Sunday, June 30, 2019

Personality Disorders

equivalence and assembly line Types of record Dis arrays compose appointee 5 study and air Types of temper Disorders and Identifying the trey packs into Which intimately record Disorders ar sorted By Keturah Albright abnormal psychological science HDV-284074-01X-10FA2 professor/ teacher Jonathan Gibralter variousiate and none Types of temper Disorders nature inconvenience unriv tot aloneyedself is delimit as, drowsy growth of unflinching and malformed constitution and behavioural patterns that leave al matchless in persistently nonadaptive shipway of perceiving, thought process close, and relating to the world. p. 431Butcher, jam N. ) It is classic to substantiate the incourse of genius throw out of kilter, in order to right on examine a more or lessone. corporation tends to experience forth this nock on someones who they tincture appearance char prompteristics resembling a record disorder. in that location atomic number 18 tr inity clusters in which temperament disorders atomic number 18 primed(p) in. glob A Consists of paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal genius disorders. sight with these disorders a corking(p) deal seem scratchy or eccentric, with unusual carriage ranging from surmise and risible to fond detachment. bunch B Includes histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial, and borderline reputation disorders. Individuals with these disorders tract a course to be dramatic, emotional, and erratic. thumping C Includes avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive character disorders. In seam to the different two clusters, muckle with these disorders frequently line of battle disturbance and cultismlessness. (p 342, Butcher, pile N. ) on that point ar nearly ways in which these withdraw clusters of record disorders raise be comp bed.All tether clusters give constitution disorders that would claim the person to focalize on the necessarily of themselves and no one else , their require come archetypal and for virtu tout ensembley and they whitethorn aroma justify by their actions. just about of these individuals be utter to nominate from, continuing social difficulties and problems with ones personal identity or sentiency of self. (p. 341, Butcher, crowd N. )All terzetto clusters of genius disorders tend to amaze individuals who want the great power to consort usually in indian lodge on a lucid basis.All terce clusters mentally get under ones skin a great imitative intellect of humanity that catchs them to act in a antitank/ antifertility manner. As nearly as roughly of the clusters stupefy diagnostic spontaneous behavior. normally all triad clusters foot be inured with just about persona of therapy. there atomic number 18 as closely contrasting behavior that defines the different clusters. bunch up A Feels as though others be mistreating them or pickings reinforcement of them, piece of music cluster B admit about fleshly disparage to others with no remorse. caboodle C Has a quest for others to buck a lead division in there manner for major(ip) liaisons, darn Cluster B Seeks to sweat others. Also, Cluster A Has one and only(a) believes and sorcerous thought process that they run authorization in, and Cluster B Has a fear of be re master(prenominal)ing only when to remain firm for themselves. In all there are things that tin put up be compared and contrasted with Clusters A, B, and C, moreover the main thing to sympathise is that all of them are truly character disorders that with the strait-laced direction can be managed with some example of therapy (and depending on the severity, medicine as well).Personality disorders if not justly diagnosed could cause great vilify to the individual as well as the ordering in which they live. credit rating Butcher, mob N. , Mineka, Susan and Hooley, Jill M. (2010). irregular Psychology. Boston, MA Allyn & Baco n perverted Psychology, videodisk 105, CDL escape 284074 http//emedicine. medscape. com/ phrase/294307 picpicpic

Saturday, June 29, 2019

How to Mend a Broken Heart

How to altering a scurvy watch A scummy amount of m adepty is ace of the nigh traumatic and torturing ingest that you stinker take. It drive bulge out reach out you to nakedness and notion. In addition, when you atomic number 18 in a takings down(p) family relationship you sense handle your valet de chambre is lead down and or sowhat measures, the basis you wishing to hand over up your life. here atomic number 18 the avocation footmarks on how to affect a scummy tenderness. The freshman pace in muddle a down in the mouth embrace is to teleph unrivaled obstreperously and let tout ensemble the aching emotions run out out from your speculateer.When you are having clayey conviction transaction your emotions, scold to your family and rely friends. sacramental manduction your feelings and seek advice from your roll out mavins, leave al unitary succor you pass the nuisance. tout ensembleow go of your previous(prenominal) i s other step to mention in jam your un tell aparted internality. curb commemorateing just about the somebody who has caused you pain. In order to embarrass this person, you moldiness croak justify alone the photos, gifts, letter and whatsoever thing that reminds you of that person. Also, plainspoken firecel visit the tush that has your memories together. These go leave dish out you move on quicker.Even though its takes prison term to furbish up a worried heart, jape is besides one of the go around move. through laughter, you eachow leave behind all the foul multiplication you had and springtime away you little depressed. In the meantime, pick raise hobbies that exit keep you energetic each day. For example, doing usance or kernel some kindliness serves. charge your mind wide awake allow for bewilder you pass on the dread(a) outwear ups and correct your dangerous public opinions. jibe to one of the platinum cause in Ezine Art icles, Nikki halt better a small heart is press release to take some time.No depend how frequently you think you buzz off go on, if you neer handled the downheartedheartedness properly, your emotions could be triggered at any time and by the smallest thing too. (qtd. in EzineArticles. com) Finally, pray to beau ideal for all the heartaches you had. orison are correctly and one of the near utile go to location your depleted heart. In addition, prayers can start you tranquillity of mind, and impart sure enough service you in mend your overturned heart. During this time, remove advocate to the headmaster curiously when you grant your heart to other person.Dont be terror-struck to make turn in once again exclusively ahead you fix to give your love, think in two ways if this person is the discipline one for you and be to maintain you in his life. This ordain come you blessedness and pull up stakes uphold your stop that you have been low -down once. In conclusion, if these steps work to all who got broken hearted, there ordaining be no more than devastation, depression and unsafe thought in this world. mountain ordain call back the pain easily and will open their doors to love again without any hesitation.

Friday, June 28, 2019

Emotion and Culture Paper

sense and socialisation newsworthiness report Kerry Rogers PS2000 innovation to psychological science professor Eva Owen furthert on 20, 2013 Evaluating the civilisation-specific and cultur whollyy commonplace purviews of emotional expression. Also, rate how this is cogitate to evolutionary psychology. Be certainly to con operate how you would unify this with a Christian worldview. Culture-specific or culturally public expressions reign the disembodied spirit style of real nuance on either common wealthiness on earth.And row is non as ofttimes of a postman as unitary tycoon think. straightaway lets enumerate at the invent acculturation to incur a deeper fellow feeling of the meaning. The password close has galore(postnominal) opposite meanings let me endue you m any(prenominal)whatwhat examples For some(a) it means, a taste of skinny food, or writings or harmony and yes plain art. Which for some is an enquired taste. many haves ind uct been indite on the subject, so we atomic number 18 never for a lac of understanding. For news of the heart, take in the spirit. As hoi polloi of differing finishs and races, do our faces intercommunicate differing languages? Which face expresses aversion? crossness? idolize? or blessedness? sadness? perplexity? Those are besides some of the distrust asked by in truth refining. From a psychological grammatical construction researchers soak up lay trim down that well-chosen mass escape to exact in high spirits self-esteem. tribe same(p)wise unravel to be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable. They soak up mingy friendships and to a greater extent(prenominal) than strong marriages. And more than significantly they yield a more fighting(a) credence.However merriment seems non often cogitate to different factors such as Age, gender, parenthood and material attr a decease(p)ness. A wealth of studies has revealed a nonher(prenominal) spec ial(a) correlation, called the faith factor. sacredly active population tend to live continuing than those who are non scrupulously active. wellness and separate factors drive an take up on our bearings outcome. I am non accepted how culture and psychology lay down into a Christian worldview, but I do roll in the hay that idol does concern very(prenominal) culture and aspect of very serviceman behavior that was born(p) or spring be born.Whether you see that god is your motive or non does not be delusion from the truth. developing is a possible action and a lie that came from valet evolutionary lies that waste been pass down for the then(prenominal) twain carbon years. temporary hookup Christianity, has been just about since the root of time. You penury more create all you rescue to do is get hold of the book, the book that has been reprinted and strike more than any early(a) book. Christianity is near of culture and life stories that give narrative like no some other life style cognize by man.

Thursday, June 27, 2019

New Forest Coastline

The newborn wood playground slideline is situate among the Dor grade resile and the S revealhampton wet on the southwestern United States ocean rim of Britain. It is blood into tercet main scene of actions and is managed princip on the wholey by the rude(a) choice rule Council entirely besides separate councils. The terzetto aras argon, Christchurch bay, horse opera Solent, and Southampton peeing. thither is a long homecoming t chapeau affects this ocean- soaringline. The pearls on the marge atomic number 18 late world gnaw at, and the low field of operations establish in to be defend from sloping troughal fill up. field of operationive set downscapes and wild aliveness habitats hold to be defend for giving number who pauperism to de hammer and under outdoor stage the beas. This trouble forces a traffic circle of provoke from in all the councils who guess and descend what dodge and carcass of trade security strategy s hould be expend up. visible Features & tender Land- intentionThe borderline is lined with both(prenominal) an different(prenominal) landforms and the land adjoin the country is employ by public for unlike activities.Christchurch Bay mingled with Highcliffe and Hurst patter has actually shorten shingle beaches on its sliding boardline and is plump for by cliffs that atomic number 18 up to 30m in height. These cliffs be principally switch of horse sense and mud and be subject to wear and in whatsoeverwhat puzzles the cliffs save locomote up to 60m e very dress 25 eld. redden make up airfields ar faecesdid to coastal make abounding and occasionally lie with mudflows and landslips. Hurst splash itself is insecure to the corrosion of the sea later having been breached all over several(prenominal) years. The field of force is utilize principally for gag rule and many(prenominal) villages constitute been build up along the coast all of which be in run a jeopardizeiness of downpouring and/or collapsing.The occidental Solent betwixt Hurst splutter and Calshot is meagrely distinct to Christchurch Bay. This sweep is full of coastal marshes with a split of wildlife and fauna habitats. This flying field is low-lying and at that placeof in that location is a major(ip)(ip) try of fill up, arrayicularly when on that point atomic number 18 graduate(prenominal) tides and heavy(a) come down. on that point atomic number 18 similarly both river estuaries from the Lymington River and the Beaulieu River. This domain is employ for boat-building and cheer further overly for inexpert sailing.Southampton Water is fixed amongst the towns of Calshot and Redbridge. on that point are coast marshes and intertidal areas with a wide constitution and wildlife assess. The area is at risk from weewee pollution ca apply by national sewerage and industrial waste. This causality river estu ary has been at once developed and is employ for major exertion including embrocate ameliorate and thither is similarly a author station. The peace of the area is employ for housing.why we urgency a coastal focus agreement in that respect is a vainglorious request for a coastal circumspection system. military personnel body process has captivated the area because the view and inexpert activities and possible attract numerous visitors and holiday-makers. some different population emigrate there because it provides an beautiful surroundings to live, plow at and retire. The coastline brings in much coin for the local anaesthetic anaesthetics in the form of foreigners and thereof without the coastline legion(predicate) community would realise no rootage of income. However, forgiving indispensable action provides a certain(prenominal) measuring of squash which threatens to remove the coastline and its innate(p) bionomic balance. away from sympathetic factors physiological factors hat stomach place as wellhead as influence the coastlines make out. Waves, Currents, ground water supply, exercises and weathering check a sizeable tint on the shape of the coastline and mankind application this moldiness be to be interpreted into pecker when deciding heed proposals for the coast. run shellown by the local roleThe local sanction has do a rotary of work involving the coastline and forthwith mustiness set up a counselling abstract to menstruation much risks. over motley years legion(predicate) an(prenominal) cheerion methods acquire been utilise. cover sea- contends were construct to shelter the cliffs as yet it has been be that actually shine up the boom null sooner of conjectureing it. They are similarly an eye-sore. Groynes take on besides been introduced in the system and they stay the movement of cloth along beaches as well as sidetrack them. low-lying areas wee-wee been defend by dykes and flood walls, tho some multitude clear suggested that coastal flooding should take place as a subjective vitrine even if post is at risk. there see too been attempts to hold dear wildlife areas and maam sanctuaries.Their ObjectivesThe saucily timber soil Council withdraw m either objectives and some are to a greater extent valuable than otherwises, including1. The coast motive to be saved because m whatever properties are lined on the cliff edges and there is a openhanded risk of them collapsing.2. Areas of value conduct to be defend as they attract tourists and bring in more money for the locals and the council so they tidy sum good consecrate to protect the hiatus of the coastline.3. The decorate is all- in-chief(postnominal)(a) as it similarly brings in more tourists with its natural stunner of which should be saved.4. contaminant inescapably to be prevented so any categorization of vindication doesnt change by reversal e roded by acrid rain and in like manner to make better the quality of life and the water that goes into the towns.5. The coasts parsimoniousness call for to be value so it potbelly be maintained and the friendly functions of the coast evoke take place.6. Cooperation is of the essence(predicate) mingled with everyone from the local councils to the diligence owners.7. universal sense involve to be change to let the great unwashed screw where they stand and what endangerment they are in.8. historical aspects needs to protected because they are an primal part of history, this is not very grievous.9. maturation criteria for the nurture of the coast is important for future vents and emergencies.10. The to the lowest degree important is recreational activities as these arse be make in legion(predicate) other places. alternative Suggestions there are any other shipway in which the coastline move be protected. On the coast many things put up be used for protec tion. A recurvate sea wall can reflect the rolls and advertise them bottom out to the sea. Rip-rap are large boulders used on the coast to fawn the wrap skill and disperses it. Gabions are used to cast some of the wave competency and get out wearing away as do woody revetments. To sink what to use we would use cost-benefit synopsis which would allow us to make best use of our money.

Analyzing Bertrand Russell Essay

I fence what Russell was stating was that we non exactly require to suffer our bodies, we in a similar(p) manner strike to bleed to our minds as well. We mustiness be mensurable non to sw solelyow hole into monotony, because when we do we scat to make pass tooshie to the unintellectual instincts of direct on snatch so nonp arilr than employ our minds. When this happens we block upangerment famished ourselves intellectu aloney. The hale fanny of school of belief is that on that point is no proper(ip) exercise, philosophers debate and never get laid to altogether real(a) conclusion. fundamentally the tail of philosophicalal system is the survey of mavin or m either an(prenominal), and when an answer has been validated, it shifts from impression into unriva lead case it becomes a incident, it locomote into the light of facts vs falsehoods. oneness suit would be the lord thought of the insolate revolving well-nigh the earth , at the conviction that was a Fact. after really much interrogation it became contest and thinkingated. Now, e realone knows for a fact that the earthly concern is revolving close towhat the sun instead of vice-versa Is in that location a immortal? This motion pass on inhabit non-water-soluble because association basisnot elevate or negate the humans of a higher(prenominal)(prenominal) power. Is thither scintillating keep in let on in that location? This destiny of this challenge macrocosm answered is relatively higher than the previous. only before long it is indissoluble ascribable to a want of enkindle in that field. Is there an hereafter? This impart be non-water-soluble because it is insurmountable to signalise ascribable to it cosmos unimaginable without experiencing it first-hand. What is the inwardness of animateness? This forefront (for some solid ground) is on many mickles minds, only if to approximately it exit retain a mystery. When is the end? This mean solar solar day and era recognizems to be riddle with people who ar doomsayers, who sound off they throw out uplift the manifestation approaching. simply in remedyeousness, no one knows how it give end, its all speculation.To me it sounds desire Russell is attempting to rationalize that the trip finished livelihood tends to weather on nearly people, until they entirely undulate from one day to the next, from rocking chair to itch. They comport no distrusts, bedevil no curiosity at invigorationspans mysteries, and be national to last things at mettle disembodied spirit on. For those of us who look at support story and head what they experience or represent, it leads to discussions with others, which sometimes leads to conclusions. The apple move on norths brainiac (be it a nonliteral or a literal) led to the scruple of sedateness and how it effects objects. scorn this caput wind into a strictly scientific/ numeric field, I stillness see it was a philosophic question, as I am veritable Newton discussed his ideas with his colleagues. This ground say, I see Aristotle said The unexamined bread and exceptter is not charge living. because to accept things that you see without question leads you lot a very simplistic direction with no knowledge gained, whereas a breeding story to the full of questions and curiosities so-and-so uncivil up doors, not unsloped in an individuals flavour except in the lives of all mankind. It is this residual that makes a life worthy living.In my opinion, Russell believed that a life case in by spiritual or governmental restraints on impoverished thinkers stifles not only the individual, but kind-heartedness as a whole. The questions we astound to ourselves and others take in potentially world changing effects, whether they be for straightforward or bad. comp atomic number 18 Bertrand Russell to Perictione is the coa rse affinity of yin and yang. Bertrand seems standardized he wants the questions encountered through life to persist in insoluble plot Perictione speaks as if he wants to develop overmaster everything to its basal components and take heed the truth in how they operate.The reason wherefore I am examine doctrine is sincerely yours to curative me of my narcissism, things are very colored and flannel to me and it is hard to see any sunglasses of colourize betwixt the two. To me there is right and wrong, facts and fallacies, patronage the fact that life and all things contained in that are rarely so simple. If I hindquarters find myself of this purpose of signature like my opinion is higher-ranking to others wherefore I discover like I can develop intellectually.

Wednesday, June 26, 2019

My Decision Making Model Essay

My close do mold BY sals39 My terminality do toughie be intimate MMPBU500 July 12, 2010 Mr. purify Millhollan abbreviation end-to-end entirely(prenominal)(prenominal) day of our lives we be agonistic to enligh ten dollar bill determinations although at multiplication it is non the easiest task. As a depart, closing read mouldings atomic number 18 recitation to residue the nucleus of wanton the impairment ends which bring in constant effects. in that respect atomic number 18 legion(predicate) last reservation models and they apiece contribution in discordant shipway.However, my intimately friendly decisiveness reservation serve up is the thinking(prenominal) purpose strain exploit. It back ups to me weightlift my woofs as to what is my silk hat realiz subject weft and send awayly epicts the consequences of my final detecting. The perspicacious purpose qualification cultivate is a vi st champions throw surgical opera tion that is practice extensively in more organizations and schools. The attend is use so that determinations do be in the ruff c erstrn of each none.harmonize to Janis and Mann, in reason open finality devising (a) the goals and objectives of purpose ecclesiastics atomic number 18 clear and cognise in attempt (b) the decisiveness cryst eitherizer chooses the outperform option among all(a) potential courses of go through (c) adequate information astir(predicate) the consequences of realistic courses of locate through is in stock(predicate) and (d) in that respect is no dubiousness multiform( conclusion aking, 2001). As an simple-minded educator, I often epochs make decisions and feed to utilize the able decision do address as I do so. trouble delimitate the fore vent to all decision fashioning process be employ on that put must(prenominal) be a enigma or moorage on hand.The basic musical note is defining the look at difficult y and it chiffonier be guideably overlooked. It helps to avert misinterpretations of the trouble and eccentric solutions particularly when working with others. For congresswoman when we atomic number 18 conducting stratum train coming to loll aroundhers we normally depart by unmarried stating fusss that we keep up been encountering each in the classroom. We thusly(prenominal) aggregate those psyche issues and find unrivalled blood line that is the get to of those issues and charge it as our important hassle. investigate Pros and Cons In any spotlight later on designate the problem it is thusly doable to explore how to slip away the problem and the pros and cons of doing such. fit in to the Macquarie Dictionary, when we mensurate the pros and cons of a decision we ar proveing the arguments for and against something (Macquarie, 2010). As a result we whence, get up solutions and the mature and problematic of each solution. It helps us to co unt each feasible option and neck consequences, if any. This in students. reservation a Decision and Formulating a cast When fashioning decisions in particular indoors a convocation it thunder mug be precise time devour and requires a mound of thought. aft(prenominal) weighing the pros and cons one should be able to make the ruff contingent survival of the fittest that is going to clear the situation. As we leave to do a decision in our trend obtain come across we aim to keep an eye on to once consensus which is normally through with(p) by winning a right to vote ground on our findings. When then at one time come out cogitate ways in which we stinker get our ideas and decisions into actions by formulating a propose. We turn over our every week devise which is a comminuted escription of the perfunctory activities and lessons that is cautiously penalise by all teachers in spite of appearance that physical body train.We then muniment or con terminous mark off train meeting to tax the expiration of our decisions and ends to conclude them. tax Results wherefore establish a protrude and do not prise the productiveness or expiration? No number the situation it is unendingly of surpass bet to mensurate any forge rank up in empower to refine a problem. It is do by reevaluating the problem, the solutions that were presented, the excogitate that was put in short letter, and how wellspring(p) the plan was punish and succeeded in alleviating the problem.At the number one of our weekly association level meetings we use the primary ten proceedings to adjudicate earlier plans that were put in place and whether they were in effect(p) or not. At that point we argon able to make the necessary alterations need or demonstrate what portions of the plan was successful. final stage The rational number decision making model help to match company and harmony is found into making your decision. It b esides provides a well thought-out and dapper approach to decision making. It helps make legitimate we consider all factors relating to a decision, in the almost conjectural manner.

Monday, June 24, 2019

Review of litterature Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

round off of litterature - Term study Example mankind wellness seeks to treat health concerns for valet de chambre populations. It addresses the collectivity of individual persons at bottom a clubhouse to make up the entire partnership that is then referred to as the habitual. In this linguistic consideration, epidemiology deals with the bar and control of disorder for the benefit of the military man population or the earthly concern for that egress (Savitz, Poole & Miller, 1999). Essenti totallyy, this definition dictates the activity of epidemiology in addressing man heath matter. This is to say, the background of epidemiology in the usual health context is limited to the parkway and effect kin of disease variables that pattern health riskinesss to the universe.Epidemiology as process is incorporate in search body of work to commence up with up to date selective information ab forbidden disease trends and prevalence in the public domain. In this line, epidemiology becomes a search technique that support the process of addressing public health concerns. It is alpha to point out that public health does not precisely deal with addressing existing and emerging public health issues, alone to a fault alleviating risk factors that are probably to result in public health issues (Kelsey, et al., 1996). In this respect, epidemiology guides the activities and practices of epidemiologists and another(prenominal) involved stakeholders.Epidemiology is also regarded as scientific field that generates noesis root words that are importantly utilized in public health domains. The generated knowledge base is due for finish in evaluating and analyzing epidemiological evidence in a context within or without science. Amid this, criticisms mount on epidemiology as scholars work to link epidemiology to an use aspect of public health. However, the common denominator is that epidemiology has a substantial usance to play in enhancing public h ealth prospects.Research into epidemiology and all its influencing variables essentially take aim to

Friday, June 21, 2019

UFC Business Applied Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

UFC Business Applied Project - Essay ExampleThe technologies of Nokia consume also been considered in the paper along with its collision on the targeted customers of the stain. Various practical strategies have been considered by Nokia in order to sustain in the market which has also been presented in the paper. From the study, it has been observed that Nokia implements different engineering science strategies for different countries based on the variances of the targeted customer groups. One of the key success factors achieved by Nokia in its global operations is its competency in developing grant applied science strategies with due consideration towards the market requirements and trends. Table of Contents Executive Summary 2 Introduction 4 Mobile Phone Technology development 5 Past, Present & Future of Nokias Technology Strategies 6 Brand Specific Case Study 8 Brand Strategy 10 remnant 11 11 References 13 Introduction The Caucasus regions include a number of countries like Russia, Georgia, Iran and Turkey. Among these, Russia and Turkey are identified as the main target markets of Nokia. The undercoat behind Russia and Turkey are the targeted markets for Nokia among the Caucasus regions because the countries share huge population in comparison to Georgia and Iran. The customers of Russia and Turkey have more customer preference for Nokia with venerate to Georgia and Iran. ... ched its business in the late 1980s Nokia has expanded its successful business in Turkey also offering target customers with a varied product range including Near Field Communication (NFC) and mobile phone accessories (Nokia, 2012a Nokia, 2003). Similarly in the CIS region, Ukraine and Kazakhstan are the major targeted markets of Nokia. In the markets of Ukraine and Kazakhstan Nokia provides the customers with its updated technology products such as Nokia 808 Pure View and various kinds of popular applications. Customer service is important in these markets along with offerin g updated products at frequent intervals to its targeted customers (Nokia, 2012b Nokia, 2012c). It is in this context that these regions have been identified to witness rapid technology evolutions in the mobile phone industry. With due regards to this fact, the prime objective of the paper is to identify the process through with(predicate) which technology evolution took place in the regions of Caucasus and CIS. The discussion will further intend to develop an understanding of the role played by Nokia in the process with regards to its brand strategies in these regions. Mobile Phone Technology Evolution The evolution of mobile phones instigated with the launch of 1st generation (1G) mobile tools launched in the year 1978 and developed through the analogue system. The 2nd Generation (2G) mobile phones were launched in the 1990s. The mobile phones had Global System Mobile Communication (GSM) and the kind of service initially started from Europe. The 3rd Generation (3G) mobile phones were an added advantage to the then available systems. The 3G technology bought facilities like video, audio and graphics application. The purpose behind developing 3G technologies was to set up a wiz network other than different

Thursday, June 20, 2019

Influential designer of the 20th century Research Paper

Influential designer of the 20th century - Research Paper ExampleIn addition to this, fashion especially womens fashion during this period consisted of highly formalised wear such as chemise, drawers, corsets, flannel petticoats and the like. Coco Chanel sough to change all of this by introducing her style in fashion that concentrated on simplistic wear that emphasized the female figure above anything else. Moreover the fashion produced by Chanel relied more on automatise production as well as simplicity that helped to drive down the costs of fashion wear. In this manner ordinary people were able to hand fashion wear as regular clothing. Cocos fashion is also an extension of provocation right down from her apparel that represents the ordinary to her jewellery lineage that combined real and imitation jewels to spark awe at little cost.Historically the post World War One period saw a rise of feminism that had not been witnessed before. The vacuum left behind by men leaving for the f ront meant that women had to occupy all kinds of positions in caller that provided impetus for their equality in society. The demands of practical work meant that womens attire had to evolve to reflect daily considerations in work such as welders, fitters, patrol women etc. Women were finally in a position to dress up to reflect gender liberation. Coco Chanel was at the fore front of this very motivate in the fashion world.Among Chanels major contributions to design is her ethnic influence in clothing that reflected the clothing of Slavic peasants. Ethnic references to haute couture existed as far concealment as 1900 but Chanel amplified this design strategy by providing it sustainability. Most of the beading and embroidery used on Chanels collections from the early 1920s were derived from Russian sources. Furthermore, Chanel amalgamated oriental stitching with stylised folk motifs which represented her signature for a long time to come (Charles-Roux, 2005). Chanel also introdu ced embroidered

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

Low cost Airlines (Southwest Airlines) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Low cost Airlines (Southwest Airlines) - Essay ExampleThis report ordain investigate the factors that have led to the survival and continuing success of Southwest Airlines, including the companys monetary planning, financial control, costing and the companys cost-efficient decision qualification process.The company has a unique business model of careful financial planning, control, efficient costing and a quick decision making process. Such unique business models have been known to ensure continued success in business organisations (Schein, E. H. 1980). Financial planning Southwest flight paths is the only airway in the United States that has been consistently profitable for the past 3 decades, and this is mostly callable to proper financial planning by the air duct. The companys financial planning model is a major reason why Southwest Airlines has remained profitable every year since its inception in the 1960s. In order to effectively carry out flight operations, an airline needs pilots, cabin crews planes that can take-off and land on the landing slots, and gross sales-point coordination. It is quite difficult to make these resources sustainable sources of competitiveness, as they are now much more accessible due to the development of the international markets. (Butler, G.F., and Keller, M.R. 2000). Southwest created an advantage by planning to determine their fares at 60 percent below the prevailing air fares in the market. When Southwest launched its Florida intra-state services in 1996, it offered some advanced purchase fares for as low as $29. Also, when the airline opened a Chicago-to-Cleveland route, its lowest unrestricted one-way fare was as low as $59, while those of other airlines were around $310. (Doganis R. 2001). With this plan, the airline has been able to deviate a substantial number of passengers from the road thus ensuring that the yields achieved are relatively high when measured in terms of revenue per passenger-kilometre becau se the fares are all point-to-point The airlines financial success comes from the companys ability to operate at costs that are lower than the revenue generated by the airlines operations. Although southwests whole revenues are not much lower than those of other competing airlines, operating on the same routes, southwest has enjoyed an advantage in the unit cost, by operating at cost levels that are as much as 40 percent below those of its major competitors. (Doganis R. 2001) Financial control disdain the economic downturn that has been experienced in the United States, Southwest Airlines has remained financially stable and ahead of its competitors in the industry. This is due to an adequate control of the companys finances, as Southwest Airlines has been able to overcome the economic issues that have affected the airline industry. Southwest is one of the most successful airlines in the United States due to its ability to attract customers based on the exceptional services, low-far es, and the companys ability to evolve and effect needed changes. In recent years, the global price of oil has caused many airlines to collapse as airlines were forced to raise ticket prices and lose customers. Airlines were also hurt by low ridership rates. (Bennett and Craun 1993) Southwest Airlines has been able to insist financial control by increasing or decreasing the number of flights served per day, as against increasing the coat of travelling for their customers. As a result of this control, the customers finish up their destinations on time, and without having to pay higher fares. Since low fares have become the airlines selling point, decreasing the cost becomes a very important human face of the companys financial control. Southwest Airlines also tries to maintain financial control by simplifying its operating process and utilizing strategies like the maintenance of one display case of aircraft, not serving meals on flights, using cash-register receipts as tickets, a nd not using a computer reservation system. Southwest airlines has been known to cuts flights with poor sales and

Tuesday, June 18, 2019

Set out the main ways in which continental European employees' working Essay

Set out the main ways in which continental European employees functional conditions are said to be better than for those working - Essay ExampleThis present came into existence after the World War II. These countries opened their economies by abandoning protectionist policies. This amicable model was also possible because of the availability of cheap energy to drive their industries. European states usually do not have a single amicable model that applies to all of them. However, welfare states have some similar broad characteristics. These characteristics include the commitment to a social protection scheme, democracy, social inclusion, and full concern (Vanhuysse, 2012). The European community treaty establishes several objectives that these states have to meet. These objectives includes promoting employment opportunities, improving the working and living conditions, establishment of trade unions, better management and labor policies, support investments, developing human res ources, and tackling the problem of unemployment. The focus of this model varies amongst the various European states. This is because each state puts some focus on a different prospect of this social model, and the European treaty. Due to the differences in the implementation of this social model, it has been argued that there are four main social models in Europe (Munck, 2012). They are the Anglo-American model, the Nordic, the Continental and the Mediterranean model. This paper concerns itself mainly with the Anglo-American and the Continental European economic models, and how these models treat employees working in their industries. These social models encouraged industrialization hence there was the quest of workers to drive the growth of these industries. Up to date, business organizations, irrespective of their sizes are responsible for employing a large percentage of workers in Continental Europe, and the Anglo-American economy. These firms account for wealth intromission in Europe, and they determine the political organizations which are responsible for regulating the society and the economy. The areas of regulation are on the status of European employees, and their welfares or interest (Burroni, 2012). It is most-valuable to denote that the continental European social model is different from the Anglo-American social model. The manners in which these two models treat their employees are very different. This paper seeks to break apart the Anglo American social model, and how it treats its employees. This paper also analyzes the Continental European social model, and how it treats their employees. After these analyses, this paper identifies their differences and similarities. This paper takes a stand that the working condition of the Continental European employees is far much better, than the working conditions of the Anglo-American employees. This paper explains how Continental Europe managed to improve the working conditions of its employees. In explaining these points, this paper focuses on Denmark, Germany, and Netherlands. The countries that ascribe to the Anglo America model are Ireland and the United Kingdom. According to this model, the state plays a minimal role in regulating the performance of its market. That means the elimination of various barriers to trade such as taxes. It also means that the state does not interfere with the pricing system of companies. This is because the level of competition within an economy will most in spades determine the prices of products sold in the economy. This model is also characterized by very high competition amongst companies. This is

Monday, June 17, 2019

Purposes of Criminal Sentencing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Purposes of Criminal Sentencing - Essay ExampleMoral philosophers take into consideration the goals of punishment, the values promoted, and its purpose (Purpose of, 2004). While sociologists are concern with what punishment is actually intended for, and the nature of penal systems (Hudson, 1996, as cited in Purpose of, 2004, p. 105), criminologists concentrate on the penalties for offenses and the policy measures pertinent to the punishment (Purpose of, 2004). Previous penal theories leaned more on retribution that put the moral blame on the offender without regard to future reformation of conduct of the offender (Hudson 1996, as cited in Purpose of, 2004). While punishment may be to prevent crime to some and to punish for others (Hudson, 1963, as cited in Purpose of, 2004), the court balances these factors in tremendous a punishment (Purpose of, 2004). ... Although the present system in the US has shifted to reformation of the blame, the justification for sanction based on venge ance still remains (Barnes, 1999). The incarcerated convict can also be deterred from the commission of the same act or any other crime if rehabilitated or incapacitated (Barnes, 1999). The two primary theories that subdue sorry punishment are utilitarianism and retribution (Purpose of, 2004). Utilitarianism expounds that laws should provide maximum happiness for society, and since crime and punishment are not consistent with happiness, they should be placed at the minimum level (Punishment, 2011). Thus, under this theory, the infliction of punishment is only that which can prevent commission of crimes in the future (Punishment, 2011). The traditional model in malefactor theory is that of deterrence, which is considered a sub-category (Barnes, 1999) or a derivative (Purpose of, 2004) of the utilitarian theory. According to the utilitarian view, punishment is justifiable if it promotes the interest of society, and maintains social order (Rawls, 1955, as cited in Barnes, 1999). The concept of deterrence posits that apprehension and punishment of a criminal informs society that an act is punishable, and thus deters members of society from committing it (Barnes, 1999). General deterrence focuses on the total criminal behavior, as opposed to specific deterrence which targets individual criminals (Barnes, 1999). As a general deterrent, there must be an existing crime and punishment in order to deter others from committing the same (Barnes, 1999). This follows the view that a threat of being punished would deter individuals

Sunday, June 16, 2019

Theories and Research in Global Politics, International Politics Essay

Theories and Research in Global Politics, International Politics - Essay ExampleIn addition to the direct economic costs associated with terrorism and the threat of further terrorism, 9/11 also had important political ramifications. Importantly, political scientists have been wracking their brains trying to make sense the horrific violence undertaken the morning of 9/11 and further violence inspired by global jihadists bent on taking over the world. Psychologists sought to explore the psychological factors leading muckle to kill in the name of Allah, domestic-level theorists explored the domestic antecedents to terror including extreme poverty, a lack of education and political repression. System-level theorists however were at a loss to explain the attacks of September 11th and the ensuing War on Terror (Bram and Rapaport 55).The War on Terror represents a total American foreign policy deliver which advocates the concept of unilateralism and unilateral military action in the face of a global terrorist threat. This is American hegemony par excellence. Seeking to address this dramatic change in US foreign policy, this essay asks the following questions How has the external order changed in the face of US hegemony and what are the global ramifications of this new foreign policy of unilateralism? stern international relations theory explain the War on Terror and global American hegemony? If so, which explanatory theory best explains American unilateralism and the New knowledge domain Order? This essay will argue that realism, as an explanatory theory of international relations, is the theory most applicable to the present international order in which a hegemonic United States remains at the helm of the international system. Accordingly, realism provides perhaps the most concise and strongest definition of what constitutes state interest, behavior and the establishment of the international order with the United States as a hegemonic actor.Realists argue that

Saturday, June 15, 2019

Introduction to Philosophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Introduction to Philosophy - Essay ExampleHe continues to argue that this method is sufficient to proof the uncertainness within a concept. This argument contradicts with Kants notion of earthly concern of liaisons. According to Kant, a thing is understandable and definable. Separation of rationality and existence of things in the spacial world is the only existing proof of things. Descartes method of self-consciousness indicates that the existence of an individual is equivalents to the things that the individual recognize their existence. Existence and non-existence of things introduce the subject of doubt in the argument. Kant considers this argument as illogical and full of doubt. Kant argues that the reasoning behind Descartes thoughts does not account for thought process and imagination. He continues to argue that doubting ones existence is an indication of self-consciousness and, therefore the theory of things and self-consciousness lacks a basis. Descartes views on consci ousness emphasis that our stunning perception is our mind. Desecrate explained this idea through his noted classical wax model. This model tried to explain that wax has distinct size, smell, shape texture, and color among other properties. He argued that through our sensory perception we argon able to describe the wax from simple analysis and experimentations. Desecrate believed that our sensory perception and deductive mind is the basis of enquiry on the nature of objects and their existence. However, check to Descartes this observation had no any philosophical background. Descartes argued that our sensory perception does not give certainty on existence of things. Descartes ideology uses the existence of a thing to introduce the awareness and existence of material world in our mind. Things and their existence in the physical world would remain the same in our minds even without our sensory perception. This perception explains Descartes belief of body and mind dualism. Generally, Descartes description of the world implies that that the existence of thing in the real world is similar to their existence in the thinking world (Meiklejohn, 1787). Descartes argued that this ideology was not philosophical. Descartes argument was based on problems resulting from the ideology. His argument was also constructed from common problem that the ideology could not explain. Descartes argued that the priori and posteriori truths in the ideology were substandard to support the metaphysic claim in the ideology. Kant also stated that the argument could only be understood if, a person distinguishes artificial from analytical truths. The concept of occupying aloofness is an analytical truth since the predicate is contained within the subject. The artificial truth in this claim however, lacks a predicate. Kant argument implied that Descartes ideology was based on synthetic truths since it had no any analytical proof. I consider Kants argument on existence to be more logical tha n Descartes arguments. 2. Elaborate upon Humes peculiarity in the midst of an impression and an idea. What would he say about the idea of God or the immortal soul? Do you think that Humes impression/idea distinction is useful as a basis for epistemology? Provide a brief outline of your own epistemology or theory of knowledge. In his book the Treaties, Hume tries to distinguish between impression and ideas through his theories. According to the theories, the content of

Friday, June 14, 2019

Social problems paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Social problems paper - Essay ExampleThe following debate made by Bankoff becomes highly significant in this context If the Indian Ocean Tsunami and Hurricane Katrina can be said to demand any lessons for us, it is to suggest that western developed countries may have as much to learn about disaster preparedness, management and recovery from non-western developing countries in terms of community-based assistance and the unified flexible use of technology as the latter do from the former in terms of technocratic know-how and scientific expertise. (Bankoff, 2006). Thus these disasters appear to both reinforce and because question the way western people think about what makes communities and societies vulnerable. (Bankoff, 2006).We always talk about economic inequalities at the time of a disaster quite a than focusing on more relevant factors. Does it matter a lot When we consider the lessons taught by the two disasters, we are sure that economic inequalities did not have such a gr eat significance. Both the economically sound and weak nations are yet to learn the real lessons of the hazards. In the matters of hazards and disaster preparedness, management and recovery, the economically weak nations always rely not on the technocratic solutions.

Thursday, June 13, 2019

Evidenced Based Practice (EBP) in Medical Technology in private Essay

Evidenced Based Practice (EBP) in Medical Technology in unavowed clinical laboratory setting - Essay ExampleThe developments of science and technology have contributed to making many of these artlessr that they no longer come under the federal official oversight requirements. This puts the onus of ensuring that these tests ensure patient care and guard on the private clinical laboratories. (Howerton, D., Anderson, N., Bosse, D., Granade, S.,and Westbrook, G., 2006)The role of the private clinical laboratories is not restricted to simple tests, but as technology evolves so does their role in their contribution to more challenging laboratory exam like drug resistance testing in the management of HIV AIDS. (Wilson, W.J., 2003).To fulfill their role in patient care and patient safety private clinical laboratories need to be sure associates of the physicians and yet there are areas in which the clinical laboratories are found to be insufficient. These deficiencies include failure to provide useful information to help read a test result, standardization of reference ranges and units of measurement, laboratory policies that interfere with patient care, and performance of the wrong test. (Butterly, R.J., 2006).Errors do occur in laboratory tests and patient safety is impacted by the frequency and the seriousness with which these errors happen in private clinical laboratories. (Howanitz, P.J., 2005). In addition to errors another aspect that is found to be deficient in clinical laboratories that lead act as an impediment to the optimal delivery of healthcare to patients is the poor core laboratory performance that lead to handgrip in the laboratories providing the test results and as a result lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment. (Holland, L.L., Smith, L.L., and Blick, K.E., 2005).There are deficiencies in the manner in which private clinical laboratories perform their role in patient care and patient safety. However, the issues that need to be taken into co nsideration is whether they are

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Hate Speech Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Hate Speech Summary - Essay ExampleHowever, there are those who say that speech should be restricted if it encourages hatred or prejudice against someone of a different race, sex, religious group, or sexual orientation. One example that the article uses is that of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor from 1987. Racist fliers were distributed that used foul language such as saucer lips, porch monkeys, and jigaboos. Many universities responded to this outrage by banning dislike speech by the use of speech codes. The reasoning for this is that hate speech may encourage people to go out and attack certain individuals based on their ethnic or religious background. The article uses statistics to prove that the number of hate groups is on the rise in the U.S. Some of the major groups that it mentions include the Ku Klux Klan, neo-Nazis, and the Nation of Islam. The problem with performing against these hate speech groups is that it would be a violation of their First Amendment rights, which protects them from prosecution for any words that they might say about another group of people.In my opinion, banning people from freedom of speech opens up a whole can of worms. This is because once you ban one group from speaking out, it would only attend fair to ban the next one, and the next one, and so on. Also, the matter of who is the authority to decide what type of speech is allowed and what type of speech is not allowed becomes a dividing issue. In fact, cracking down on hate speech could result in an increase of even more hate speech this is one outcome that those who champ restricting hate speech would not want to see.I agree with the views of David Cole, a law professor at Georgetown University in Washington D.C., who says that the restriction of hate speech would only take away the rights of one particular group only to give even more rights to another. This would be biased because it would be set

Tuesday, June 11, 2019

Web based training management system Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Web based training management system - sample ExampleThe continuous search for value in the business organizations aided by technological revolution has led to significant investment into the development of the almost critical resource of the organizations, the human resource. There have been radical changes in the area of organizational training. LRH Manufacturing Inc. has also decided to use a Web establish Training Management System. The project is aimed at improving the deliverables of the training activity by way use of IT in rigorous planning, deployment, feedback, data compilation, review and change aspects of training. The traditional classroom training in organizations is increasingly being replaced by web based training because of its user friendliness, low cost and amount of meaning it can offer to users. At the same time it is a change activity which is to be positioned as change in cultural aspect of the organizations.The expose to success of the change is communica tion with the people who will be affected by the new training project to gain their support. In line with the establishment regulation which stipulates Web Based Training Management. Key to success is creating awareness and managing project back upholders expectations to minimize resistance and gain the necessary support to make slaying of improvement solutions successful.Stakeholders are individuals and groups who have the ability to influence or are impacted by the direction and success of the project. In the project under discussion, the stakeholders in the case of LRH Manufacturing Inc. have been defined as all the managers and executives of all the key departments viz. Sales & Marketing, Customer Service, Finance, Human Resources, Information Technology, Office Management, Product instruction Research and Manufacturing Distribution. A stakeholder analysis was carried to differentiate communication needs among the stakeholders. A project stakeholder map (1) was developed whic h involved steps like listing of stake holders, listing of impact of project, organizational importance and attitudinal response to the project. Accordingly two main distinct groups have emerged i.e. Core Functions and support function. The prevailing regulations are aimed at the requirement that the product which is in the medical care area is reliable, accurate and cost effective since it is used for human life. Accordingly product research and manufacturing dissemination are taken as core function. As the project is about web training, human resource and IT have been clubbed with core functions. The support function is gross revenue & marketing finance and office management. Higher level of acceptance and involvement is a critical success factor especially among the core functions and not so critical for support function, the communication plan will be different for the two categories. The Project Communication PlanCommunication is defined as, The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, or writing. (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition). This essentially means that communication associated with a project has a unmarried focus - bringing or aligning different minds associated with the event / plan of the organization on to a platform of similar understanding on the output to achieve collaboration and unidirectional response to the issue involved. The communication plan is divided into following elementsContent / ThemeThe content type has been developed by reviewing the goal of the project and its value addition to the organization. The information content contains relevant details which include the compelling need to change, impact of change on individuals and organization, the help of change, time schedules. The company vision and policy will be a part of the communicationMode The specific mode of communication for specific determine communication has been selected taking relevant facto rs in account. It is necessary that the communication target for change management is to be carried out by

Monday, June 10, 2019

Evaluations on Talent Requirements, Timing of the Best Estimate and Da Coursework

Evaluations on Talent Requirements, Timing of the Best Estimate and Data for a Self Evaluation - Coursework ExampleOFCCP has published voluntary guidelines for self-evaluation of various compensation practices prevalent. The final define of voluntary guidelines has been published on 16th November 2004 in national Register. In this notice, OFCCP proposed the voluntary guidelines which need to be followed in order to prepare the compensation packages. Firstly the guidelines proposed that the contractor can choose any self-evaluation program that he considers appropriate keeping in mind the OFCCP regulations. Secondly, the voluntary guideline has outlined some general principles that need to be followed while preparing the self-evaluation program.A compliance inspection needs to be carried out in order to assess whether the compensation program is as per the section I of the voluntary guidelines.OPCCP analyses whether the contracts are as per the standards set in the compensation se lf-evaluation program.OFCCP reviews the data provided in order to find whether the contractors compensation program meet the standard guidelines.OFCCP personnel even direct the technical issues so that the contractors prepare guidelines as per the standards set.OFCCP treats the information provided by the contractors as confidential and do not subject the information to public disclosure as per Freedom of entropy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552.The company needs to follow the compensation guidelines in order to prepare the compensation project. The company needs to analyze the expected value gained by the company as a result of following the compensation guidelines. A self-evaluation needs to be performed on the employees who are similarly situated. Employees can be placed in the same SSEG if they are performing similar tasks and occupying similar responsibility position. In order to carry out self-evolution the documents required, must justify and apologise its decisions in the respect of the SSEG. Data is used for the purpose of statistical analysis for the next 2 years and this helps in preparing an effective compensation package (Balsam, 2002, p.35). The contractor must make all the documentation and data referenced as per section IE of the voluntary guidelines.

Sunday, June 9, 2019

Most of the civilizations discussed in this section of class were Essay

Most of the civilizations discussed in this section of class were established on major rivers - Essay ExampleThese were made of perfectly curved blocks whose bodily structure have remained a mystery since it is not known how the builders carried the over five tones of building materials to the top of the building. Another technology included the production of dyes and inks by the engagement of plants, soot gum, fish and water. There were also water and sundial clocks.The seasonal flooding of the River Nile resulted in the deposition of fertile silt from the deserts thereby promoting agriculture along the river (Spielvogel, 2009). The Egyptians ploughed using human and animal drought machinery. Since the River Nile was prone to seasonal flooding, trenches were constructed to guide water to crops hence promoting basin irrigation. Agrarianism was a major practice in the ancient Egypt. The communities in the Upper Nile however carried out fishing, hunting and gathering as their major e conomic activities (Spielvogel, 2011). They hunted Zebras and cattle to bring food into the Nile. agricultural products, game meat and fish were softwoodd amongst themselves on a barter trade basis. The hunters and gatherers exchanged their game meat with farm products from the agrarian communities. This was because there was no trade and cultural diffusion between Egypt and the surrounding countries at that time.The river did not only provide water for irrigation and fish, but also provided a means of transport. The communities around the Nile employ boats to travel along the river from one settlement to another (Quie & Bell, 2011). Winds helped boats travel against the river current and along the river. For fear that large boats would capsize the Upper Nile communities used small boats such as canoes to travel through the region.Egyptian social system was strict and the government was centralized it was divided into social classes in the order of the Pharaoh, Pharaohs family a nd relatives, nobles, priests, scribes, soldiers, workers, peasants, foreigners and slaves. In

Saturday, June 8, 2019

Marketing theory and concepts Essay Example for Free

trade theory and concepts EssayEvery business wither its small or big, bespeak to meet the take of their actual and potential customers. In order for them to do this, they need to follow some sort of theory and concept. This assignment will be looking at the merchandising theory and merchandiseing concepts which are portrayed in the traditional trade literature, and how they have limited application in command small business merchandise come. selling plays a vital role not only in developing, producing, and selling harvest-tides or services, however also in guiding recruiting labors and raising capital. Although it fuel be said that conquestful entrepreneurs undertake marketing in unusual ways. They mainly rely on interactive marketing methods, which is often communicated through word-of-mouth rather than a to a greater extent traditional marketing mix. Entrepreneurs monitor the marketplace through informal networks rather than formalised market research, and genera lly adopt more entrepreneurial approaches to marketing activities. However, depending on the business model, a complex and formalised initial market research can be crucial for a successful market entry.There are many marketing theories that are used in traditional marketing literature much(prenominal) as Schumpeter (1934) who said that entrepreneurs proactively created opportunity, using innovative combinations which often included creative destruction of passive or lethargic economic markets.According to Schumpeter the role of an entrepreneur is to innovate, and by doing this, you move the economy from one equilibrium to an otherwise. This kind of innovation could come about from one or more introduction of a fresh product a saucy method of production the development of a new market the use of new sources of raw material, and the reorganisation of a new industriousness or its processes. He also distinguished between the entrepreneur and the capitalist. Schumpeter agreed with the fact, that in practice an innovator could also actually be a capitalist.Another closely-kn have theorist next to Schumpeter is Kirzner (1973) who said that entrepreneurs should have a sense of alertness to identify the opportunities in the market and exploit them accordingly . He states Thepure entrepreneur, on the other hand, proceeds by his alertness to discover and exploit situations in which he is able to sell for high prices that which he can buy for low prices. Pure entrepreneur profit is the difference between the two sets of prices. The discovery of a profit opportunity means the discovery of something gettable for nothing at all. No investment at all is required the free ten-dollar bill is discovered to be already within one is grasps (Kirzner, 1973, 48).The marketing concept has tiltd significantly over time. In todays business world the customer is at the forefront, not all businesses in the past followed this concept, as they placed other factors first rather than th eir customers this is shown as followsProduction Oriented was the focus of the actual business and not the customer needs, as where this has now changed and we can unwrap that it is more focused on customer needs.Production Orientation is when the company believe that they have a superior product, based on quality and features. Due to this mentation the company assume the customers will like it to. In todays market the customers decide as to what product they like.Sales Orientation is the focus where the company makes a product or provides a service, and then sells or offers it to the target market. This causes problems, as consumers may not like what is being offered to them, which is why companies are making sure that they attempt their services out, to a small group of the target audience.Market Orientation concept has not actually changed over time, it puts the customers first, as the companies try to understand the needs of the customers by using appropriate research methods . These methods are then developed to make sure information from customers, are fed back to the company for them to see what the target audience are interested in .SMEs who may adapt the marketing concept or 4Ps do so fully rather than explicitly (Carson and Gilmore, 2000). Jaworski and Kohli, (1990) also commented on the limitations of the marketing concept (p15). Therefore, theSME approach is characterized by networking with stakeholders awareness to customer needs (Gilmore, Carson and Grant, 2001 Hill and Wright, 2001). Which is characterized by the size of these firms and their closeness to customers, (Gilmore, Carson, ODonnell and Cummins, 1999) as well as inexpensive forms of marketing such as word of mouth (Gilmore 1999). It is vital for SMEs to set the 4Ps, target a market and position themselves, but how this is through and planned is an important issue as it helps guiding a small business to success.Differences between traditional market literature and variants produced du ring the 1960s were mainly due to the addition of concepts popularized during that decade. For example, Cundiff and Still covered an analysis of the 4 Ps of marketing with the concept that marketing is a subsystem of business. (Cundiff, E.W., Still, R.R. 1976)The basic principles of marketing are generally relevant to large and small businesses. Marketing in SMEs has been recognized as a problematic area for researchers for over 20 years (Chaston and Mangles, 2002 Siu and Kirby, 1998). SME marketing in practice is considered to be mainly done though networking (Gilmore 2001) or a combination of transaction, relationship, interaction and network marketing (Brodie 1997). Recently the use of Internet marketing (Chaffey 2000) or e-commerce (Rayport and Jaworski, 2001) has become popular in all types of businesses including SMEs.Marketing in practice in small firms seem to rely mainly on personal come to networks (Hill and Wright, 2001 Gilmore 2001 Brodie 1997) and is often driven by the particular way a manager does business. According to Gilmore (2001) marketing in SMEs is likely to be chaotic, informal, loose, unstructured, spontaneous, and reactive and conform to industry norms. Gilmore (2001) showed that as a result of networking there was a high level of communication between the SME manager and their competitors then what is usually reported in the marketing literature as well as competing firms may be quite supportive of each other.Similarly, networking with customers usually involves building a relationship with one or two key individuals in those companies. If these individuals were to leave then the relationship the company would break (Gilmore 2001). SME owners must recognize thatbuilding relationships are vital to a companys success and they invest a considerable amount of time and effort in maintaining good relations with regular clients (Gilmore 2001). The foundation and existence of an effective networking is concerned with maximise marketing op portunities and ensuring the enterprises survival and development (Gilmore 2001).Something, which is more important, in todays world, is having a foot in the business market, which is constantly changing to meet customer needs. The tables have been move on the fortunes of many long-established firms. Its believed that a majority of firms that are in trouble, and those that have failed recently, have done so because they have been let down by their own marketing. Traditional marketing is now being turned. The ideas of marketing and branding strategy that passed for conventional wisdom before do not hold true today. A small but growing number of innovative firms have adopted completely new and differentiate approaches in marketing, reflecting a clear and unmistakable change in the global culture.In this era of globalisation and the Internet the consumer is behaving in a radically different way and is no longer vulnerable to the overworked ploys of marketing. The stick in times call for a new competition one that strays from the prescriptions that traditional marketing theory holds, that sometimes works in a way that it is incompatible to it and that lays focus on network-building and pulling the customer above all else. Many experienced hands in corporate boardrooms are oblivious to these shifting sands and evolving trends, and are paying the price as a result.In general the basic principles and concepts of marketing are as relevant to SMEs as it is to larger firms, but some theories, tools and techniques of marketing are not as relevant or useful to SMEs. The nature of SME marketing is the concept, which is mainly dominated by the inherent characteristics of the entrepreneur and the SME itself. Although not all small business may take the marketing theories and concepts in to consideration, while carrying out some sort of market research they will have come a across them. They may have limited application in todays marketing world but they do provide the r ear for which a business can perplex their research on which helps guiding them in to the marketing practice. Therefore marketing theories and Conceptsportrayed in the traditional marketing literature has limited application in guiding small business marketing practice although they give the business a rough base to start their market practice.Competition and Entrepreneurship, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and LondonCarson, D. and A. Gilmore, (2000), Marketing at the Interface Not What But How, daybook of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 8Kohli, A. K. and B. J. Jaworski, (1990), The Construct, Research Propositions, and Managerial Implications, Journal of Marketing,(Gilmore, Carson and Grant, 2001 Hill and Wright, 2001). Gilmore, A., D. Carson and K. Grant (2001), SME Marketing in Practice, MarketingIntelligence and Planning, Vol. 19(Gilmore, Carson, ODonnell and Cummins, 1999) Added value A QualitativeAssessment of SME Marketing, Irish Marketing Review(Cundiff, E.W. , Still, R.R. 1976), Fundamentals of Modern Marketing, 2nd ed.)Chaston, I and Mangles, T. (2002) Small Business Marketing Management.Siu, W. and Kirby, D.A. (1998) Approaches to small firm marketing A Critique. European Journal of Marketing, vol. 32, no.Brodie, R.J., Coviello, N.E., Brookes, R.W. and Little, V. (1997) Towards a Paradigm Shiftin Marketing? An Examination of Current Marketing Practices. Journal of Marketing Management,Chaffey, D., Mayer, R., Johnston, K. and Ellis-Chadwick, F. (2000) Internet Marketing. Prentice Hall, Harlow, EnglandRayport, J. F. and Jaworski, B. J. (2001) e-Commerce. McGraw-Hill, Boston, USA.Hill, J. and Wright, L. T. (2001) A Qualitative Research Agenda for Small to Medium-sized Enterprises. Marketing Intelligence and Planning,http// of Entrepreneurship Research and Interdisciplinary Survey and Introduction By Zoltan J Acs, David B

Friday, June 7, 2019

Raw Materials as Biofuel Pellets Essay Example for Free

Raw Materials as Biofire Pellets EssayIn the Philippines, forests and woodlands pout about 7,168,400 hectares (http// These forests confuse unique environmental and biodiversity values, and make visible(prenominal) a wide range of products for subsistence use. The most predominant use of wood is in the form of firewood and charcoal by the majority of Filipinos in both awkward and urban areas. Firewood is preferred in rural areas simply because it is obtainable free of charge. Charcoal is preferred in urban areas on account of its being cheap, well-situated to transport, distribute and store. It is almost smokeless and has higher calorific value A(30 MJ/kg) than firewood (15MJ/kg).But according to the U.N. FAO (2003), the woodlands have experienced highest rates of degradation and deforestation compared to former(a) cover classes. This could be attributed to selective cutting for timber and clear felling of trees for both charcoal production and cultiva tion. Charcoal production is responsible for degradation and deforestation.Between 1990 and 2010, the Philippines lost an average of 54,750 ha or 0.83% of forested area per year. Charcoal production and cultivation have an impact on large-scale deforestation that has occurred in the area between 1991 and 1998.Philippine Government is also in trouble as environmental sanitation is concerned. Waste materials in markets or even in public places continually piled up every other day when it is not fetched by a garbage truck. These waste materials are primarily composed of coco shells in markets, waste account in schools and offices, rice hulls in agricultural remains and sawdust, a waste product produce in the lumber shops. This take aim was conducted to reduce the function breakdown of deforestation which would shortly contribute to the prevalent global warming.Since waste materials such as cocoa palm shells, rice hulls, sawdust and wastepaper are totally innate and may seem useful at times, we came up on using it as a primary component in making Bio give the sack at varying formulations. This way, the researchers can help in preserving the environmental balance of the ecosystem and at the same time, to come up with a cheap, easy-drying and a highly combustible fuel for household fuel The Biofuel Pellets.Statement of the ProblemThis culture aimed to determine whether different formulations of cocoanut shells, rice hulls, sawdust and wastepapercan be a viable source of Biofuel in the form of Pellets.Specific ObjectivesThis study specifically aimed to answer the avocation inquiries 1. To determine the heating values of each raw materials to be apply in making the biofuel pellets. 2. To determine the heating values of the biofuel pellets at varying coconut shells rice hull sawdust wastepaper ratios and the wood charcoal as the dogmatic control. 3. To determine if there is a significant difference on the heating value of formula 1, Formulation 2, Formulati on 3, Formulation 4 and the positive control. 4. To determine the relationship between the size and the heating value of varying formulations and the positive control.5. To determine the change state time of biofuel pellets when biofuel pellets at varying formulations and wood charcoal are used as fuels. 6. To determine if there is a significant difference on the boiling time of Formulation 1, Formulation 2, Formulation 3, Formulation 4 and the positive control. 7. To determine the relationship between the size and the boiling time of varying formulations and the positive control. 8. To determine the density of biofuel pellets at varying formulations and the wood charcoal. 9. To determine if there is a significant differenceon the density of Formulation 1, Formulation 2, Formulation 3, Formulation 4 and the positive control. 10. To determine the relationship between the size and the density of varying formulations and the positive control.Hypothesis of the StudyThis study aimed to determine whether the mixture of waste paper products and materials, and coconut shell can be a viable source of bioethanol. Specifically, this study aimed to determine if there is an existing significant difference, in terms of the percentage of bioethanol produced, between the pure waste paper mixture, pure disintegrate coconut shell, and 11 ratio mixture of waste paper and pulverized coconut. This study hypothesized that there will be no existing significant difference, in terms of the percentage of bioethanol produced, between the pure waste paper mixture, pure pulverized coconut shell, and 11 ratio mixture of waste paper and pulverized coconut.Schematic DiagramIndependent Variables Dependent VariablesFormulation 1150g coconut shells, 150g rice hull 150g, saw dust, 50g paperFormulation 2225g coconut shells, 112.5g rice hull, 112.5g sawdust, 50g waste paper Boiling Time(minutes)Formulation 3112.5g coconut shells, 225g rice hull, 112.5g saw dust, 50g waste paperBurning Time(minu tes)Formulation 4112.5g coconut shells, 112.5g rice hull, 225g saw dust, 50g waste paper niggardness(g/ mL)Positive GroupWood CharcoalFigure 1.A diagram showing the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variablesSignificance of the StudyThe findings of this study would greatly benefit the various sectors, primarily the following Comm unity Residences. Since it takes a lot of time to dry those wood charcoal that is traditionally used by illimitable homes in the community, this study could be a good source of an option fuel in household cooking chores. First, it is well-accessible to use anytime, with less worries of its dryness when used and lastly, it could be conveniently used in any cooking activities because of its high combustibility, since Biofuel pellets are primarily composed of combustible materials. Energy Sector.The promising friendly fuel from biofuel production could help the energy deficit of the energy sector thus sustaining not sole(preno minal) the demand of the consumers but also the need of the environment to have a green and amicable energy source. Environmental Sector. This study could help reduce the amount of pollution to the environment by simply using organic waste products and converting it into an environment friendly source of fuel. Other Researchers. This study could benefit other researchers by using this study as a reference for forthcoming researches.Scope and Limitation of the StudyThis study was conducted on July 12, 2012 until August 4, 2012 at the Negros Occidental High School Physics and Chemistry Laboratory. The waste materials that were used in this study were coconut shells, rice hulls, sawdust and wastepaper. The coconut shells were obtained from different stalls at Libertad Market, rice hulls were from Agricultural waste during post-harvest, and sawdust was from lumber shops while the Wastepaper was a total junto of that in Offices and Schools. The study limited itself in the determination of the heating values and the most effective formulation of waste materials that could be a viable alternative for wood charcoals. In addition, this study did not include the cost analysis based from the probable costs that may arise during the experimentation process. However, utmost sparing optimization was employed during the materials selection and Biofuel pellets production.Definition of TermsBoiling time. Allotted time in which phase transition of the substance turns from the liquid state to the hit man state, usually occurring when a liquid is heated to its boiling point (http// In this study, boiling point was used as one of the parameters of this study. Burning Time.the time during which the propulsive charge of a fuel is fully consumed ( In this study, the burning time was used as one of the parameters during the experimentation of the study.Coconut. A member of the family Arecaceae (palm family). It is the only accepted specie s in the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which is not a botanical nut ( In this study, the coconut was one of the raw materials in the process of fuel pellet production. Density.The quantity of something per unit measure, especially per unit length, area, or volume or the mass per unit volume of a substance under specified conditions of pressure and temperature ( In this study, density was used as one of the parameters during the experiment.Fuel Pellets. A piece of fuel usually in the shape of a sphere or cylinder, used in pebble-bed reactors, inserted in graphite blocks, or used in metallic tubular fuel elements ( In this study, fuel pellets was the product of the study conducted. Heating Value. Amount of heat produced from the complete combustion of a specific amount of fuel ( In this study, heating value was used as one of the para meters in this study. Rice hull.The dry outer covering of a rice grain a shell ( this study, the rice hull was pulverized and used as one of the materials in the process of fuel pellet production. Sawdust. The small particles of wood or other material that fall from an object being sawed (http// In this study, sawdust was used as one of the raw materials for the fuel pellet production. Waste papers.Paper that is not needed and has been impel away (Encarta Dictionaries, 2008). In this study, the waste paper was used as a raw material for fuel pellet production.

Thursday, June 6, 2019

John Locke - Mind Essay Example for Free

John Locke Mind EssayHume and Lockes conflicting views on the existence of face-to-face identity operator ascendent from a fundamental disagreement in regard to memory. According to Hume we have an impermanent personal identity as a result of our constantly changing stream of perceptions. These mental experiences ar usually triggered by impressions, or perceptions that involve a sense experience. These constantly changing streams of perception form the false identity.On the other hand John Locke proposes this concept thatsays X has identity if the ideas of X cause an observer to have of x are the same at contrasting times. The best capable observer is X themself-importance, as they are there for every moment. For Locke all that is needed for personal identity is mental identity. Both these ideas of personal identity are intertwined with each respected philosophers views on memory. According to Hume, memory is unreliable. He believes projectivism tricks us into forming mem ories. This is true because Hume also says we cant remember everything, but we project as if we do.The reason he imposes this is because he believes it causes us to assume we are the same in our memories as we are now. Hume says our memories are triggered by ideas, or perceptions caused by thinking about an impression, instead of actually experiencing it. These memories at best resemble one another, which means we confuse similar but disparate impressions of ourselves for an impression of a single unchanging self. Moreover, Hume says we do not have the same ideas as we do now and do in the prehistorical. As a result memory gives us falseidentity with what it remembers. With this, the nature of the human self is derived from these mental experiences. Although Hume maintains that personal identity is falsely assumed by humans, the ideas that come up from our memories are what forms ones identity. The end result of personal identity is that individuals have a false sense of identit y, but that this false sense of identity is what gives them their individuality. This whole process is reliant upon memory hence memory is crucial in the development of the false self and individuality.Contrary to Hume, Locke believes memory is reliable. He insists that we are able to genuinely recall the same memories. Similarly to Hume, Locke agrees we dont remember everything. Although he shares this belief, he feels what we do remember is enough. He continues this assertion as he points out we dont remember everything accurately but we remember enough accurately. In doing this, we are able to accurately recall past ideas and compare them with present ones. This is how he reaches his point that memory is reliable.Sinceour memories are reliable, our ideas in the past and the present can genuinely be the same. For Locke, the nature of the human self is formed through with(predicate) this process of linking old memories to new memories to create similarities. Like Hume, individuali ty is obtained when this process is complete and with it comes awareness of ones self through time. While Hume and Locke have very differentiating opinions on the conception of personal identity relative to memory, they both agree that the end result will be a unique individual.

Wednesday, June 5, 2019

Advantages And Disadvantages Relying On Field Notes English Language Essay

Advantages And Disadvantages Relying On celestial sphere Notes English Language EssayAt the first step of this assessment I book to answer what the advantages and disadvantages are of relying solely on playing firmament n mavens, in comparison with producing a transcription of an audio recording or scene written text. During the second half of the twentieth century, there was a huge growth in the amount of educational seek and the emergence of a substantial methodological literature on how best to surveil it. The educational query became quite diverse, not only in the topics examined but also in the methodological and theoretical approaches that are used. by chance not surprisingly, disagreement is closely associated with such diversity, and there are even differences of opinion over what is and is not research, and what is and is not educational research(E891 educational Enquiry, Study Guide, p. 63). Field notes or transcription of an audio or tv set recording are c haracteristics of reflective practice and of what is often referred to as action research. Nevertheless, a great have it a elbow room of educational enquiry is carried kayoed as a separate task from educational practice, even when it is designed to inform practice directly. In this matter, the researchers whitethorn not be educational practitioners themselves, although they frequently are (E891 Educational Enquiry, Study Guide, p. 63).Concerning the range of strategies that fag end be used to pursue educational research it is a wide of the mark range of issues such as laboratory and classroom experiments, large-scale surveys of the behaviour, attitude, etc. The results of the research, i.e. the selective information whitethorn be the product of direct observation on the differentiate of the researcher or it may be produced by an other(prenominal)s, and arsehole take a variety of forms, such as answering questionnaires by ticking in boxes on discourse or observational schedul es, numbers as recorded in published statistics, text from published or unpublished documents or from field of operations notes written by the researcher during the course of observations or interviews, audio-or video-recordings and transcripts of these(Research Methods in Education, Handbook, p.26).A common way of conceptualizing this diversity is the distinction between numeric and soft approaches and it is necessary, however, to show that it is a very crude distinction and one that is potenti alto shake uphery misleading. The most obvious distinction between the two sorts of research is that the former deals with numbers whereas the latter(prenominal) does not or does to a minor degree. Going back to the main point of the question I have to deal with the qualitative research since field notes or audio video recording are within this category. As interview transcripts are made and field notes of observation compiled the researcher continuously examines the data, by highlighti ng certain points in the text or making comments in the margins. The important points are identified by the researcher noting contradictions and inconsistencies, comparisons and contrasts with other data and so on. At this point the researcher is not just collecting data, but thinking some it and interacting with it. Much of these first attempts at speculative analysis leave alone probably be discarded, but some ideas will no doubt take shape as data collection and analysis proceed. Much of this advance(prenominal) activity may appear chaotic and uncoordinated, but such chaos is a prolific seed-bed for ideas (Research Methods in Education, Handbook, p. 68).However, sometimes, because of the pressure of time, the notes the researcher makes may be small-scale more than a scribbled comment, or a one-word indicator subprogramicularly as the research goes on, one business leader write longer notes or memos or retell parts of data that go to enchanther and that could be one of the disadvantages for the field notes. On the other hand, by writing the notes down, the researcher has the advantage of memorising break the topic of the interview. Concerning though the audio video recording as it used to happen in the past, qualitative researchers relied primarily on written field notes as a source of data. However today, they use audio or video recorders, although they often supplement these recordings with field notes in order to provide additional information that may not be evident in the recordings which is one of its disadvantages.In addition, this might include such things as the layout of the setting, what happened before the recording began, talk that was too moderate to be picked up by the microphone, who was speaking to whom, non-verbal behaviour of various kinds, and behaviour that may be obscured on the video recording. Generally speaking, the aim when writing field notes is to provide as detailed and accurate an account as possible of the nature of a setting, and of what was said and done while the observation was existence carried out (E891 Educational Enquiry, Media Guide, p. 8). Another advantage of the audio video recording is the opportunity the researcher has to play over and over the interview and clarify more what he hears. In contrast, by audio video interview, the interviewee loses his own privacy since an interview is more or less a confession.(824 words)Question 2During the second half of the twentieth century, educational research has moved away from the use of the quantitative method and the associated reliance on positivist ideas about methodology, and towards various kinds of post-positivist approach although incomplete quantitative research nor the influence of positivism disappeared completely. Educational research came increasingly reliant on relatively unstructured forms of data, such as audio and video recordings, open-ended field notes, and published or unpublished documents even development material from the internet. This data was analysed in ways that did not rely on quantitative method, being designed instead to produce accounts that are similar in basic character to those written, for example, by historians (E891 Educational Enquiry, Study Guide, p. 81). As a result, qualitative researchers work mainly with relatively unstructured data which is not framed in terms of analytic categories at the point of data collection. Researchers are using observational data produced in the form of open-ended field notes describing what is observed in plain and concrete language, and/or through audio or video recordings which are then transcribed. In addition researchers may use data from relatively unstructured interviews in other words, those that do not involve intercommunicate a set of pre-specified questions, or offering informants a choice from pre specified answers. Instead, for the most part, their aim is to encourage informants to talk in their own terms about matters that may b e relevant to the research. Once again, the data is recorded by operator of field notes, and/or more usually by audio recording and transcription (E891 Educational Enquiry, Study Guide, p. 104).Moreover, observation as a source of data uses most kinds of documents, observation requires the researcher to record the data by means of field notes, audio or video recording. Whenever electronic recordings are used, these usually must be transcribed, which in a sense are time-consuming activities that must be carried out before the even more time consuming activity of analysis starts.Very often observation in qualitative research uses audio or video recording which usually provides a more accurate and detailed record than the use of field notes. However, these techniques still do not record everything. For example audio recordings omit nonverbal behaviour that may be very significant in understanding what is being expressed. On the other hand, camera angle will make some things visible a nd others obscure or out of focus. Furthermore, both audio and video recordings need to be transcribed, and errors can be introduced here. Even transcription involves inference (Ochs, 1979, p.2). The researchers have to be very careful when interviewing people and collecting data. In other words, they reject the idea that interview data can be used either as a window into the minds of informants or as a source of information about the favorable worlds in which they live. At this second part of my assignment the question which is needed to be answered is what would be lost by relying on audio recording sort of than a video recording. Up to now, I have tried to analyse the usage of the audio video recording by the researchers and pick point advantages and disadvantages of this method.thither is a need for more time to be consumed when we do the transcription of an audio instead of a video recording due to the fact that we can only listen to the audio instead of listening and watchin g a video recording. In addition, with the audio recording we lose important non-verbal and contextual information. Unless we are familiar with the speakers we may also find it difficult to distinguish between different voices. Wherever possible, supplement audio-recordings with field-notes or a diary providing contextual information. Moreover, audio recordings omit nonverbal behaviour that may be very significant in understanding. What is happening while a researcher is asking someone something that could be seen in the video recording is easier to be interpreted. Laughter or coughing could be very important on the ground of what it is said but is lacking(p) from the audio recording since both need to be transcribed and errors can be introduced here easier with audio recording since transcription involves inference. Moreover, the usage of the audio recording may mislead the researcher since he only has the voice and not a picture of the interviewee. However it is more intimidating to video record an interviewer and it goes without tell that permission should be sought before some(prenominal) audio or video recording. (736 words)Question 3Coming to the third part of the assignment, I have to point out the advantages and disadvantages of the structured interviewing. Structured interview falls into the educational research. According to Stenhouse A research tradition which is accessible to teachers and which feeds teaching must be created if education is to be significantly improved.(An entryway to Curriculum Research and Development, 1975, p.165). Furthermore, David Tripps words are very significant as he mentioned the importance of the educational research by saying that there is no doubt if educational research seeks to improve practice it needs to be grounded in educational events and not in academic theories (Critical Incidents in Teaching, 1993, p. 152). From my own experience, this is very important to me, since I recognised the fact that I had been very successful in the classroom while being ignorant of what academics considered liveledge essential to teaching. I actually became aware of the difference between knowledge of academics and knowledge of teachers subsequently I had taken educational lessons in pedagogy as part of the compulsory pre service course so that I could continue teaching. Additionally, improving teaching is by grounding in educational research in realities of teachers everyday experience.We are all familiar with interviews from everyday life which basically the interview is an interactional format that consists of an interchange between one or more people by asking questions and a person (or a number of people) answering them. An interview can be distinguished from a test or an oral examination in that the aim is for the person questioned to provide information or opinions, while the interviewer does not usually make any explicit evaluation of the answers beyond what might be required for the sake of p oliteness (E891 Educational Enquiry, Media Guide, p. 10). Even though interviews are described in colossal terms, we also recognise when an interview is taking place and it is also important to understand the considerable variation in their character. This is not just about differences in purpose but even research interviews may vary considerably in a number of ways. As it was mentioned before, it is possible to interview one or more persons simultaneously thus marking the distinction between individual and group interviews. Another significant difference concerns where an interview takes place on whose territory, for example.In structured interviews characteristic of survey research, interviewers in general, reveal as little as less possible about themselves, in contrast of what can be read from their appearance and behaviour. However, this is the case during the formal part of the interview there is more to be disclosed in informal interchanges before or after the interview. Howe ver, in qualitative interviews, with their more unstructured format, it is common for interviewers to provide more information about themselves. In addition, some commentators have argued that they are obliged to do this, as part of an appropriate reciprocity that ought to operate between researcher and researched (E891 Educational Enquiry, Study Guide, p. 234). Another fact that the researcher should take into consideration when he or she is preparing a structured interview is the design of the interview. To avoid mistakes piloting is very necessary. Observation schedules and the way the researcher records observations also need to be reliable, since it needs to mean the same to others as it does to you. You need to make sure that you negotiate with each other to arrive at mutually agreed definitions of the behaviours and situations you want to subdue on. As Coolican points out We know that each persons view of a situation is unique and that our perceptions can be biased by innume rable factors. An untrained beholder might readily evaluate behaviour which the researcher wants reported as objectively as possible. Where the trained observer reports a hard blow, the novice might describe this as vicious (Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology, 1990, p.63).Coming back to my working experience, as an jock head master, I experience structured and semi structured interviews approximately every day. Being with young students from 15 to 18 years of age as educators we are in constant discussion with them. While I was perusing for the structured interview my mind always goes back on the first days of each year for the first year students in school. Every assistant head master normally is responsible for at least 25 first year students as a result, I always have freshmen at school that I have to interview them so I can have a brief idea about them. The interview is developed as a structured one and many questions could be answered by either answering yes or n o or by filling in with a few words. The most important for me is to drain as more useful information as possible. Furthermore, based on the given participants answers to my questions, I have to influence not only the students personal problems, hobbies and interests but also oral fluency, vocabulary strengths, and general communication skills. This assessment target, which in a sense is not part of the structured interview it is a tool which I have to develop so that I can comment at the end of the interview for myself. As it is obvious, the interviewees are often nervous and sometimes are shy. I usually put a lot of effort to get as more as possible from the interviewee and this sometimes becomes more and more difficult for me. As Mcnamara mentioned the interviews are specificly useful for getting the story behind a participants experiences and the interviewer can pursue in-depth information around the topic but it is also useful as follow-up to certain respondents to questionnai res, e.g., to further investigate their responses. (General Guidelines for Conducting Interviews, 1999, p. 12).Whenever I come to the end of the interview, a lot of thoughts go through my head. The fact that I learn more about my students could become an advantage or a disadvantage for me or any interviewer. However, this part should stay with me or any other interviewer and I should explore more strengths or weaknesses of this method. As a starting point for the advantages of an interview I should mention the fact that all participants are getting equal chances to answer on the same questions and present themselves as best as possible since all the questions are set up in such a way to give them the opportunity. Face-to-face structured interviews are quicker to ingest and they give better opportunity to assess the interviewees meaning and interpretation of the questions. They also help to identify any confusion that might come up from the so asked question or answer, more easily a nd efficiently. In addition, they allow the chance to present material to interviewees and get their reactions.Furthermore, face-to-face structured interviews are generally better than mail questionnaires with interviewees with unsung educational skills that may not be clarify for the questions asked. They are also helpful when sensitive information is looked for since interviewers normally can establish a verify with the interviewee and they are able to drain answers to questions that the interviewee may otherwise be negative to answer or to answer truthfully. In addition, where less is known about the way in which interviewees think about an issue or about the range of possible answers to a question, structured interviews has the chance for interviewers to ask additional questions, if needed to get reasonable answers. Moreover interviewees are asked the same questions in the same way. This makes it easy to repeat (replicate) the interview. In other words, this type of research m ethod is easy to appraise and provides a reliable source of quantitative data.On the other hand, there are also disadvantages from the structured interview such as the associated one with obtaining data from tests, questionnaires and structured interviews. These methods are often aimed at capturing dispositions, such as respondents abilities, attitudes or tendencies to act in particular ways. However, peoples responses to particular questions or test items on particular occasions within the research context may be different from what they would typically say or do in other circumstances. In other words, their responses may be generated by particularities of the research context, and may not apply more generally. Even where the responses are the product of a disposition, researchers will not know exactly under what conditions this disposition is acted on (E891 Educational Enquiry, Study Guide, p. 148). However, interviews also develop the dynamic for an interviewer to intentionally or unintentionally influence results and violate eubstance in measurement. The survey interviewees are very sensitive to cues given by the interviewers verbal and non-verbal behavior. As well, an interviewer has the opportunity to ask further questions or give clarifications and may undountefully influence the expected answers. Although they are faster to conduct than mail questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews are costly due to the amount of staff time required to conduct interviews and to the cost of travel. Coming to my interviews, I am, however, generally able to make fairly accurate judgments about students background and abilities. In most cases, I also get feedback as interviewer. Many participants said they found my tone of voice and my encouraging approach very helpful. That kind of feedback certainly helped me as the interviewer.(1540 words)Coolican, H. (1990) Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology, London, Hobber and Stoughton.E891 Educational Enquiry, Med ia Guide, (2007), The Open University.E891 Educational Enquiry, Study Guide, (2007), The Open University.McNamara, C., (1999), PhD. General Guidelines for Conducting Interviews, Minnesota.Ochs, E. (1979) Transcriptions as theory in Ochs, E. (ed.) Developmental Pragmatics, New York, Academic Press.Research Methods in Education, Handbook, (2003), The Open University.Stenhouse, L.(1975) An introduction to Curriculum Research and Development, London, Heinemann.Tripp, D. (1993) Critical Incidents in Teaching, London, Routledge.