Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Cleanthes and Maximus essays

Cleanthes and Maximus essays The excerpt from David Humes, Dialogues on Natural Religion is structured as follows: Hume begins by stating an argument for the existence of God through the character of Cleanthes and then offers three criticisms of the argument through the character of Philo. The main argument that Cleanthes presents to Philo is as follows: (Premise) Nature is similarly structured therefore it works perfectly in tune like a machine or an invention. Working beyond human capabilities, therefore its creator must be one of high intelligence and infinite perfection. (Conclusion) Cleanthes concludes his argument with the claim that God exists. The first point that Philo makes of Cleanthes argument is that his premise is false. Philo says If we see a house or a ship or a machine, we conclude, with the greatest certainty that it had an architect or builder; because this precisely that species of effect, which we have experienced to proceed from that species of cause. Therefore the similarity is not entirely reliable. As it is stated in the following But wherever you depart, in the least, from the similarity of the cases, you diminish proportion ably the evidence; and may at last bring to it a very weak analogy, which is confessedly liable to error and uncertainty Now what Philo means by this is that every time something happens in nature we come to conclusions, without studying the similarities between cases, we eliminate evidence for these similarities to be a hundred percent reliable. For example, after having experienced the circulation of the blood in human creatures, we make no doubt that it takes place in Titius and Maevius: but from its circulation in frogs and fishes, it is only a presumption, though a strong one, from analogy, that it takes place in men and other animals. The analogical reasoning is much weaker, when we infer the circulation of the sap in vegetables from our experience ...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Definition of Impressment of Sailors

Definition of Impressment of Sailors Impressment of sailors was the practice of Britains Royal Navy of sending officers to board American ships, inspect the crew, and seize sailors accused of being deserters from British ships. Incidents of impressment are often cited as one of the causes of the War of 1812. And while it is true that impressment happened on a regular basis in the first decade of the 19th century, the practice was not always viewed as a terribly serious problem. It was widely known that large numbers of British sailors did desert from British warships, often because of the severe discipline and miserable conditions endured by seamen in the Royal Navy. Many of the British deserters found work on American merchant ships. So the British actually had a good case to make when they claimed that American ships harbored their deserters. Such movement of sailors was often taken for granted. However, one particular episode, the Chesapeake and Leopard affair, in which an American ship was boarded and then attacked by a British ship in 1807, created widespread outrage in the United States. The impressment of sailors was definitely one of the causes of the War of 1812. But it also was part of a pattern in which the young American nation felt like it was constantly being treated with contempt by the British. A press gang of the Royal Navy at work. Getty Images   History of Impressment Britains Royal Navy, which constantly needed many recruits to man its ships, long had a practiced of using press gangs to forcibly recruit sailors. The working of the press gangs were notorious: typically a group of sailors would go forth into a town, find drunken men in taverns, and essentially kidnap them and force them to work on British warships. The discipline on the ships was often brutal. Punishment for even minor violations of naval discipline included flogging. The pay in the Royal Navy was meager, and men were often cheated out of it. And in the early years of the 19th century, with Britain engaged in a seemingly endless war against Napoleons France, sailors were told that their enlistments never ended. Faced with those horrendous conditions, there was a great desire for British sailors to desert. When they could find a chance, theyd leave the British warship and find escape by finding a job aboard an American merchant ship, or even a ship in the U.S. Navy. If a British warship came alongside an American ship in the early years of the 19th century, there was a very good chance that British officers, if they boarded the American vessel, would find deserters from the Royal Navy. And the act of impressment, or seizing of those men, was seen as a perfectly normal activity by the British. And most American officers accepted the seizing of these fugitive sailors and did not make a major issue out of it. The Chesapeake and Leopard Affair In the early years of the 19th century the young American government often felt that the British government paid it little or no respect, and really did not take American independence seriously. Indeed, some political figures in Britain assumed, or even hoped, that the United States government would fail. An incident off the coast of Virginia in 1807 created a crisis between the two nations. The British stationed a squadron of warships off the American coast, with the purpose of capturing some French ships which had put into port in Annapolis, Maryland, for repairs. On June 22, 1807, about 15 miles off the Virginia coast, the 50-gun British warship HMS Leopard hailed the USS Chesapeake, a frigate carrying 36 guns. A British lieutenant boarded the Chesapeake, and demanded that the American commander, Captain James Barron, muster his crew so the British could look for deserters. Capt. Barron refused to have his crew inspected. The British officer returned to his ship. The British commander of the Leopard, Captain Salusbury Humphreys, was furious and had his gunners fire three broadsides into the American ship. Three American sailors were killed and 18 were wounded. Caught unprepared by the attack, the American ship surrendered, and the British returned to the Chesapeake, inspected the crew, and seized four sailors. One of them was actually a British deserter, and he was later executed by the British at their naval base at Halifax, Nova Scotia. The other three men were held by the British and finally released five years later. Americans Were Outraged When news of the violent confrontation reached shore and began to appear in newspaper stories, Americans were outraged. A number of politicians urged President Thomas Jefferson to declare war on Britain. Jefferson chose not to enter a war, as he knew that the United States was not in a position to defend itself against the much more powerful Royal Navy. As a way of retaliating against the British, Jefferson came up with the idea of imposing an embargo on British goods. The embargo turned out to be a disaster, and Jefferson faced many problems over it, including New England states threatening to secede from the Union. Impressment As a Cause of the War of 1812 The issue of impressment, by itself, was not cause for war, even after the Leopard and Chesapeake incident. But impressment was one of the reasons given for the war by the War Hawks, who at times shouted the slogan Free Trade and Sailors Rights.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Personal Finance- Heath insurance Research Paper

Personal Finance- Heath insurance - Research Paper Example It works together with SEHA, the national insurance scheme to ensure proper health services. The insurance being able to cover any hospital is essential in providing the citizens are satisfied with the services they get from hospitals all over the country. The scheme provides a mandatory health insurance for the people. It is key to ensuring the realization of Qatar’s vision 2030 when it comes to providing proper health care for its people (Pallot, 2014). SEHA came into existence when Qatar formulated goals that would ensure good health care for its people and reduce the number of deaths caused by inadequate health care. The health care strategy seems to be working well for the people since its inception in the state of Qatar. The network associated with SEHA includes both private and public health care providers. The people who are eligible to register with the insurance get a list of hospitals and health care providers they can work with for the better health (Seha, 2015). The strategy of working with SEHA has provided excellent efficiency and transparency in the national health care sector. The first stage of the scheme had its implementation in July of 2013. The best feature of the first stage is that it covered the health care of women who are 12 years and above to gynecology, maternal, prenatal and postnatal clinic for their children. Other health problems related to women also receive cover in the first stage implementation of the strategy. The second phase of the study, inaugurated in April 2014 provides comprehensive insurance cover for all the Qatari citizens for all the fundamental health problems (Seha, 2015). Qatar is now at the forefront of the global initiative that calls for a comprehensive health coverage for all the people. The World Health Organization is at the forefront in ensuring all the countries around the world provide national health insurance cover. The insurance cover for the people of Qatar through SEHA has

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Organizational Behavior Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Organizational Behavior - Case Study Example A meeting was conducted with senior leadership at the law firm to discuss which of the three nominated employees should actually make partner. In this meeting, different attitudes regarding certain human resources policies were quite mixed as were the reactions from the attending leaders about which employees could provide the most long-term value in the role of partner. The main issue in this case is that there is a lack of unity when it comes to decision-making regarding who to elect as partner in the group. This is an organizational culture where policy is open to multitudes of different interpretations and nobody seems to have a clear handle on how these policies should be communicated regarding promotion opportunities. For example, the part-time employee up for partner nomination was not necessarily informed that moving to part-time status would impact her potential for reaching partner. None of the senior leaders can seem to agree on whether this is beneficial for the business long-term or whether it actually causes more harm in areas of corporate employee dedication. There are concerns within the senior leadership group that promoting Julie, the part-time employee in question, could set a policy precedent which gives too much flexibility to part-time staffers and could impact their ability to effectively carry out the role of partner. This di vision at senior leadership level is noticeable at the colleague level and at the employee level when they have access to read the meeting minutes. In terms of organizational behavior and culture, the lack of senior leadership unity regarding policy creation and implementation and their belief about how human resources impacts the business creates a culture of division. The process of promoting an individual to partner also seems to be ritualistic at the senior level, where they feel they must perform this annual

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U.S. GAAP) Essay Example for Free

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U.S. GAAP) Essay The United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U.S. GAAP) and the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are both effective ways to report financially account for one’s business assets but they have several differences. in this paper I will attempt to outline a few of the more significant differences and allow you to make up your mind as to which of these two systems is the better one. The first difference that is widely accepted between the two methods is that U. S. GAAP is rules based and IFRS is principle based. This means that IFRS allows more for adaption of the circumstances and allows for professional judgment while U.S. GAAP is more stringent and less forgiving. The argument back and forth is that the rules for U.S. GAPP are too large and broad stroked which doesn’t allow for different odd situations, while it is argued that the IFRS is too biased which can allow for too much manipulation. A primary difference between the U.S. GAAP and the IFRS is the way the business financial statements report the value of the company’s property and holdings. The U.S. GAAP method utilizes the Historic Cost Principle (HCP) while the IFRS uses the Fair Market Value (FMV). Under the HCP the asset owned by the company if forever recorded at the price for which it was initially purchased while the FMV approach allows for a periodic re-assessment of the current value of the asset. This has both positive and negative effects based on the economy and the housing market. Over time you would expect that the value of property to rise, for example if a company had bought my parents 2 bedroom home for the listed price of $19,500 in 1980 knowing that the same house is now appraised at $105,000 then it would be beneficial to re appraise the house under the FMV as the asset is worth a lot more than the original $19,500. The down side for using the FMV would have been in 2009 when the housing market collapsed. At that point the house was appraised at $87,000. If the year prior the company recorded its asset at $105,000 then it would have taken a loss when the house was reappraised. So you can see that utilizing the FMV in this case is a gamble based on the fluctuation of the outside market and also raises the question of how often should the re-appraisals be done to be the most advantageous to the company. The next difference I want to highlight is the Last In, First Out (LIFO) method. This is a method commonly used in the United States under the U.S GAAP primarily because it helps with tax purposes. Utilizing LIFO the company applies the latest cost of providing the goods to the entire supply inventory regardless of what the company paid for the good already in stock. This shows a decrease in the gross profit margin therefore lowering the taxes at the end of the year. For example if a company manufactures 1,000 tubes of toothpaste a month at $1 a tube and sells them for $2 each then they would make a profit of $1,000 a month or $12,000 a year. If the price of manufacturing the toothpaste went up to $1.50, 6 months into the year then using the LIFO method the company would record that there profit is only .50 a tube or $6,000 a year and would only pay taxes on that $6,000 vice the $12,000 even though they made the full dollar profit on the toothpaste for the first 6 months. This is a p ractice that is used primarily in the U.S. because of our tax laws and not endorsed by other countries or under the IFRS. Another difference between the two programs falls under the category of Liabilities. A liability as defined in the text is â€Å"An economic obligation (a debt) payable to an individual or organization outside of the business†. This difference between the two programs is slight and goes back to my first paragraph dealing with rules versus principle based assessments. Both IFRS and U.S. GAPP accept the that the future event will probably take place but the IFRS defines the word probable as anything greater than 50% while the U.S. GAAP with its more stringent rules defines probable as 75-80%. This means that more liabilities would be recognized with IFRS then U.S. GAAP. The last difference that I will go over is that of brand names and patents. Under the stringent rules of U.S. GAAP, the only time a company can account for the capitalization or equity of a patent or brand is if the company purchased the patent from an outside source. If it was thought up or created by the company internally the company would have to record the expenses of the development on the income statement. Under IFRS the company would be allowed to count the potential equity based on the probable future benefits. Most of the world has already adopted the IFRS and the Financial Accounting Standards Board is working on a world wide solution in bridging the gap between these two programs. In closing the U.S. GAAP program is more stringent while the IFRS allows for more flexibility. Although this flexibility associated with the IFRS program seems like it would be more beneficial to more companies, the argument would still be is flexibility better or just a lack of integrity. References: Harrison, Horngren, Thomas 9th Edition St Joseph’s University ( Bass, Solomon Dowell (

Friday, November 15, 2019

Mining Pollution Debate Summary Essay -- Mining Argumentative Persuasi

Mining Pollution Debate Summary Though it has had many negative impacts on the environment in the past, mining is a vital industry completely necessary to our economy and lives. Nearly every item we use or encounter in our day to day lives is mined or contains mined products. Without the excavation of such materials things like computers, televisions, large building structures, electricity, and cars would not be possible. Virtually every technological and medical advance uses minded materials, without which millions would suffer. Some examples of minerals in the home include the telephone which is made from as many as 42 different minerals, including aluminum, beryllium, coal, copper, gold, iron, silver, and talc. A television requires over 35 different minerals, and more than 30 minerals are needed to make a single personal computer. Without boron, copper, gold and quartz, your digital alarm clock would not work. Every American uses an average 47,000 pounds of newly mined materials each year, which is high er than all other countries with the exception of Japan, which is a staggering figure representative of our dependence and need for mined minerals. Coal makes up more than half of nation’s electricity, and will continue to be the largest electrical supplier into 2020 & accounting for some 95 percent of the nation's fossil energy reserves – nine of every ten short-tons of coal mined in the United States is used for electricity generation. As the population of the world grows more mineral resources must be exploited through mining in order to support the rising demand for such products. Though it may present a hazard to the environment and those physically located nears the mines, the materials extracted from mines... ...s/Tmain_business_MWTP.htm 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Sojourner Truth Essay

Sojourner Truth was born in 1797 on the Colonel Johannes Hardenbergh estate in Swartekill, in Ulster County, a Dutch settlement in upstate New York. Her given name was Isabella Baumfree, also spelled Bomefree. She was one of 13 children born to Elizabeth and James Baumfree, also slaves on the Hardenbergh plantation. She spoke only Dutch until she was sold from her family around the age of nine. Isabella suffered very cruel treatment once her first master died and she was sold to her next master, John Neely.Neely’s wife and family only spoke English and beat Isabella fiercely for the frequent miscommunications. She learned to speak English quickly, but she still had her Dutch accent. She later spoke up and said that Neely once whipped her with â€Å"a bundle of rods, prepared in the embers, and bound together with cords. † During this time that she began praying aloud when she became scared or hurt. In 1815, she fell in love with a slave named Robert. Robert's owner forb ade the relationship because he did not want his slave having children with a slave he did not own.One night Robert visited Isabella, but was followed by his owner and son, who beat him savagely, bruising and mangling his head and face, and dragged him away. She never got to see him again. Isabella had a daughter shortly thereafter, named Diana. In 1817, she was forced to marry an older slave named Thomas. They had four children: Peter, James, who died young, Elizabeth, and Sophia. In 1799, the state of New York began to legislate the gradual abolition of slaves, which was supposed to happen July 4, 1827. Dumont had promised Isabella freedom a year before the state emancipation if she would do well and be faithful.However, he reneged on his promise. She continued working until she felt she had done enough to satisfy her sense of obligation to him. She then escaped with her infant daughter, Sophia. Isabella went the home of Isaac and Maria Van Wagenen. Dumont found her and demanded h er to go back. When she refused he threatened to take her baby. Isaac offered to buy her services for the remainder of the year. Dumont accepted his offer for $20. Isaac and Maria insisted Isabella not call them â€Å"master† and â€Å"mistress,† but by their names.Once Isabella heard about her son she immediately set to work retrieving her young son Peter. He had recently been sold illegally to a slave holder in Alabama. She took it to the court and won. She was one of the first African Americans to win a court case. Isabella had a life-changing religious experience and became inspired to preach. In 1829, she left Ulster County and became known as a remarkable preacher, whose influence was miraculous. She soon met Elijah Pierson, a religious reformer who advocated strict adherence to Old Testament laws for salvation.In 1834, Pierson had died and the Folger family accused Isabella of stealing their money and poisoning Elijah. Everything was eventually acquitted. Isabel la settled in New York City, but she had lost what savings and possessions she had. She resolved to leave and make her way as a traveling preacher. On June 1, 1843, she changed her name to Sojourner Truth. She traveled, depending on the kindness of strangers. She began dictating her memoirs to Olive Gilbert. The Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave was published privately by William Lloyd Garrison in 1850.It gave her an income and increased her speaking engagements. She spoke about anti-slavery and women's rights, often giving personal testimony about her experiences as a slave. That same year, 1850, Benson's cotton mill failed and he left Northampton. In 1854, at the Ohio Woman's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio, she gave her most famous speech, with the legendary phrase, â€Å"Ain't I a Woman? † During the Civil War, she spoke on the Union's behalf, as well as for enlisting black troops for the cause and freeing slaves.In 1864, she worked among freed slaves at a g overnment refugee camp on an island in Virginia and was employed by the National Freedman's Relief Association in Washington, D. C. She also met President Abraham Lincoln in October. In 1863, Harriet Beecher Stowe's article â€Å"The Libyan Sibyl† appeared in the Atlantic Monthly; a romanticized description of Sojourner. In 1870, she began campaigning for the federal government to provide former slaves with land. She pursued this for seven years. In 1874, she developed ulcers on her leg. She was successfully treated by Dr.Orville Guiteau, veterinarian, but had to return home due to illness once more. She did toured as much as she could, still campaigning for free land for former slaves. In 1879, Sojourner was delighted as many freed slaves began migrating west and north on their own. She spent a year helping refugees and speaking in white and black churches trying to gain support for the â€Å"Exodusters† as they tried to build new lives for themselves. This was her la st mission. In July of 1883, with ulcers on her legs, she sought treatment through Dr. John Harvey Kellogg at his famous Battle Creek Sanitarium.It is said he grafted some of his own skin onto her leg. Sojourner returned home and died there on November 26, 1883, at 86 years old. She was buried in Oak Hill Cemetery next to her grandson. WORK CITIED Pauli, Hertha Ernestine. Her Name Was Sojourner Truth. NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1962. Slave Narratives. NY: Library of America, 2000. Stetson, Erlene, and Linda David. Glorying in Tribulation: The Lifework of Sojourner Truth. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1994. http://www. biography. com/people/sojourner-truth-9511284 http://www. harpyness. com/2009/02/09/honoring-sojourner-truth-1797-1883/

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Foreign Oil vs Domestic Oil

Foreign Petroleum Industry V. S. Domestic Petroleum Industry The Petroleum Industry is a very important industry for our ever-changing world. As we know it, right now, the world pretty much revolves around oil and gas exploration and extraction. Almost everything that the world produces uses oil or gas in one way or another. Right now, the Petroleum Industry is very big and prosperous in the Middle East (like in Pakistan and Iraq). Those areas are some of the world’s biggest oil and gas producers. They are making the â€Å"big bucks† by selling to us here in the United States.The oil and gas industry is booming in the Middle East. The United States is one of the biggest importers of oil and gas. We, as a nation, use an extremely large amount of oil and gas. When compared to the foreign Petroleum Industry, our domestic Petroleum Industry is really lacking. The United States has so much accessibility to oil and petroleum, but we are not extracting it from our surrounding bodies of water, such as the Gulf of Mexico. We have the potential to drill for our own petroleum so we will not have to purchase any oil or gas from foreign industries, but we are not drilling for some reason.Our Petroleum Industry could be a big contender in the world market, but since we are not drilling, we are not even a contender at all. The price of oil and gas is constantly rising. This does not look good for our economy since we are not drilling our own oil here in the United States. If we actually started to drill for oil and gas here in the United States, domestically, we would not have to worry about extremely high gas prices since we would be drilling it here. But since we have to buy from an international seller, we cannot name our own price for the oil and gas that we purchase from them.If we had domestic oil and gas exploration and extraction, we would have less trouble and drama with foreign countries. The less we deal with foreign countries that really do not like us, the better for us. The domestic Petroleum Industry, pretty much, does not exist since we do not have permission from the President to be drilling off the coast of the United States. Even with the drilling that we ARE doing already, it still does not add up to what we could possibly be drilling and using or selling. If we had permission to extract oil and gas from the ocean right off of the coast of the United States, our domesticPetroleum Industry could also be booming like the Middle East, but since we do not have any say in what we can and cannot do, it seems like the Middle East (at least until they run out of oil and gas) will always have a better Oil and Gas Exploration and Extraction Industry than us here in the United States of America. It is a shame to know this because we would not have to be spending as much of our own money and getting THAT much deeper into National Debt, if we could just drill off of our shores†¦ Sources http://www. oilandgasinternational. com/ www. ipaa. org

Friday, November 8, 2019

COMPANY ASSIGNMENT 2015 Essays - Petroleum Politics, Free Essays

COMPANY ASSIGNMENT 2015 Essays - Petroleum Politics, Free Essays The plummeting price of oil is still the biggest energy story in the world. The oil price has fallen by more than 40% since June, the price of Brent crude as in Diagram 1.This comes after nearly five years of stability. At a meeting in Vienna on November 27th the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which controls nearly 40% of the world market, failed to reach agreement on production curbs, sending the price tumbling. Also hard hit are oil-exporting countries such as Russia (where the rouble has hit record lows), Nigeria, Iran and Venezuela. Why is the price of oil falling? The oil price is partly determined by actual supply and demand, and partly by expectation. Demand for energy is closely related to economic activity. It also spikes in the winter in the northern hemisphere, and during summers in countries which use air conditioning. Supply can be affected by weather (which prevents tankers loading) and by geopolitical upsets. If producers think the price is staying high, they invest, which after a lag boosts supply. Similarly, low prices lead to an investment drought. OPECs decisions shape expectations; if it curbs supply sharply, it can send prices spiking. Saudi Arabia produces nearly 10m barrels a daya third of the OPEC total. Four things are now affecting the picture. Demand is low because of weak economic activity, increased efficiency, and a growing switch away from oil to other fuels. Second, turmoil in Iraq and Libya, two big oil producers with nearly 4m barrels a day combined has not affected their output. The market is more sanguine about geopolitical risk. Thirdly, America has become the worlds largest oil producer. Though it does not export crude oil, it now imports much less, creating a lot of spare supply. Finally, the Saudis and their Gulf allies have decided not to sacrifice their own market share to restore the price. They could curb production sharply, but the main benefits would go to countries they detest such as Iran and Russia. Saudi Arabia can tolerate lower oil prices quite easily. It has $900 billion in reserves. Its own oil costs very little (around $5-6 per barrel) to get out of the ground. The main effect of this is on the riskiest and most vulnerable bits of the oil industry. These include American frackers who have borrowed heavily on the expectation of continuing high prices. They also include Western oil companies with high-cost projects involving drilling in deep water or in the Arctic, or dealing with maturing and increasingly expensive fields such as the North Sea. But the greatest pain is in countries where the regimes are dependent on a high oil price to pay for costly foreign adventures and expensive social programmes. These include Russia (which is already hit by Western sanctions following its meddling in Ukraine) and Iran (which is paying to keep the Assad regime afloat in Syria). Optimists think economic pain may make these countries more amenable to international pressure. Pessimists fear that when cornered, they may lash out in desperation World's largest oil exporter is forcing prices lower to win back market share but the high-risk strategy will test the house of Saudi like never before. Saudi Arabia has won the opening battle of its radical oil strategy by forcing prices lower. But the kingdom is about to enter into a dangerous new phase in its war to regain control of the worlds oil market. Saudi succeeded in bullying the other members of the (OPEC) into continuing to pump their current quota of 30m barrels per day as its first objective. The kingdoms veteran oil minister Ali Naimi clearly believes is necessary to shut down the cartels biggest rivals in Russia and the shale oil fields of Dakota. With 13pc of global oil reserves and the cheapest production costs, the kingdom believes that it can still buy back the market and secure higher prices over the long term. This is one of the most important policy initiatives by Saudi Arabia in the modern era. If victorious, Saudi Arabia will emerge stronger after re-asserting its global significance as the custodian of the worlds primary energy source. Besides, Saudi Oil Minister Ali al-Naimi, the architect of OPECs strategy to

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

The Norse Essay

The Norse Essay The Norse Essay The Norse Most of the Norse people lived on farms and in longhouses that were about 30 meters long (large hall like buildings). The walls were made of timber or stone and a thick turf roof to retain heat. In the very center of the house was the fire pit (hearth), to heat and provide light to everyone inside. Family members, live stock and farm workers all lived under the same roof, and originally it was one single room but eventually they made it into several rooms. The town people lived close together and in houses made of wood, wattle and daub, they had enough room for a yard, rubbish pit and workshop. Surprisingly the thought to be dirty and barbaric Vikings, were actually quite cleanly. Ornate combs, used by men and women, were one of the most commonly found artifacts at their settlements. Also found at these settlements were bejeweled gold and silver brooches, rings and necklaces. As a result of clothes decaying over thousands of years it was hard to know exactly what the Norse people wore, but based on ancient paintings we can assume the Norse women wore woolen or linen smocks with brooches. Women who were married also wore scarves on their heads. Men were thought to have worn woolen tunics over trousers. Norse outfits also included cloaks and caps in winter. When woman gave birth, they were surrounded by only women, and they were in kneeling position on the floor and as the birth progressed it was elbow to knee position and the baby was taken out from behind. If the births were difficult, woman would sing songs to the gods to ask for help. A tradition held by the Norse people is having feasts. They held these after things such as, a marriage, successful trade, or raid. At the feast the meal consisted of pork meat, goat meat, beef and bread that had seeds to add flavor. The Norse people drank wine, beer and mead, a strong alcoholic drink made from honey. Another ritual they had was carving runes (their alphabet) into their weapons; they believed this gave them protection during battle. One of the many festivals that the Norse celebrated was Jul; a festival of 12 nights. This is the most important holiday of all. On the night of December 20th the god Ingvi Freyr rides over the earth on the back of his shining boar bringing light and love back into the world. This story later evolved and changed into the god Wotan (Odin) charging across the sky on his eight legged horse a sleipnir. Children would leave hay and sugar in their boots for sleipnir, in return Wotan would leave them a gift for their kindness. The grey bearded Wotan turned into Santa Claus, and the eight legged horse sleipnir became the reindeer. One of the most prominent rituals was sacrificing (blot), and a communal feasting on the meat of the animal that was sacrificed, and drinking beer and mead were also a large part in the feasts. The Norse people had their own kind of alphabet; â€Å"One of the ways that historians have gained an insight into the lives of the Norse people is through their written relics, mostly found on stone memorials. The Norse people wrote using the 16 runes (letters) of the futhork (alphabet). Each rune not only represents a phonetic sound (like the modern-day alphabet), but can also represent an object. The first rune, for example, can not only be read as 'f,' but can mean 'cattle' or 'wealth.'† As a result of having no paper they carved runes into bones, weapons, and rocks, wood and metal. The runes were used to label, and keep track of items. They were also very crafty people; the women made clothes themselves and the men repaired the farm equipment and weapons themselves. Tapestries and embroideries were found at their settlement as well as flutes and panpipes. This gives us a glimpse into their life, and their possible love of music. One of the largest icons in the Norse culture is the Viking ship it was used as a war and trading vessel but had an incredible design and art. The largest art we have from this time

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Stakeholder Analysis Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Stakeholder Analysis - Assignment Example Professional baseball players will have a stake because of their dependence on the success of their respective teams to help in their acquisition of lucrative opportunities and rewards while amateur participants will be dependent on the capability of teams, clubs, and coaches to help them acquire their goals. The different baseball players in various levels will expect a well-organized and regulated baseball sport which will have the ability to offer them opportunities within which they can safely participate even with the security of good medical services in the case of an injury and a functional contract. Other stakeholders include Traffic Control Units as well as the Boston Police Department. The police will be necessary for security patrols and maintenance operations during the baseball game events. This is particularly important due to the fact the games will be scheduled at night and hence the need for a solid and functional security system to ensure the smooth operations and p erformance of the different games. The police unit will work with the internally based security system within Boston University. This close cooperation between the two is important since the BU Security personnel are well versed with the daily operations of the institution. The traffic control unit will be tasked with the responsibility of regulating traffic inflow and outflow during the game nights to prevent any interference with the normal traffic flow on major roads and highways leading to Boston University.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Comparison of Windows and Linux Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Comparison of Windows and Linux - Essay Example BIOS (Basic Input Output System): This is a firmware and is used to iniate the harddisks, and CDRoms while booting the system. The BIOS runs from the PROM, EPROM or, most commonly, flash memory when the computer is powered on. It initializes several motherboard components and peripherals.An operating system is software that is responsible for the management of the resources of a computer. It has the capability of taking input from the user and performs activities such as allocating memory, controlling peripherals, managing file system and facilitating networking with other devices. It provides the user with a common platform to install more application software as per their requirements. The user interacts with the system with by the command-line or graphical user interface. Other activities performed by the operating systems are;Process Management: Previously what happened is that mostly one task was executed at a time by the processor i.e. the DOS only ran on sequentially executing a single statement at a time. The new operating systems however, are efficient in terms of saving and utilizing the CPU idle time in a better way. This is now possible by the capability of quickly shifting between tasks.Memory Management: An operating system memory manager actually prioritizes the use of different types of available memories. This is done on the bases of their transfer rate and volatility. This includes registers and Cache's in the CPU and RAM which is the memory specifically assigned with this task. All applications and softwares including the operating system are first included in the memory, mostly in RAM and from there the active processes i.e. the processes being currently in access by the user are retrived for further work. File-system Management: Operating systems usually have this tool for the purpose of arranging the disk space. This is done so that the files can be copied to and from the disk properly. Windows operating systems support Fat 16, Fat 32 and NTFS (Latest and most efficient files-system included with Windows NT). Linux supports EXT 2, EXT 3, GFS, GFS2, XFS, NILFS and many other formats including FAT and NTFS formats. Other tasks performed by the activities such are networking and guarding the system by implementing internal and external security are also important task. The authentication process of Windows is based mainly on the Kerberosv5 authentication and NTLM authentication which are considered as the industry standards (Microsoft Technical Documentation IIS 6.0). Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) uses ASP coding to encrypt and verify User and Host Identity. Linux was written by Linus Torvalds in 1991. The purpose was to have an open source free operating system. This enabled contributions from programmers towards the Cause and hence after several changes Linux has been developed into a very sophisticated operating system. Linux being open source software doesn't provide any specific authentication. Though similar efforts have been done by vendors like Red Hat, which have included the authentication algorithms