockingbird. This was the first historical book I had ever read. To Kill a Mockingbird was a very important book in my life that gave me a view on how hard times were during segregation and times before the civil war. Also in this class we read many old poems such as â€Å"The Raven†. This was

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Ages of Faith, Reason, and Romantics Essay - 880 Words

Ages of Faith, Reason, and Romantics Works Cited Missing The first three time periods in American literature had distinguishing characteristics in their subject matter and writing styles. Puritans wrote about their religious beliefs and daily life during the Age of Faith. During the Age of Reason, the Revolutionary War was going on and much of the writings were political documents as a result of the war. The Age of Romantics brought about the first fictional writings. The three time periods, which have unique characteristics in their subject matter and writing styles, were the Age of Faith, Age of Reason, and Age of Romantics. During the Age of Faith, the subject matter and writing styles were unusual. Puritans wrote about their†¦show more content†¦While the Revolutionary War was going on, so was the Age of Reason in American literature. During the Revolutionary War, the future citizens of the United States were divided on whether or not to fight the British. Political pamphlets were given out to get the American people to support fighting the British and once most of America agreed to fight the British the decision still had to be made by the president and delegates at the Virginia Convention of 1775. Patrick Henry, a representative at this convention, persuaded the delegates to fight the British in his very famous speech at the convention. In his speech, he used passionate words and phrases such as the most famous, give me liberty, or give me death? (Henry 90). Soon after his speech, the first battle of the Revolutionary War was fought in Lexington, Massachusetts. The writers of this age also w rote autobiographies and essays. In the essay ?Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America? by Benjamin Franklin, Franklin examines the word ?savages? and what it really means. He subtly criticizes the settlers who refer to the Native Americans as ?savages? and points out that the Native Americans are less savage than the settlers. The Revolutionary War not only brought about the independence of our country, but also encouraged free expression. After the turmoil of the Revolution, the people needed to relax and forget about their worries. The writers of the Age of Romantics knew this and for the first time inShow MoreRelatedThere have been many movements in Romantic Literature, Romanticism being one. Despite the idea that600 Words   |  3 Pages There have been many movements in Romantic Literature, Romanticism being one. Despite the idea that romanticism is an outdated literary form, romantic literature is very important to English Literature; no other period in English Literature shows the type of style, theme, or contain information like how the Romantic movement was. Romanticism was virtually around in every country of the US, Europe, Latin America and it lasted from 1750-1870. Romanticism gave a rise to a new type of literature itRead MoreEssay on Romanticism In Literature512 Words   |  3 PagesDifferent from the classical ways of Neoclassical Age(1660-1798), it relied on imagination, idealization of nature and freedom of thought and expression.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Two men who influenced the era with their writings were William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, both English poets of the time. Their edition of â€Å"Lyrical Ballads;, stressed the importance of feeling and imagination. Thus in romantic Literature the code was imagination over reason, emotion over logic, and finally intuition overRead MoreRomanticism in Young Goodman Brown Essay851 Words   |  4 Pagesbefore, would have been at the very least frowned upon if not outright rejected. The short story, Young Goodman Brown by Nathaniel Hawthorne is an example of a romantic work because it showcases the individual over society, exalts emotion and intuition over reason, and keeps a strong focus on nature throughout the story. A romantic work focuses on the individual and his inner struggles as well as his external conflict. Young Goodman Brown accomplished this through the title character whoseRead MoreRelationship Between Relationships And Relationships1236 Words   |  5 PagesIn this paper I will be discussing romantic relationship, but first I feel we need to go over what a relationship is in the first place to see the difference between the two. Then I will define what I think a romantic relationship is. There are many different ways that someone could define relationship, but according to the Bella DePaulo from psychology today the definition for relationship is something that â€Å"covers all sorts of human connections, including ties to friends, parents, children, siblingsRead MoreTop Ten1569 Words   |  7 PagesRomanic Ages produced numerous masterpieces in art, music, architecture, and literature which people still enjoy today. These opus magnums along with the philosophies during the two p eriods are reflections of the developments in world events and cultural patterns. This paper will present two pieces of art, music, architecture, literature, and philosophy from the Enlightenment and Romanic Ages that best represents the developments patterns from that time. Philosophy in the Enlightenment Age focusedRead MoreEssay about Dover Beach by Matthew Arnold1509 Words   |  7 PagesMatthew Arnold around 1851 while one his honeymoon, Dover Beach is a dramatic monologue addressed to his wife, Frances Wightman, and â€Å"any woman listening to the observations of any man† (Cummings); during this time, the world had just come out of the Romantic era and was entering the era of the industrial revolution. New inventions in technology were changing the world and science such as biology and astronomy were challenging long held beliefs of the church and by the church. The church which was goingRead MoreRomanticism was developed in the late 18th century and supported a shift from faith in reason to800 Words   |  4 PagesRomanticism was developed in the late 18th century and supported a shift from faith in reason to faith in the senses, feelings and imagination. It emerged as a reaction against â€Å"The Age of Enlightenment†, which had emphasized reason and logic. Many Romantic poets and writers sought solace and peace in nature, and they also recognized the power of nature and its effect on men. Therefore, the glory and beauty of nature and the power of the natural world was accentuated commonly. The topic â€Å"nature†Read MorePoem Analysis : The Little Black Boy 1296 Words   |  6 PagesRomantic Essay –Emma Chen Through their poetry ,Romantic writers seek to reflect their way of thinking about the world .Two of such poets are William Wordworth and William Blake ,communicating their world and their way of viewing it through use of clever language techniques and double meanings . William Wordsworth tells of his view on the path mankind has chosen, the preciousness of life ,whilst illustrating the overwhelming beauty and power of nature through his poem ‘Lines written in early spring’Read MoreThe Neoclassical and Romantic Periods1114 Words   |  5 PagesThe Neoclassical and Romantic Periods Neoclassical Period The Neoclassical age was a time of strict laws of balance and restraint. The Enlightenment or the Age of Reason, are names given to the predominant intellectual movement of the eighteenth century. The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement among the upper and middle class elites. It involved a new world view which explained the world and looked for answers in terms of reason rather than faith, and in terms of an optimistic, natural,Read MoreThe Massacre At Chios, And Percy Bysshe Shelley s Alastor Or The Spirit Of Solitude1633 Words   |  7 PagesAlthough various thinkers and artists from the Romantic era utilized unique approaches within the spectrum of their work, historians have grouped many viewpoints as being part of a category called the â€Å"Romantics.† The artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement known as the Romantic era began in 18th century Europe and ended in the mid 19th century (Day, 1996). Romantic art uniquely places a large emphasis on emot ional content, the individual, and in celebrating the past and the ways in

An Analysis Of Edgar Allen Poes Maelzels Chess Player

In 1836, Edgar Allen Poe wrote an essay entitled, â€Å"Maelzel s Chess-Player† in The Southern Literary Messenger. The topic of the essay was about a chess-playing machine. The machine consisted of a cabinet of tightly packed machinery. Over the top of the cabinet was a chessboard whose pieces were moved by a mechanical human figure whose arm made the movements. Poe argued that the machine was a fraud and that there was a man inside the cabinet making the moves. Turns out, he was right. His thesis was that in principle no machine could ever play chess. He argued that they could perform mathematical calculations but that there is an unbridgeable gap between playing chess and performing calculations. Computers follow a fixed mathematical or algebraic series. Even though there are typically 30 moves that could be made during any given turn, a computer necessarily follows one. A human doesn t proceed by logical necessity; a human chooses their moves. On May 11, 1977, Deep Blue, a n IBM computer, defeated Garry Kasparov, the world champion, in a six game match. Speaking of one of the moves made by Deep Blue, Kasparov said, â€Å"it was a wonderful and extremely human move. . . . I had played a lot of computers but I had never experienced anything like this. I could feel—I could smell—a new kind of intelligence across the table. Introduction of Topic: Today I will discuss with you functionalist philosophy in relation to artificial intelligence, what it meant in the past, what it means

Poe vs Hemingway Essay Example For Students

Poe vs Hemingway Essay Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849) and Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) were both controversial and intriguing writers of their times. People in their time were hesitant about their works. For the most part, their works were considered out there by the majority. Their non-Christian beliefs were not only reflected in their lives, but also in their works. Poe s life could be considered extremely tragic. When he was one year old, his father left his family. About one year later, his mother died from tuberculosis. He was then adopted by a wealthy family who lived in Richmond, Virginia. For a while, his life began to get better; he studied at the University of Virginia. After only one term there, he was forced to drop out because of his gambling problem. He joined the army for a short time. In 1835, he married Virginia Clemm, his thirteen-year old cousin. Hemingway was born and raised in a thriving Chicago suburb. He was a considered a modern man of his time; he enjoyed fishing, hunting, boxing, and football. He wanted to join the army, but he was turned down because of an injury. Still seeking life overseas, he joined the Red Cross in 1918 and left for Italy. Later he married Hadley Richardson, the first of his four wives. Poe s and Hemingway s lives were both very much alike. They became alcoholics and struggled with this problem until the end of their lives. They also both participated in indulgent lifestyles; they lived simply to please themselves. Poe wrote Tamerlane and other poems that were not widely recognized. As time past, his writings eventually did become popular. One of his most famous poems was The Raven. Hemingway was a reporter for the Kansas City Star and the Toronto Daily Star. Some of his many works are: Farewell to Arms, In Our Time, The Sun Also Rises, and The Old Man and the Sea. Two years after the death of Poe s wife, he engaged Mrs. Sheldon. On his way back to Baltimore, he stopped in Richmond. He fell into a coma and was found lying in a gutter; he died a few days later. Hemingway s lifestyle also caught up to him, and his last seven years were extremely difficult. He committed suicide on July 2, 1961. Poe wrote in the era of transcendental pessimism, but was actually a weakened version of a transcendental optimist. His effect on American people was to raise their consciousness of the American public in literature. His stories were not just intriguing, but also entertaining. Hemingway s works were controversial. He focused on developing theme. He used short sentences, which allowed him to have a range in audience. Poe and Hemingway are great writers in our American history. Their writings are entertaining, but one must not rely on the beliefs in these works.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Beowulf and Odysseus the Unlikeliest of Heroes free essay sample

A compare and contrast analysis of Beowulf and Odysseus two heroes from different eras. This paper considers the similarities and differences shown between the Greek Hero Odysseus in Homers Odyssey and the Northern Hero Beowulf in the saga Beowulf, discussing how either can be heroes and arguing in some ways that it is more than deeds that marks a hero, but also the way in which they behave and relate to others. In the Odyssey we see Odysseus as a complex character and in may way as contrast who is both similar and different to that of his counterpart Beowulf.. However we can argue that the way in which they were brought up had an impact on their characters, and that the absence of any real documented evidence of the truth we cannot have a clear precise detail of what may have influenced either at the time of the sagas being spoken or their deeds being carried out. We will write a custom essay sample on Beowulf and Odysseus the Unlikeliest of Heroes or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page