Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Website Analysis

Website Analysis Assignment I choose the website of Gleaners Community Food Bank of Southeastern Michigan to analysis. Its address is http://www. gcfb. org/site/PageServer? pagename=homepage. The site clearly states Gleaners mission – Nourishing Communities by Feeding Hungry People, on the heading with the company’s icon and also in the first â€Å"What we do† text chunk. From the information provided, I found that it serves three audience segments: donators, volunteers, and partner agencies. From my perspective, the donators group is the one the organization mostly to target, because compare to other groups, the organization provides exhaustive introductions about donation and put them on a more easy-to-grasp place. For instance, three out of five homepage text blurbs and the first picture comes out in the homepage are all about donation The website groups related items into different menus and links. However, the link name and the hierarchical order are confusing to me. The main menu arranges information as HOME, TAKE ACTION, EVENTS/FOOD DRIVES, END HUNGER and PARTNER AGENCIES. For the first sight, people will not understand what the END HUNGER section means and will have to search. Besides, I think the END HUNGER and EVENTS/FOOD DRIVES sections should be before the TAKE ACTION and PARTNER AGENCIES. Because people need to see the organization’s mission and approaches before making a donation or partner decision. Moreover, the website does not do efficient in terms of web navigation. Different audiences have to click back and forward among different links to get all the information they want. The website’s menu put donation and volunteer together into the submenu of TAKE ACTION; It puts some of the partner agent information strangely into the END HUNGER section; Besides, the â€Å"Need Food Now† which links to Gleans partner agencies occurs twice at the top-row menu and the right column header within a screen length. This duplicate link is unnecessary since to find the information, you do not even need to roll your mouse. The bottom-row menu provides some site navigation about jobs and contact information but does not list any helpful information on location or site map. All these designs make the presentation distracting and inefficient. When I look into its content, I find the information is periodically updated, however, not fresh. The last update news is in October. I volunteered with Gleaner on the first Saturday of November and wanted to see our volunteer pictures on the website. It is clearly promised on website, the volunteer section that the pictures will updated per week. However, it seems that the company ate its words. Since the news is not newest, current audiences will feel disappointed and the prospective audiences may lose their interest to keep looking at the site. Despite the fact that some information is not easy to access for certain audience, the information content itself is helpful. For example, when I go to the Bag Hunger event link, I can find a very attracting event poster, the event date, location, contact information and even a calendar which brings you to previous and upcoming events. The website is written in a consistently professional and friendly tone. It invites interaction with email newsletters, facebook, twitter, mobile and visiting tour. Most of its texts maintain pleasing, easy-to-read line length, use the font size and color that are easy to read from the background. The line spacing is consistent and easy on the readers’ eyes as well. The text is balanced with vivid illustrative graphics and bulleted lists. The graphs in the website are really powerful. They are adorable and creative in design. When surfing the site, I even stored some pictures in my computer. But a problem about them is the size. They are so small that I have some struggles to catch the words in the picture. Thus the small size kills the informational effectiveness of the pictures. Glearners’ Food Bank has its headlines and page title clear, very simple but still to the point. So it saves the readers’ time and keeps them interested. Its name and logo are on every page and links to the homepage. The internal links provides identification for all pages with both heading and a short text that explains the purpose of each page. For the Donation site, you can see a description that â€Å"You can help feed our hungry neighbors today with your donation of funds or food to Gleaners†. For the volunteer, it has â€Å"View a list of current volunteer activities†, â€Å"View our Volunteer Scrapbook to see some of the thousands of volunteers who assist Gleaners every year† clearly states the purpose. The heading also contains a search with an advanced searching option. I tried the search by Wayne State University, and hoped to find their volunteer picture in the scrapbook. But the search gave me twenty unrelated Wayne community, Wayne annual report things. It did not work adequately. On a whole, I will trust the website with my information because it presents its information in a professional way and also because it is a member of many reputable charity organizations. Even though from my perspective, some items are grouped overlapped and they lack strong logic drive, most of the words are really simple and informative. To make the website look better, I suggest the following: * Make the images larger and easy on the reader’s eyes * Delete the duplicate hyperlink â€Å" Need Food Now† * Change the â€Å"END HUNGER† to a more clear and understandable title * Arrange the menu into a logic order –put END HUNGER and EVENTS/FOOD DRIVES sections before TAKE ACTION and PARTNER AGENCIES * Make sure the content is current and keep its weekly update promise

Film Assignment Essay

For this assignment, I chose the 1996 movie â€Å"A Time to Kill† is applying Carl Roger’s Model of Argument. The film is based on the novel of the same title by John Grisham that tells the story of finding justice amidst the racial bigotry of the South. It is the story about a black man, Carl Lee Hailey, who killed the men who raped and mauled his 10-year old daughter Tonya and is looking at a death sentence should he be found guilty of murder in court in a town where racial prejudice continues to abound. It is through the efforts of his defense lawyer, Jake Brigance that Carl Lee was acquitted and released (McConnnaghuey and Jackson 1996). At first glance, a debate is very likely to ensue. Some would say Carl Lee is guilty because he broke the law by murdering the suspects. The latter had been arrested and should have been given their day in court and let the law take its course. They believe that revenge was Carl Lee’s motive for taking matters in his own hands and that the death penalty is appropriate because of what he did, consistent to the adage, â€Å"the punishment must fit the crime. † Legally, Carl Lee is indeed guilty and the jury appears to be leaning towards that decision. However, looking at it from the other side, there are others, as personified by Jake, who believe Carl Lee did the right thing though it was very drastic. While it may be true that Carl Lee was legally guilty, this does not immediately mean he is morally wrong. In the latter part of the film, Jake won the case because he was able to find common ground, not only with the jury, but also to the audience. He took their attention away from Carl Lee and his act and instead focused it somewhere else on the actual victim Tonya. Jake did this by taking everyone on a â€Å"journey† inside Carl Lee’s mind, putting themselves in his place, retracing his road to perdition on the day his daughter came to him battered and bleeding to the time he killed the suspects. He closed the â€Å"journey† by telling the jury to now â€Å"imagine she were white. † This is the common ground Jake successfully established. The â€Å"secret† behind it was Jake is able to make the jury shed off any racial bias they may have by getting them to empathize with Carl Lee. The result was instead of looking at a black man seeking redress for the attack on his daughter, but just a father who is merely looking out for his daughter. It can be inferred that everyone on the jury would have done the same thing if the victim had been their own child. They also know how biased the justice system is in town and that black people never get a fair trial but in this case, Jake succeeded in making them see it from a different perspective. It is certain that everyone knows justice is not always found in the courtroom, especially in this town and there are times when doing the right thing means breaking the law because the law is not perfect as it is administered by a racially prejudiced society. What was substituted here is a deeper sense of justice that is common to all, rooted in religious beliefs. In other words, people like Carl Lee are guided by their personal morals that are very fundamental where it becomes easy to discern right from wrong. All in all, the film shows a demonstration on how the Rogerian Model is applied as â€Å"common ground† was established with the audience by the performers in the film through the use of empathy to establish this common ground. Bibliography A Time to Kill. Directed by Joel Schumacher. Performed by Matthew McConnnaghuey and Samuel L. Jackson. 1996.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Assess the Significance of Developments in Policing Essay

There were many significant developments in policing which aided the effectiveness of law enforcement in Britain from the period of 1830 to 1965. Reasons as to why developments were necessary in this period; firstly between the years 1829 – 1850 there was a steady increase in crime[1]. Secondly as time progressed criminals came up with ways to beat the policing system, therefore it was necessary for policing in Britain to develop, in order to keep on top of crime. Development factors such as; the establishment of the Metropolitan Police Force, passing of key legislation were key developments in policing which influenced law and order. Other developments such as the reformation of prisons and developments in technology, coupled with roles of individuals such as; Elizabeth Fry and high profile cases like that of Oscar Wilde, also contributed to the effectiveness of law enforcement in the 19th and 20th century. The first significant development in British policing, which notably advocated effective law enforcement was the establishment of the Metropolitan Police Force in 1830. This was a significantly fundamental advancement in law enforcement as it was the first time in British history that an organised policing force was introduced and it updated the predated system of watchmen and bow street runners. However, the force was met with varying attitudes from the public, much of which was sensationalised by the media[2]. Other major Acts were implemented to support the Metropolitan police, especially forces outside of London, for example; the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. This was a significant development as it nationalised the police force therefore allowing effective law enforcement to take place throughout the country, unlike before where it was restricted to London[3]. However the effectiveness of these developments can be questioned, as police officers were often criticised for being drunks and bullies[4], therefore they were mistrusted by the general public. There were further attempts to nationalise the police force, such as the Rural Constabulary Act 1839. This was a significant development in law  enforcement as the legislation focused nationalising policing in rural areas. On the other hand, the enforcement of the Act was optional[5] thus limiting its effectiveness, as many boroughs were apprehensive of its creation. Nevertheless further legislation was pioneered in the form of the County and Borough Police Act of 1856, which saw every county having to acquire a professional police force[6]. The government encouraged the development and gave incentives such as; paying for clothing and wage to efficient police forces[7]. Officers therefore, would have felt a sense of duty to their jobs accurately as they had respectable positions. Additional legislation allowed the policing forces of Britain to develop into further branches, such as the establishment of the C.I.D in 1877 which investigated homicides. This development was pivotal as it loosened pressure on the Metropolitan police force and allowed a select force to focus on a case. However, the birth of the C.I.D incurred with the Turf Fraud Scandal, thus leaving the public suspicious and distrustful of the establishment. The C.I.D’s first major test came in the form of the Jack the Ripper Case in 1888[8], which instilled fear throughout the nation. Conversely the case was significant in another light, as police performance was repeatedly criticised for its incapability and slow work. Other cases such as The Arrest of Scotland Yard[9], did not help the detective forces as they were again shown as an inefficient and corruptive detectives. The development of the C.I.D also brought about the development of the Special Irish Branch in 1884, both which showed their significance as they foiled the assassination attempt of Queen Victoria at her Golden Jubilee in 1887[10]. This was a significant case as it showed the public that both, the C.I.D and the Special Branch were effective developments of law and order as cooperative work between forces ensured the protection of the Queen and thus the nation. It is apparent that other factors contributed in influencing effective law and order and not only developments in policing, for instance the reformation of prisons. Prisons in the 18th century have been criticised for their poor sanitation, poor food and living conditions. It was remarked that felons in Britain lived â€Å"worse than dogs or swine†[11]. Humanitarian Elizabeth Fry campaigned for the separation of women and children from male  prisoners, especially after she witnessed the appalling conditions in prisons[12]. Her work was promoted throughout the House of Commons and with the support of Sir Robert Peel; they introduced a series of prison reform including the Gaols Act 1823. This showed the strong public opinion on issues regarding law and order, especially as intervention of influential individuals was evident. By 1840 the government had recognised that prisons needed to be modernised, such as the Pentonville prison in 1842. Developments such as these meant that wardens could control prisons better and new regimes could be exercised, such as the separate system, where inmates were kept in solitary confinement from the beginning of their sentence. This development aided effective law and order as there were reported cases of reformed criminals, however the system sent many insane or led them to suicide, questioning the regime and the governments handling on the treatment of criminals. Furthermore, prisons had been nationalised in 1877[13], this coupled with the harsh regimes led to a steady fall in crime[14], proving the effectiveness of this development on law and order. Further legislation such as the Prison Act 1898, reasserted the idea of reformation as the main role in prison regimes. This led to a dilution of the separate system, the abolition of hard labour, and established the idea t hat prison labour should be productive. The argument of the reformation of prisons brought attention to young offenders. Transportation itself had ended in 1852, as reformists viewed it as a lenient punishment, however under the Reformation School Acts (1854); courts were allowed to send children for transportation[15] setting double standards within society, whilst historians argue that there were little, if any boundaries between children and adults[16]. The Children’s Act of 1908, established juvenile courts[17] and also banned prison sentences to those less than 14 years of age. This was significant in influencing effective law enforcement, as children were seen with sympathy and compassion. The legislation also showed that boundaries were being set for adults and children. During this period there was a general feeling that children were committing crime due to inadequate discipline and education at home, thus the Borstal System was introduced[18]. The main elements in the borstal programs included; education, regular work, vocational training, and group  counselling, however the Borstal System proved to be ineffective as 75% of inmates still re-offended[19] . Further developments came into fruition in the form of technology, which greatly influenced effective law and order. It has been argued that were being increasingly caught[20], for instance, advancements through the development of finger printing in 1901[21]. The development aimed to prevent criminals from concealing previous convictions. This development contributed to effective law and order as a database of criminals was created which the police could use as a reference for repeat offenders. Other tools which helped the police force included Radio telegraphy and the use of the 999 system in 1910. These developments influenced effective law and order as the police was able to communicate better with not only one another, but also with those in need of help. However the effect of the modernisation of the police force meant that there was increasing reliance on electronical and technological methods, thus alienating the average police man from his community[22]. It can be argued that the use of media had also affected the influence the effectiveness of law and order as public opinion had been influenced through the use of various Medias. The Oscar Wilde Case of 1895[23], exemplified how societies stereotypical immoralities i.e. homosexuality, could be used against someone in a court of law and order and convict them as a criminal. Other cases, for instance the Derek Bentley Case of 1952[24], showed further miscarriage of justice, as the wrong person was hung. This case was significant in influencing law and order as the media attention helped increase societies widespread doubt in the justice system. An added incentive that motivated the public’s change of attitude towards capital punishment and the miscarriage of justice was the Ruth Ellis Case of 1955[25]. It was evident from this case, that Ellis was did not receive the correct legal representation in court and the case was not thoroughly investigated. It was found out after the trial; Ellis was a victim of domestic violence, which could have been the cause for her crime of passion. These high profile cases strengthened the public’s resolve on the issue of the barbarity of capital punishment and the ever present fact that there was  no reprieve for those who were convicted and hung. This led to the profoundly significant changes in legislation which influenced effective law and order; the Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act of 1965[26]. This was paramount in policing legislation as the death penalty was abolished. The abolition was a significant change in the 20th century as capital punishment was seen with much aversion both from the public and judges alike, who were especially reluctant to hand out death penalties. In conclusion developments within policing which significantly influenced effective law and order in the period 1830-1965 were vast and all had varying impact on society. Legislation such as the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835 and the Rural Constabulary Act of 1839, ensured society was protected by an organised, efficient national police force. However officers were distrusted by the general public, therefore they had many hurdles to face before having a significant impact on society. However one cannot base the effectiveness of law and order within this period solely on developments in policing, as there were other contributory factors. For example; reformation of prisons through work of individuals such as Elizabeth Fry, the establishment of the C.I.D, technological developments such as finger printing and DNA sampling and high profile cases like that of Oscar Wilde. These developments greatly advanced effective law and order, as one can base the suggestion of decreasing crime rate during 1830-1965[27] on these as well as the developments in policing. Bibliography Books Trend of Crime 1750 – 1900 – Ian Dawson Crime and Punishment: A Study Across Time – Roger Whiting 1968 D.Taylor. ‘Crime, Policing, Punishment in England 1750-1914’ The Victorian Underworld, Donald Thomas 1998 Police and Prisons – P. F. Speed 1970 Crime and Punishment through time, John Murray History of Police in England and Wales – T. Crithchley 1978 Websites

Monday, July 29, 2019

Team DISC Assessment Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Team DISC Assessment - Coursework Example Team building often involves the bringing together of new teams and giving them a new sense of direction, a period of getting to know their colleagues, as well as recognizing abilities and skills. Team working on the other hand involves the sharing of ideas, supporting one another and being open. It is also important to note that good leadership is essential to any business; it is an important factor for making an organization successful. Leaders are a key human resource in each and every organization (Hersen, 2004). In fact, the importance of leadership in management can never be overemphasized. In order for things to get done by people in the organization, the management must supply leadership in the organization. Team work is especially essential in order for one to realize the organizational goals, and it is the work of the managers to influence the team to work and accomplish through leadership. Further, it is imperative to understand that leadership often aids authority and it must go hand in hand with team work. Pursia’s DISC assessment was an impresser. This was her strongest quality. Being an impresser in the organization is extremely useful (Sugerman, 2011). This is because it helps one charm to the business partners as well as breaks the ice when it comes to meetings within the organization. Further, being an impresser is also important as it helps employees to take greater responsibility when it comes to decision making and also helps team members to take control of the work processes (Avery, 2001). The impresser often helps in improving morale as the employee can be able to effectively gain more authority as well as ownership over the projects that one is working on. With the help of the impresser, she can help with the extra responsibility which can effectively lead to a more rewarding work environment as well as lower turnover. Further, with the impresser working on a team it gives the employees a greater sense of belonging and

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Art management essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Art management - Essay Example On the same legal issue, during the tenure of the US president George W Bush, there was a tightening of restrictions around the Cuba embargo and it became a bit harder for US citizens especially to access artwork from Cuba freely as had been the case before. This was also as a result of lobbying by some members of families who had had their art confiscated by the Fidel Castro regime when he took power (Yulia, 2010). This is particularly true with the case of the Billionaire Fanjul family that had a vast collection confiscated and later sold by the Cuban government. They lobbied to have anyone trading in their artwork declared to be in violation of trading with the enemy laws put in place to prevent trade with Cuba but under which artwork was exempted. Another law that the Fanjuls and others are relying on in their quest to recover their lost artwork is the Helms- Burton Act which blocks people that deal in Cuban confiscated property and their immediate families from entering the United States and also opens them up to payment of potential damages. In this case there is the Argentinean art dealer Bruno Sciaoli whom they have ascertained to have in his possession one of their lost art pieces known as the Malaga Porta painted by Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida. This Act was however not acceptable to the European Union which then passed a resolution which prevents its enforcement within the EU. The issue of the law not being enforceable in the EU arises from the fact that the EU recognizes Cuba as a sovereign nation as well as its decision to nationalize assets which includes the confiscated art work. In the US its embargo laws prohibit trade in the confiscated properties from Cuba. If the state department tries and finds the art dealer Bruno Sciaoli guilty, then they will have opened a whole new era in the sales of this art works. It will have complicated any sales of artwork sourced from Cuba which is going on at

Saturday, July 27, 2019

The Benefits and Dangers of Nuclear Energy Essay - 1

The Benefits and Dangers of Nuclear Energy - Essay Example Controlled nuclear fission is used to generate electricity and uncontrolled nuclear fission is used to make nuclear weapons, such as atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs. Nuclear fission also produces a large amount of nuclear wastes. â€Å"In nuclear weapons, fission and fusion of certain slightly radioactive materials release energy in a huge explosion† (Medalia, 2004, p. 1). â€Å"The element uranium is the main fuel used to undergo nuclear fission to produce energy since it has many favorable properties. Uranium nuclei can be easily split by shooting neutrons at them. Also, once a uranium nucleus is split, multiple neutrons are released which are used to split other uranium nuclei. This phenomenon is known as a chain reaction. Nuclear Fusion: Nuclear fusion is the process of joining two atoms smaller than iron such as hydrogen or helium to produce heavier atoms and that large amount of energy is produced in this reaction, which is much more than the energy produced by nuclear fission. Nuclear fusion is the main source of energy in the universe because all the stars including the sun produce energy by nuclear fusion. Other than nuclear fission, man has not yet discovered a method to control nuclear fusion, and nuclear fusion is not used to generate electricity. Scientists are working hard to discover a method to control nuclear fusion so that it can be used to generate electricity. Nuclear fusion is only used in hydrogen bomb which is the deadliest weapon humanity has ever seen. The temperature required to start a nuclear fusion is so large that it is provided by the explosion of an atom bomb. Benefits of Nuclear Energy: The largest advantage of nuclear power is that it does not emit any harmful gases to the atmosphere like carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, or nitrogen dioxide, that is, no green house gasses like carbon dioxide is emitted to the atmosphere, and so using nuclear fuel can reduce global warming. As nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide are not emitted, acid rains can also be reduced. The only emission from nuclear reactors is water vapor. Hence nuclear energy is known as clean energy. â€Å"It is difficult to explain to a non-specialist (though it is actually true) that the nuclear reactor of a nuclear power station is nothing like an atomic bomb, that the power station burning coal or oil offers much greater danger and harm to the environment as well as a biological threat to people than does a nuclear station or breeder reactor of the same capacity rating† (Sakharov, 1978, p. 12). â€Å"Although the initial cost of building nuclear plants is high, th e running costs are relatively low. One reason the costs are low is that nuclear plants need only a small amount of uranium to produce a lot of energy. In fact, if the cost of uranium is doubled, costs would only be increased by 7%. 1 truck of uranium produces as much energy as 1000 trucks of coal!† (Advantages of Nuclear Power, 2012). Efficiency: Another major advantage of nucl

Friday, July 26, 2019

Analysis of Katharine Brushs Story Birthday Party Essay

Analysis of Katharine Brushs Story Birthday Party - Essay Example The reader doesn’t know anything about him, but using â€Å"self-satisfied† makes the first impression negative. The woman was presented as â€Å"fadingly pretty with big hat†. It’s obvious that the couple is not just married, they are not that young. The fact that she was wearing a big hat does not seem to be important, but at the end of the story, Katherine clarifies that it was her best hat. The surprise she prepared for her husband was quite banal, though the author let us know that it was thoroughly prepared: after the musicians played â€Å"happy birthday† the woman â€Å"beamed with shy pride over her little surprise†. Now it’s clear that she tried her best to please her husband, while his negative reaction to that surprise made her cry. Though we don’t know what exactly he said to his wife, Katharine characterized his words as â€Å"quick and curt and unkind†.Brush used bright adjectives which might seem to be a l ittle bit exaggerative, but that’s exactly what is needed in a short story to emphasize the ideas conveyed.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Describe the Opium Wars in China that lead to the Treaty of Nanking Essay

Describe the Opium Wars in China that lead to the Treaty of Nanking. What were the most important factors that lead to the takeover by the West - Essay Example om China, but the monopolies existing among traders in China and unfair tariffs made it difficult for the East India Company to continue trading in silver and it finally resorted to trading opium for tea from China. Opium became very popular in China because during that time, there were difficulties in the economy and people in China were looking for a means of escape. The addictive drug opium provided just such an escape. Opium was prohibited but it was cheap and easy to acquire and the number of addicts kept increasing, at a substantial cost to society. People were trading silver and copper for opium, thus creating further losses to the economy. In the year 1838, Lin Tse-Hsu became the appointee of the Tao-Kuang emperor. Opium addicts were threatened, the drug dealing activities of foreigners were hindered by confiscating stores and demanding that they sign bonds guaranteeing their good conduct and other drug dealers were rounded up. However, all of these efforts did not prove to be a significant deterrent to opium trafficking, as a result of which Lin finally resorted to seizing 20,00 chests of British opium and burning it. This action was the direct cause of the Opium War, since Britain immediately declared war on China in retaliation for this gesture. The Opium War lasted for three years from 1839 to 1842. England was at a distinct advantage due to its superior naval and armed forces and it was able to defeat easily China in 1842. The Treaty of Nanking was formulated after this victory of the British and forced China to agree to several concessions. Firstly, Hong Kong was to be handed over to the British. Secondly, the ports of Foochow, Canton, Amoy, Ningopo and Shanghai were to be opened to foreign businessmen and missionaries. Thirdly, China had to pay 21 million silver dollars to the British. Fourthly, trade tariffs were to be moderated and transit inland fees were to be reduced. Fifthly, foreign officers were to be granted equal status as the Chinese

E-Marketing Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

E-Marketing - Case Study Example This is an essential component of implementing any marketing strategy by each of the above practitioners. However, with the extension of the 4Ps to envisage 7Ps, there was a better reflection of the market with the inclusion of people, processes, and physical evidence (Chaffey, 2009). Therefore, the product mix strategy is the total number of product lines that consumers enjoy from a specific company. Google provides industrial services as a form of its products. Some of the services include the provision of an advertising platform and the search technology service. Their products are categorized into business, advertising, and Google store solutions. The company uses the List price strategy, in order to determine the prices of its products. Prospective consumers are offered with the basic price or the normal price. In promotion, Google offers its search results with no accompanying advertisements, which attracts most users. Google applies the expansion strategy as the major product mix strategy. The internet is Google’s place, where it offers the consumers the ability to utilize their services online. Being the largest search engine the company ensures that it makes its brand name the core product. The fundamental features of the products that Google prod uces meet the needs of the consumer. Positioning of the company’s product in the internet market is the main source and determinant of the profits enjoyed by the company. For instance, it acquisition and partnership with a part of Yahoo has made it to have a market share of over 80 percent. Therefore, the position of Google as a company is the image that its products project. This image is compared to the competitive products and other products offered by other competing companies (Fernandes, Gouveia & Pinho, 2012). Facebook came into existence in the year 2004. Since then, the company has grown to be the largest social internet connectivity site that

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Tourists Ethnic Background and Nature-based Tourism Dissertation

Tourists Ethnic Background and Nature-based Tourism - Dissertation Example New Zealand, London and Scotland), especially by calling attention to the experience aspect of travel. Nature-based experiences have received increased attention from researchers during past few years. Identification of Management Issues Nature-related tourism expects high expertise from individuals working at management level since it initiates funding for conservation as well as raise environmental awareness (Balmford, et al., 2009). As a student of Management, it is very much evident that from research perspective, the interest in nature-based experiences is escalating among individuals (e.g. Mehmetoglu, 2007a, 2007b; Waitt, Lane, & Head, 2003). The focus on cross-cultural differences in tourism experience consumption, however, is for the most part neglected. In an international tourism management context competition is rising, and knowledge of the different markets could be a precondition for success. To create a memorable nature-based experience for international visitors, aware ness of how ethnic group might influence the perception of such experiences is argued essential. In the international tourism management arena, the experiential component of holidays is emphasised in promotion material as well as social media. As a result it is essential to know the customers and the national traits that might somehow characterise them. Statement of Research Question What is the relationship between Tourists’ Ethnic Background and Nature-based Tourism in London? Aim and Objective The purpose of this study is to divide tourist ethnic group, based on cultural point of reference and then compares the resulting segments in terms of the opinion of nature-based experiences of tourism from tourism management viewpoint. Literature review When people from different countries meet in international tourism, ethnic group becomes a central issue of interest. The characteristics of tourists from different countries also become evident when tourists come together in nature- based experience production and consumption. Cultural values held by tourists from different nations hence affect tourist behavior and perception, and can furthermore impact experience creation. In an international tourism context then, it is vital to understand culture (De Mooij & Hofstede, 2010), in order to recognise what tourists from various countries emphasise in their holiday experience. People's valuation of nature-based experiences, their motivation for taking part in them, and their preference for activities are therefore likely to differ according to ethnic group and cultural background. Providers and marketers of experiences are stakeholders in an international market, and from a managerial point of view the challenge is therefore to know the guests' preferences. Nevertheless, adapting to the guests' needs and wants might not be easy, as experiences are individually perceived and socially consumed. In practice, knowledge of nature-based tourists' national characteristics can result in managerial tools that guide adaptation of nature-based experiences to international tourist demands.  

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Relationship Between Argetina and the International Monetary Fund Essay

Relationship Between Argetina and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) - Essay Example The higher a countrys foreign debt level, the greater are the chances of default. According to World Bank, the Latin American Countries (LAC) would need US $ 60 million annually during 1991-2000 period. This translates into higher borrowing, higher debts and debt servicing. Budget cuts were immediately felt at the international financial institutions like the Asian Development Bank (ADB), International Monetary Fund (IMF), which decreased access to officially supported credits. Global interest rates rose, which further increased foreign debts. Mexico, Brazil and Argentina could not sustain the economic growth and lurched from one financial crisis to another (Elstrodt, Lenero, and Urdapilleta). Debt has been the largest source of capital flows in the developing countries but despite that, economic development has not been successful. The causes and consequences of such debts have been the subject of debate over the years. This paper will examine the severity of Argentinas debt and the relationship between Argentina and the IMF. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, UK and France too had defaulted on the debt repayments but the problems in debt repayments in Latin American can be dated back to 1914 when Mexico suspended its payments (Dodd). Owing to a series of corrupt regimes, Argentina has experienced severe economic declines. In 1956, a group of wealthy nations met in Paris to find a solution to the looming debt problems of Argentina. In the 1970s, large amount of lending to Latin America was in the form of syndicate banks loans. Brady Bonds helped in the debt restructuring process and the Brady plan proposed exchanging the loans for bonds that would allow the debt to be traded in financial markets where it would be priced at market value. Macroeconomic management is essential if the country is to attain sustained growth. Argentina, besides pegging the peso to the US dollar at parity in

Monday, July 22, 2019

Civil Engineering Essay Example for Free

Civil Engineering Essay Introduction This research aims to identify and highlight the career opportunities awaiting fresh graduates of civil engineering. This research further aims to look at the specific jobs that are available for them, amount of work load, basic salaries and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of particular choice of specialized civil engineering practice such as structural, water resources, environmental, construction, transportation and geo-technical engineering, among others. Statement of the Problem With the wide variety of specialized practice of civil engineering, newly graduated civil engineers need to be aware of the requirements of each specialization and fully understand the other details of the job. Being fresh from the realms of the academe, these fresh civil engineering graduates need to be guided accordingly as they ready to join the civil engineering workforce. Presenting the result of this study will help them evaluate their specific areas of interest within the bounds of the civil engineering career and will enable them to make an intelligent choice as to what career they really want to pursue. Proposed Solution This study will employ in-depth analysis of the career opportunities and choices available for civil engineering graduates. As such, specialized civil engineering fields will be identified and explained, the likeability that a new graduate will pursue a specific field will be determined and the factors that should be considered in choosing a specific career path. Methods In order to address the research problem, the researcher will employ quantitative and qualitative research method which is designed to complement each other’s findings. Respondents of the research will be practicing civil engineers. Using the qualitative research design, the researcher will conduct a survey to compare factors such as the specialized field where civil engineers usually get for their first job and the basic salary offer for an entry level position. The qualitative research design will include in-depth interviews of practitioners on the specifics of their jobs, the factors that should be considered in choosing a line of practice and other pertinent information about the field based on their experience. Conclusion This research aims to help fresh civil engineering graduates in making a decision of which career path to pursue after college by presenting the choices available for them along with the considerations and factors that might affect their decision. First hand data will be gathered through survey and interview of practicing civil engineers specialized in different fields to get information based on their experience.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

What are the key elements of cbt

What are the key elements of cbt According to Beck, the cognitive approach to psychotherapy is best viewed as the application of the cognitive model of a particular disorder with the use of a variety of techniques designed to modify dysfunctional beliefs and faulty information processing characteristic of each disorder. At its current stage of development, CBT is considered one of the best validated psychotherapies available (Bennett-Levy et al. 2004, Salkovskis 1996), indeed, surveys indicate that CBT is fast becoming the majority orientation of practising psychologists (Gaudiano 2008). The fundamental premise of CBT is that emotional experience, behaviour and physiological sensations are influenced by individuals cognitive processes. Each of these realms of human experience is synergistically co-determining, with cognition mediating their reciprocal interrelationship (Sanders and Wills 2005); Clark Steer in Salkovskis, 1996). CBT asserts that the appraisal or meaning assigned by an individual to these processes t hat will determine their impact on psychological well-being (Beck 1976). Essentially, there may be several alternative ways of looking at experiences (Salkovskis 1996), that individuals actively construct their realities (Clark Steer in Salkovskis, 1996). The crucial role of cognitions in predisposing and maintaining psychological difficulties is emphasised, cognitive techniques are therefore viewed as a key element of the intervention process (Clark Steer in Salkovskis, 1996). The CBT model proposes that psychopathology is the product of faulty information processing that manifests itself in distorted and dysfunctional thinking which directly leads to negative emotions and maladaptive behaviours. Therapy aims to help clients identify and modify these distorted patterns of thinking (Bennett-Levy et al. 2004) by empowering them to choose alternative ways of interpreting and reacting, drawing from the fullest possible range of alternatives available. Psychopathology is conceptualise d as occurring on a continuum, symptoms being viewed as extreme variants of relatively common human experiences. For example, in anxiety disorders, cognitive models specify circumstances under which otherwise normal cognitive processes become stuck resulting in pathological levels of anxiety (Salkovskis 1996). Furthermore, CBT postulates the existence of cognitive styles and biases characteristic of particular psychological disorders known as the cognitive content specificity hypothesis. In practice, CBT is a collaborative, time limited, structured, educational, empirical and active form of therapy utilising a variety of methods, some specific to CBT, others adopted from other therapeutic approaches. Not only has CBT developed rapidly since Becks seminal work on depression, it has also changed greatly over the last 15 years with the emergence of CBTs 3rd wave approaches (Mansell 2008). Therapies falling under the CBT umbrella now include problem-solving therapy, DBT, ACT, rational-emotive behaviour therapy, cognitive processing therapy, MBCT and cognitive behavioural analysis of psychotherapy (Gaudiano 2008). Initially, this paper will explore the defining characteristics of conventional, mainstream CBT providing a brief overview of therapys structured format, its emphasis on collaborative therapeutic relationships and its cognitive and behavioural intervention techniques. The paper will endeavour to highlight throughout the defining characteristics of CBT, namely, i ts empirical, educational, parsimonious and adaptable approach to treatment using examples from a variety of clinical disorders. Examination of the main tenets of CBT will be followed by discussion of limitations associated with the approach. CBT has been criticised on multiple fronts, both from within CBT and from alternative therapeutic perspectives (Andersson and Asmundson 2008). A number of CBTs critiques will be examined including CBTs coherence as a theoretical framework, the role of the therapeutic relationship, its applicability across various populations and its current status within the broader socio-political context of mental health care provision. Limitations will be evaluated given recent developments within the discipline, primarily the emergence of the complementary therapeutic approaches heretofore mentioned. This paper will examine whether recent developments have sufficiently addressed CBTs limitations and will conclude with a discussion of possible areas of futur e research and development within the discipline. Case Conceptualisation CT is not a technique driven treatment, it should be driven by individual case conceptualisations that are based on a specific cognitive model (Wells 1997). The CBT assessment is a valuable opportunity to engage and socialise the client in the CBT approach, in which the therapist encourages the client to view therapy as a no lose experiment. In contrast to other therapeutic approaches, CBT assessments primarily focus on a detailed description of the current presenting problem (frequency, circumstances/situational aspects and associated distress levels), analysis of symptom, cognitive and behavioural details, historical and aetiological factors (primarily predisposing or triggering factors) and social/environmental influences. The majority of assessment is devoted to the identification and objectification of current presenting problems. Symptom presentation may be analysed in terms of its antecedents, associated appraisals and beliefs and emotional or behavioural consequences (Wells 1 997). In panic disorder, assessment would focus on the nature of catastrophic misinterpretations, a detailed description of the primary feared symptoms and the nature of safety and avoidance behaviours (Wells 1997). During assessment and indeed throughout the course of therapy, symptom and mood measures are used to establish base line rates and to assist in monitoring progress over time. Assessment is an important element of the formulation or cognitive case conceptualisation process. Case conceptualisation is envisaged as the process whereby client and therapist reach a shared understanding of the origins, development and maintenance of the clients problems. The formulation is an overview, essentially a working hypothesis, which is open to testing and verification throughout therapy and provides a tentative intervention plan. Conceptualisation is an active and continuing process throughout therapy, thus, the formulation is open to addition and revision as therapy proceeds (Sanders and Wills 2005). As the client becomes increasingly socialised in the CBT approach, SBs and cognitive biases may be incorporated into the initial formulation to aid clarity, understanding and planning. Crucially, the evolving formulation educates the client in the interaction between thoughts, emotions, behaviour and physiology, illustrating how the elements interact, trigger and maintain their problems. The assessment and formulation process allow the therapist to draw upon their knowledge of cognitive models of psychological difficulties, tailoring these models and associated protocols to the individuals case conceptualisation, thereby creating a bridge between theory and practice. At its simplest level, the formulation may be a diagrammatic representation of the clients problems, in which therapist and client plot the sequence of events in symptom presentation, often using vicious cycles (Wells 1997). The formulation represents the first stage in creating a cognitive set for the processing of alternative explanation of the clients problems (Wells 1997). However, there is a scarcity of evidence linking quality or style of formulation and therapeutic outcome (Sanders and Wills 2005); its value lies, from a practitioner viewpoint, in representing a roadmap of how therapy might proceed and possible intervention avenues. Structure and Format The brief nature of CBT necessitates a highly structured and goal directed format to be adopted from the outset. Through the negotiation of agendas, goals, a problem list, summaries and completion of self-guided activities (homework) (Padesky and Greenberger 1995), CBT maintains a focused, results oriented approach. At the beginning of each therapy session, an agenda is collaboratively devised and agreed upon, each session typically including a review of the clients mood, feedback, client and therapist agenda items, review and agreement of homework tasks (Sanders and Wills 2005). In early therapy sessions, the generation of a problem list (a practice inherited from behaviourism) highlights the main areas in which the client wishes to see improvement and guides target areas (Sanders and Wills 2005). Goal setting, which typically occurs at the end of the assessment, allows client and therapist to clearly define and operationalise the gains the client wishes to make by the end of therap y (Sanders and Wills 2005). A central component of CBT practice is self guided activity or homework. CBTs educational and self-help ethos seeks to empower the individual to ultimately become their own therapist, the completion of homework tasks outside session reinforce this learning experience. Homework can be enormously varied, from reading self help material to conducting behavioural experiments. Ideally, homework is devised collaboratively with a clear rationale for treatment gain. As therapy proceeds and the client becomes increasingly socialised to CBT, the client can adopt an increasingly independent role in devising homework with decreasing levels of therapist input. CBTs brief duration is greatly aided by the completion of homework outside session, enabling therapy to occur continuously in the clients own time. Successful homework completion has been associated with improved therapeutic outcomes, with clients who consistently complete homework between sessions improving more than patients who do not (B urns Auerbach in Salkovskis, 1996). Treatment including homework produced improved outcomes than treatment consisting entirely of in-session work (Kazantzis et al. 2003) Collaborative Therapeutic Alliance CBTs core competencies (Roth Pilling, 2007) affirm the importance of a collaborative therapeutic relationship within clinical practice. Competency as a CBT practitioner requires not only knowledge of cognitive models of psychopathology but also the ability to apply its theory in a structured manner. In practice, therapists must be able to formulate a useful case conceptualisation and apply empirically based clinical interventions within a collaborative therapeutic relationship (Padesky and Greenberger 1995). The collaborative element of the therapeutic relationship necessitates the adoption of a team work approach. This is underscored during therapy through the elicitation of client feedback, joint agreement of goals and frequent summaries by therapist and client to check understanding and learning. Collaboration is fostered by curiosity and inquisitiveness on the therapists behalf, both parties working in parallel towards achieving therapy goals. In contrast to alternative therapeutic approaches such as Psychodynamic, the therapeutic relationship is not conceived in of itself, to be the primary vehicle of clinical change in CBT. Beck, 1976, argued that although the qualities of a good therapeutic relationship are necessary, they are not sufficient as therapies active ingredient. Once the basic elements of the therapeutic relationship are established, CBT interventions may proceed (Burns Auerbach in Salkovskis, 1996). The importance of the therapeutic relationship within CBT has been reasserted over recent years. Demonstration that non-specific therapy factors, that is, the therapeutic relationship have an additive contribution to clinical improvement independent of CBT techniques has emphasised the importance of the alliance within CBT. These research findings illustrate that client subjective appraisal of the quality of the therapeutic relationship and therapist empathy are crucial (Squier 1990). Clients of practitioners wh o where rated as warmest and most empathic improved significantly more than patients of therapists with the lowest empathy ratings. Therefore, the quality of the therapeutic relationship, even in a technical form of therapy like CBT, has a significant impact on clinical improvement (Sanders and Wills 2005). As with other forms of therapy, the fundamental characteristics of a good therapeutic relationship such as accurate listening, empathy and congruence are vital for effective CBT practice (Sanders and Wills 2005). Guided Discovery Guided discovery, the primary learning process within CBT, teaches clients to question their own thoughts and beliefs (Padesky and Greenberger 1995). Therapists guide discovery verbally through questioning and experientially through BEs. Through this process, clients evaluate alternative perspectives or information which may be outside their immediate conscious awareness but when considered informs and impacts their existing thoughts, predictions and beliefs. Through the practice of collaborative empiricism, client and therapist adopt an experimental approach (Wells 1997), treating thoughts as hypotheses open to testing and verification (Padesky and Greenberger 1995). CBT encompasses interventions targeting cognitive content, from NATs to schema level and cognitive processes known as metacognition. Using Socratic dialogue, the therapist guides the client to uncover new information, integrating and generalizing these new insights into their thinking. The use of synthesising questions allows the therapist and client to extrapolate from the concrete to the abstract, applying information gleaned in the current discussion to previous ideas, thus facilitating generalizability and the construction of new beliefs. Socratic dialogue has been conceptualised as a means of loosening NATs, priming clients to consider alternative possibilities, increasing their range of attention, memory and highlighting cognitive biases in action. Thought records, a content focused intervention, enables the examination of evidence for and against a negative automatic thought, the identification of alternative perspectives and associated belief levels. The identification of the most salient or affect inducing thought (hot thought) focuses client and therapist on emotively charged and potentially debilitating or maintaining thoughts. Belief ratings assist in the distancing process, emphasising that thoughts are not true or false in a dichotomous sense. Moreover, thought records allow client and therapist to identify predictions which can be subjected to testing (Wells 1997). Whilst working with DAs, it may be more appropriate to emphasise the construction of new, more adaptive alternatives rather than attempting to disprove old rules using evidence for/against or examining pros/cons (Padesky and Greenberger 1995). Cognitive techniques targeting the core belief and schema levels such as positive data logs and retrospective though t records enable the generation of new helpful, alternative beliefs over a prolonged time period or the re-evaluation of past experiences using present day focus. Traditionally, CBT has tended to focus upon language content; metacognitive perspectives (thinking about thinking or the meaning of thinking) assert the importance of maladaptive cognitive processes in the development, maintenance and treatment of psychological problems. Advocates suggest that challenging of negative thoughts or beliefs targets the output or end product of dysfunctional metacognitive processes. Metacognitive awareness therefore highlights process level maintaining factors, for example, through the use of frequency counts; the client may record the number of intrusive thoughts or duration of ruminative thinking and associated impact on mood (Sanders and Wills 2005). Imagery based cognitive techniques are used when the clients thoughts and emotions present in visual rather than verbal form or when imagery is their preferred form of expression (Sanders Wills, 2005). For example, in social phobia, the clients fear of social rejection and perceived lack of coping skills may come to mind as an image of themselves blushing and being publicly humiliated. Therapeutic interventions focus upon restructuring or altering the form or content of images. The client can be encouraged to re-imagine an image, altering its appearance or creating a new ending finishing out (Wells 1997). In PTSD, in which intrusive memories and images maintain the current threat cycle, imagery techniques are used to contextualise the trauma image, embedding it within its historical context, thereby disabling its contribution to current threat perception. Behavioural techniques Behavioural intervention techniques such as activity scheduling and BEs have been described as the most powerful means of cognitive change (Wells 1997). The effectiveness of behavioural activation (BA), graded increases in activity levels and exercise has been demonstrated, particularly in depression (Westbrook et al. 2007). BA promotes improvements in mood and feelings of self-efficacy through focus upon increasing opportunities for enjoyment, mastery and pleasure. Activity schedules enable a baseline level to be established, plan future activities, increase problem solving and demonstrate to the client their current activities and achievements (Beck in Salkovkis, 1996). BA is typically the first intervention target in depression, progressive increases in activity levels and associated improvements in mood allow therapy to proceed to more cognitively focused tasks which may have been initially impossible. BEs are experiential exercises which enable clients to test hypotheses through action, reality check their predictions and generate new perspectives thus facilitating emotionally grounded change (Bennett-Levy et al. 2004). BEs are highly adaptable in design and implementation, in which the client may be an active participant or observer, can occur independently or with therapist support either in session or in vivo. BEs are most successful, that is, produce maximum cognitive change if outcomes that support the various hypotheses are clearly operationalised, results are reviewed in detail and their impact on existing beliefs openly discussed (Bennett-Levy et al. 2004). The potency of BEs as learning experiences means that a limited number of well designed BEs can not only target NATs but also begin to undermine dysfunctional assumptions and beliefs. Informed by the experiential learning cycle and adult learning theory, BE design is envisaged as containing four key elements: planning, experiencing, observing and reflecting. Each stage represents an opportunity to question predictions, generate new ideas and test them in everyday life. Theoretical considerations of the mechanisms of change underlying BEs invoke multilevel information processing models such as Teasdales ICS model (Teasdale in Salkovskis, 1996). ICS outlines two qualitatively different information processing systems, a propositional, logical, rational, verbal, affect-free processing system and an implicational, non-linguistic, rapid, experiential, emotionally salient learning system. According to the ICS model, the value of BEs is their ability to create enactive procedures that activate different schematic models. Essentially, BEs enable enactment of different ways of being rather than solely providing evidence which when rationally considered leads to belief chang e. In contrast to the cognitive techniques previously discussed, BEs are though to operate on both the propositional and implicational levels enabling a felt sense of their results. It is assumed that verbal cognitive techniques exclusively operate on the propositional level unless affect is stimulated. Research conducted with trainee practitioners has demonstrated that BEs produce significantly greater cognitive and behavioural change than thoughts records (Bennett-Levy 2003), although evidence for their specific effectiveness is sparse (Bennett-Levy et al. 2004). CBTs oft quoted limitations have been described as myths by those within mainstream CBT (Westbrook et al. 2007), critiques have originated however both within and external to the discipline (Andersson and Asmundson 2008). The following discussion will examine some of the main themes of this somewhat polarized debate, contextualising views within the reality of present day evidence-based, cost/efficiency focused, stepped care service delivery. It will argue that recent developments within CBT have done much to counteract its limitations and that CBTs future course will be defined by its ability to integrate increasingly fragmented perspectives into its ever evolving framework. Coherence According to Salkovskis, 2002, theory and empirical evaluation are central to developments within CBT; there is a continuous reciprocal relationship between science and practice. In recent years however, the necessity of cognitive intervention techniques, one of CBTs defining characteristics which differentiates it from other therapeutic approaches has been questioned (Jacobson et al. 1996). The necessity of logico-rational strategies to directly challenge and modify maladaptive thoughts has been questioned (Longmore and Worrell 2007);(Ilardi and Craighead 1994). A number of empirical anomalies within CBTs outcome literature have inspired this debate (Hayes et al. 2004). Component analyses investigating the necessary and effective elements of CBT have in some cases failed to demonstrate added value of cognitive intervention techniques. In a study of major depression, comparison of treatment conditions comprising of BA, BA with challenging of automatic thoughts and CBT resulted in equ ivalent performance across conditions at conclusion of therapy, 6 month follow up and in relapse rates at 2 years (Jacobson et al. 1996). The ambiguity has further intensified due to CBTs delay in researching its mechanisms of change, which according to (Burns and Spangler 2001) often fail to conform to cognitive model predictions. Additionally, measuring changes in the cognitive mediators of a disorder (thoughts and beliefs implicated by a cognitive model in disorder maintenance) do not appear to precede symptomatic improvement, thereby challenging cognitions assumed mediating role in therapeutic change. The course of this ongoing debate would appear to be directly in contrast with Salkovskis description of CBTs empirical focus above. The clarification of the essential and effective components of CBT practice across ranges of severity and CBT formats appears to be required (Waddington,) This equivocation is further exacerbated by characteristics instilled by CBTs integrative development. CBTs foundations in BT and CT have resulted in the development of a diverse and at times contradictory nomenclature (Mansell 2008). Its roots in clinical observations rather than empirical research, led to a disconnect with cognitive science and neuroscience (Gaudiano 2008). Furthermore, CBT has been criticised for its inability to define itself and its lack of coherence as a theoretical framework (Mansell, 2008). Although there is general agreement on the key characteristics of CBT, outlined earlier in this paper, there is not an accepted definition of the essential elements that comprise CBT. The recent proliferation of competing theoretical frameworks such as ICS, SPAARS, S-REF RFT has propelled CBT further from its foundations and towards increasing complexity and fragmentation. A reductionistic, mechanistic model of distress CBTs opponents have argued its approach is mechanistic, overly rationalistic (Greenberg and Safran 1987), fails to address the entire individual and has limited utility for people with long term or complex problems (Gaudiano, 2010). Critics cite its focus on the here and now, its lack of attention to developmental history, interpersonal relationships and CBTs technique driven focus governed by rigid protocols (Sanders and Wills, 2005). CBTs response has been two fold, further research and refinement of its cognitive models and intervention enhancements tackling enduring and complex problems utilising Schema Focused Therapy (SFT). For example, Becks initial schematic model of depression was augmented to include the concepts of modes and charges to account for findings of diathesis-stress, the relationship between cognition and personality and the phenomena of sensitization and remission (Beck in Salkovkis, 1996). This pattern can be observed in many cognitive models in which research findings have been integrated to provide a more comprehensive account, for example, the finding that self-directed attention is a critical mediator in social phobia. Schemas are unlikely to become a primary therapeutic target in conventional, short term CBT unless necessitated by client material or pose a significant risk factor for relapse. SFT developed from studies of CT non-responders and relapsers, so called treatment failures. These individuals were characterised as having more rigid cognitive structures, a history of chronic, lifelong psychological difficulties and deeply engrained maladaptive belief systems. These schemas were formed in troubled or abusive childhoods, resulting in the childs development of maladaptive coping or survival styles. Developed for the treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), SFT builds upon its CBT foundations assimilating elements from attachment, psychodynamic (particularly object relations) and emotion focused perspectives, incorporating a range of therapeutic techniques from these approaches (Kellogg and Young 2006). A primary mechanism of change within SFT is limited reparenting, therapist and c lient dialogues enable the nurturing of the client as an abandoned child thereby challenging harsh and punitive adult relationships from early childhood. The therapeutic relationship is the antithesis of traumatic childhood relationships, an arena for clients to identify and test beliefs about relationships, practice alternative new behaviours and learn new ways of relating (Sanders and Wills, 2005). Patients are guided to generalise what they have learned in the therapeutic relationship to relationships outside of therapy. Confrontational, adversarial and dehumanizing Critics have asserted that CBT frames the client as a passive recipient of technical interventions (Strong et al. 2008), the CBT practitioner as controlling, medicalising, concerned with employing techniques and seeking evidence (Mansell, 2008; Sanders Wills, 2005). The use of technical terminology such as administered and implemented within CBT does little to assuage these concerns. Conversely, CBT advocates maintain that it is not an assembly of techniques applied mechanistically (Salkovkis, 1996). Research has demonstrated that CBT patients rate their therapists higher on various relationship variables (interpersonal skills, accurate empathy and support) than psychodynamic therapists, their level of active listening was found to be equivalent to insight-oriented therapists (Keijsers et al. 2000). The integration of a compassion based focus within CBT has further enriched and reinforced the importance of the therapeutic alliance. Compassion focused therapy (CFT) developed from observations that people with high levels of shame and self-criticism find it difficult being warm, compassionate and kind to themselves (Gilbert 2009), that they often use a harsh, bullying manner when attempting to change their thoughts and behaviours. People who are unable to self-sooth find it difficult being reassured or remaining calm when considering alternative thoughts or engaging in new behaviours. In CFT, the role of the therapist to help the client experience safety in their interactions, to feel safe with what is explored in therapy and to ultimately replace self-criticism with self-kindness. In compassionate mind training, the client learns the skills and attributes of compassion through modelling of the therapists compassionate abilities. CFT focuses upon the client experiencing alternativ e thoughts as kind, supportive and helpful. Throughout therapy, the client is taught to use warmth, compassion and gentleness as their foundation from which to move into more challenging activities. Limited applicability to certain populations: the psychologically minded Critical evaluations of CBT have highlighted its potential weakness and limited evidence-base for children, older adults (Kazantzis et al. 2003) and people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Critics argue whether CBT models and techniques can be applied to these disparate populations or whether CBT is best suited for the population in which it was developed. The extant literature has highlighted particular characteristics that engender suitability for CBT including, the ability to access thoughts, recognise, differentiate and label emotions, link events and emotions, understand the mediating role of cognitions and assume responsibility for change (James et al, 2001). Within ID, research is required on potential barriers to treatment that may or may not arise from capacity and motivational factors. CBT being an essentially linguistic method presents unique challenges within ID, cognitive techniques being more difficult to apply as verbal ability decreases (Willner and Hatton 2006). Furthermore, there has been a paucity of research within mainstream CBT regarding the applicability and validity of CBT models to ID (Willner and Hatton 2006). NICE guidelines for children indicate CBT, in either group or individual format for depression (NICE, 2005) and moderate to severe ADHD (NICE, 2006). Research investigating child focused CBT interventions have been almost exclusively derived from adult treatment protocols, with insufficient attention devoted to their applicability to children (Cartwright-Hatton and Murray 2008) or developmentally appropriate intervention techniques (Doherr et al. 2005); (OConnor and Creswell 2008). For example, it has not yet been demonstrated, that a childs developmental stage predicts treatment outcome. The role of family in child-focused CBT is receiving increased attention. Research investigating parental cognitions as triggering or maintaining factors in childhood problems have resulted in their incorporation within child-focused models. A recent study demonstrated that socially phobic mothers encourage their infants to interact less with a friendly stranger than mothers with GAD, which is predi ctive of the extent to which the child subsequently shows anxiety in the presence of a stranger (de Rosnay et al. 2006). Parental anxiety has also been found to be a significant predictor of treatment failure of individual child treatment. Preliminary evidence suggests that treating one family member whether it is parent or child can have secondary effects on other family members difficulties. A panacea for psychological distress Clinical significance analysis reveals that one third to a half of clients achieve recovery following CBT (or any other form of psychological therapy) (Westbrook et al, 2007). Therefore, it is clear that CBT and other therapeutic approaches cannot be conceived as a panacea for psychological problems. For a number of disorders, specifically tailored variants of CBT are recommended, often in parallel with family centred approaches, for example, anorexia and bulimia nervosa (NICE, 2004). CBTs impressive evidence base for depression and anxiety disorder treatment has encouraged the creation of the Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme in the UK (Ghosh 2009). IAPT focuses upon rapid throughput of patients aiming to reduce waiting list times and move 50% of people treated towards recovery (Rachman and Wilson 2008). IAPT draws heavily upon the NICE depression guidelines and Layards work on happiness (Layard, 2006) which outlined the social and economic costs of depre ssion and psychological problems. Mental health research has been dominated by symptom based

Personal development and study methods

Personal development and study methods Personal development and study methods help me to enhance self-development and build up individual personality. Besides that, it helps me to know more about myself and developed potential in the future. It helps me to improve my weaknesses and enhance the virtue by setting goal for the future. On the other hand, study methods can help me to improve my reading mistakes and get a better result in exam to achieve my goal in the future. I also improve self confidence and self-esteem in social skill from this subject. Before that, I am irresolute and less confidence in handling a task and make a decision in each part of life. But now, I become self-confidence to make decision in completing a task. (Mind Tools, 1995) Besides that, I also improve my self esteem in life. Before that, I have a low self esteem, always think negative and believe in negative comments. (Perera, 2002) I gives them impression feel without confidence to do something and negative influence on the decision making. But now, I have high self esteem by thinking positively and feel confidence to make a decision. (Perera, 2002) Besides that, I also learnt on thinking skill from PDSM. Before that, I always think negatively and emotional. But now, I know how to differentiate the advantage and disadvantage when I am thinking independently. I would open my mind to accept other opinions and make the correct decision. (qcda, 1993) Besides that, I will think logically for every decision made in order to achieve the task. (qcda, 1993) This subject teaches me to set up a personal career plan. It is to write down my proposed life agenda. (, 2009) Before that, I never think about my life planning in future. But now, I know my objectives  and direction after I studied this subject. I will easily achieving my goal and I cant be hurry in taking any shortcut to achieve the goal by doing it randomly. I also have set up short term, middle term and long term goal separately to achieve it during period of time. I also learn the SWOT analysis to evaluate strategic planning method. (, 2009) It will help me to overcome my weakness and develop my strength from internal and looking for opportunities and to occupy superiority in threat from external. (Wikipedia, 2009) In addition, PDSM also improve my personal skill such as listening skill and body language. Before that, after I listen lectures from lecturer, I cant understand what he taught. But now, I can understand the lesson. Besides that, I know the difference between hearing and listening. (Fodor, n.d.) After I study PDSM, my body language has improved. Before that, when I presenting something to them, they do not understand what I want to express. But now, I can present something by using verbal or non-verbal language to transmit a message to someone. (Mind Tools, 1995) I can attract my audience by using body language during my presentation. PDSM teach me how to improve my reading skills. So, I can read effectively by using the reading techniques. It is to determine objective, skim and scan through the text, and speed reading to understand the text. (Price and Maier, 2008) Now, I can read an article even more smoothly and faster than before. Besides that, I can understand meaning of phrases or sentences easily. It would help me improve my reading skills effectively for my degree study. I am learning about note making from PDSM. Note making is a technique to record important information effectively and recall it at any time. (Student and Community Services Unit, 1986) Before that, I am very confused when reading an article. But now, I am using note making technique to take down important information and memorize it easily. Besides that, it helps me to do revision more convenient and easily understand the content of an article. On the other hand, I will take notes in the class from lecturer. I can easily summarising and review the lesson base on the notes that I have made. (Jones and Mort, 1994) Other than that, I also learn about mind mapping in this subject. I would know how to make a mind map by using the notes. The note in a mind map is in order and clearly to analyze each part of the topic. It would help me easily to understand and have a direct vision for each part of the main topic. I can imagine the mind map by brainstorming and write down the notes and ideas easily. It helps me to remember each part of the ideas that I list down for examination and to overcome the information overload problem. (Mann, 2003) PDSM also teach me how to manage time. Before that, I always postpones my assignment until last minutes, thus I cant finish it. But after I learned the skill, I can overcome procrastination and manage time well. I am able to hand up my assignment on time. Besides that, I can plan and manage time usage more elastic in setting priorities by assigning and making decision between urgent and important criteria. (Haughey, 2000) In addition, I can set my personal goals via using S.M.A.R.T. principle to achieve lifetime goal in the future. (Haughey, 2000) Besides that, I also study learning method in PDSM. Before that, I do not know where I want to start on learning each subject. After I studied this subject, it helps me to find a ways to improve my study by the types of learning situations. For examples, I can discuss with classmates in tutorial and ask questions on lecturer. I will listen lectures from lecturer idea, recorded the notes and discuss with my classmates. I will know and understand the learning outcomes as a result on each courses of study. (Khathijah, 2004) I will manage my study and improve as well and enhance the quality of learning. (Khathijah, 2004) In conclusion, PDSM helps me in studying skills, personality and self-development. It will help me to become a successful person and as a student in the future. Reference: Mind Tools, 1995, Building Self-Confidence: Develop the Self-Confidence You Deserve!, Mind Tools Industry, Available from, Last Accessed 25th July 2009. Perera, K, 2002, What is Self Esteem?, Company, Available from, Last Accessed 25th July 2009. qcda, 1993, Developing skills: Thinking skills, Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency Company, Available from, Last Accessed 24th July 2009., 2009, What is Your Personal Career Plan?, Answers Corporation Company, Available from, Last Accessed 24th July 2009., 2009, SWOT analysis, Answers Corporation Company, Available from, Last Accessed 24th July 2009. Wikipedia, 2009, SWOT analysis, n.p. Available from, Last Accessed 24th July 2009. Fodor, J, Dr, n.d. What is Active Listening? The Elmhurst College Learning Center, Available from, Last Accessed 24th July 2009. Mind Tools, 1995, Body language: Understanding non-verbal communication, Mind Tools Industry, Available from, Last Accessed 25th July 2009. Richman, H, 1998, 11 Free Tips Improve Studying Results, Sound Feelings, Available from, Last Accessed 14th July 2009. Price, G, Maier, M, eds, 2008, Reading Skills, University of Southampton, Available from, Last Accessed 17th July 2009. Lamb, A, and Johnson, L, 1999, Skimming and Scanning, n.p. Available from, Last Accessed 17th July 2009. Student and Community Services Unit, 1986, Note Making, Victoria University of Wellington, Available from, Last Accessed 22nd July 2009. Jones, G, and Mort, P, 1994, Note-Taking Skills, The Learning Centre Company, Available from, Last Accessed 19th July 2009. Mann, B, 2003, Overcome Information Overload with Mind Maps, WebProNews Company, Available from, Last Accessed 23rd July 2009. Haughey, D, 2000, SMART Goals, Company, Available from, Last Accessed 23rd July 2009. Khathijah Abdul Hamid, Dr, 2004, A Guideline for the Development of Learning Outcomes for Courses of Study Offered at Private Higher Education Institutions, Linn-Benton Community College Media Service, Available from, Last Accessed 24th July 2009.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Nutrition Essay -- Health Nutrition Pyramid Diet

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Table of Contents Nutrition Therapy  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1 Nutrition Consult  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1 Meal planning  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2 Body Weight Considerations  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2 Psychosocial support.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  3 Calorie Intake  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  4 Nutrient Composition of the Diet  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  4 Fat Intake  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  5 Carbohydrate Intake  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  6 Sucrose  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  6 Fructose  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  6 Vitamins and Minerals  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  7 Alcohol Intake  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  7 References  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  8 Nutrition Therapy The most fundamental component of the diabetes treatment plan for all patients with type II diabetes is medical nutrition therapy. Specific goals of nutrition therapy in type II diabetes are to:[1] Achieve and maintain as near-normal blood glucose levels as possible by balancing food intake with physical activity, supplemented by oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin (endogenous or exogenous) as needed Normalize blood pressure Normalize serum lipid levels Help patients attain and maintain a reasonable body weight (defined as the weight an individual and health-care provider acknowledge as possible to achieve and maintain on a short- and long-term basis) Promote overall health through optimal nutrition and lifestyle behaviors. Because no single dietary approach is appropriate for all patients, given the heterogeneous nature of type II diabetes, meal plans and diet modifications should be individualized to meet a patient's unique needs and lifestyle. Accordingly, any nutrition intervention should be based on a thorough assessment of a patient's typical food intake and eating habits and should include an evaluation of current nutritional status. Some patients with mild-to-moderate diabetes can be effectively treated with an appropriate balance of diet modification and exercise as the sole therapeutic intervention, particularly if their fasting blood glucose level is < 200 mg/dL. The majority of patients, however, will require pharmacologic intervention in addition to diet and exercise prescriptions. It is important to note that ... insulin or sulfonylureas are susceptible to hypoglycemia if alcohol is consumed on an empty stomach. Therefore, these individuals should make sure to take any desired alcohol with a meal. Patients with diabetes and coexisting medical problems such as pancreatitis, dyslipidemis, or neuropathy may need to reduce or abstain from alcohol intake. References American Diabetes Association. Medical Management of Non-insulin-dependent (Type II) Diabetes, 3rd ed. Alexandria, Va: American Diabetes Association; 1994:22-39. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes 1996 Vital Statistics. Alexandria, Va: American Diabetes Association; 1996. Davidson MB. Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis and Treatment, 3rd ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1991:35-93. Henry RR. Protein content of the diabetic diet. Diabetes Care. 1994;17:1502-1513. Mudaliar SR, Henry RR. Role of glycemic control and protein restriction in clinical management of diabetic kidney disease. Endocr Pract. 1996;2:220-226. American Diabetes Association. Clinical practice recommendations 1995. Position statement: nutrition recommendations and principles for people with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1995;18(suppl 1):16-19.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Red Badge of Courage - The Power of Fear Exposed Essay -- The Red Badg

Power of Fear Exposed in The Red Badge of Courage The Red Badge of Courage, by Stephen Crane, is a book based on a young soldier’s engagement in the Civil War. The psychological conflict that he faces throughout the story is both internal and external. The battles are fought in the reader’s face to show the young soldiers' conflict with himself, other soldiers, and the battle itself. With Stephen Crane’s amazing power of description, the reader becomes engulfed in the battle at hand and feels that the conflicts of the soldiers are becoming his own. The main topic of the book is fear, and how it would affect a young man in a bloody war such as the Civil War. The war becomes the young soldiers worst nightmare, which gives him conflicting thoughts, emotions and fears. The young character soon realizes, as all of these things affect him emotionally and physically, that the war is very different from what he had hoped it was going to be.   Although the soldier becomes nervous and even runs away at the Battle of Chancellorsville, he eventually returns to find that he and his fellow soldiers have grown. They had learned more about themselves then they had ever believed possible. The young soldier becomes a man with plenty of courage by the end of this book. When we first meet Henry with his regiment, the 304th New York, he is bored and even lonesome, wishing to return to the farm. As time passes at the camp, Henry begins to realize that being a hero in the war may not be as easy as he had once dreamed. The inner conflict begins with Henry wondering about how he will react when the battle begins. He wonders whether he will run like a chicken, or stay a fight bravely. In the first battle Henry fights bravely, but as time goe... ...en Crane also uses his powerful descriptions in the parts of the book where the character is fighting battles. He puts the reader in the face of the enemy and describes to them every last detail, making the reader know what every detail was like. If Crane had made the battles any less dramatic, the reader would have had a hard time following what Henry was having an emotional conflict about. Since Crane put you right there in the battle, you also felt the way that Henry felt. Stephen Crane used the young soldiers inner and outer battles to give the reader a true idea of what the Civil War must have been like. The reader will visualize the battles, smell the gunpowder, hear the guns, and sense everything else that happens throughout the book due to Crane’s use of description. The reader even begins to feel and sympathize with Henry’s emotions and feelings.   

Thursday, July 18, 2019

The Poetry of Emily Dickinson :: Emily Dickinson Essays

There are several important and interesting authors in the American Literature history to talk about in this paper. However, Emily Elizabeth Dickinson is one of the most fascinating authors that generates admiration by reading her life and poems. Even tough her poems were not completed and written on scraps of paper, she is considered one of the great geniuses of nineteenth-century American poetry. The main reason of this reputation is based on the fact that her poems are innovative. Her poetry is different because she uses different literacy aspects from her contemporary writers. Aspects such as her family, friends, social issues, love, death, education and, in general, her personality had a tremendous impact in her writing. Eventually, these aspects were visualized when her poetry was published, and editors took it upon themselves to group them into categories of Friends, Nature, Love and Death.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was born on December 10, 1830 in the quiet community of Amherst, Massachusetts. Emily Dickinson was raised in a quiet, reserved family. Her father was a very authoritative person and her mother was not emotionally accessible. Her parent’s personality was probably the main reason of Emily’s eccentricity. Emily was raised in the Christian tradition, and she was expected to take up their father’s religious beliefs and values without argument. However, later, her poems illustrate how Emily challenges these conventional religious points of view of her father and the church, and how this new perspective contributes in the way and strength of her poetry.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Knowing that her family was well known in the area for its educational and political activity and before Emily started writing poetry, it is important to emphasize that Emily was a proper educated individual. She attended the Amherst Academy. After her time at the Academy, Emily left for the South Hadley Female Seminary but severe homesickness led her to return home after one year. This was basically the beginning of Dickinson’s life of solitude. This solitude could lead her to focus on her world and to start writing her first conventional style poems. Some years later, she started building her particular style in which she introduces different literacy characteristics to her poems making her a unique writer. Dickinson’s works have had considerable influence on contemporary and modern poetry. She used certain characteristics that made her style unique. Sporadic capitalization, dashes, unconventional metaphors, off-rhymes and broken meter are some of the most frequent aspects Dickinson used.

Impacts of Internet to Youth Essay

The Internet is a household word in the West and is responsible for the wide dissemination of information all over the world. It is perhaps the greatest invention of the 20th century and gives great power to its users; with great power comes great responsibility, especially for youths. The Internet is a new medium for distributing information. It has its own culture, its own way of communicating, no law enforcement, no national boundaries as well as free access to every kind of information known to mankind. Its potential for good and evil is mind-boggling with the possibility of every household being connected. After the September 11th attacks on the United States, it was rumored that Bin Laden’s Al Qaeda organization used the Internet to covertly exchange messages to prepare for the attacks [Kelley, Jack. Terror groups hide behind Web encryption. USA today. 2001.05.20. Available on life.]. But the Internet has so far mainly served as a very valuable tool to bring mankind closer together and to remove some of the barriers inherent in the â€Å"real† world (such as expensive textbooks and far distances to travel to see someone). It has had a great impact on those countries that have adopted its use and provides some kind of measure of the gap between First World and Third World countries. But what exactly is the Internet? And what are some of its uses? And what are its impacts to the society especially youth? 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Many computer literate children and youth access the Internet daily for both educational and recreational purposes. While the Internet provides a wealth of positive information, there has been increased awareness of its potential dangers, especially to young people. To address concerns surrounding Internet safety, in 1999 the Internet Safety Group of New Zealand was established. The Internet Safety Group is comprised of a number of Community groups and government agencies. Their objective â€Å"is to offer Schools and libraries resources that will help them educate and protect children and Young people, and educate parents/caregivers on the safe use of the Internet.† (Internet Safety Group, 2000, p.3). There has been much discussion to date about the ‘unsafe’ Internet practices of youth. Empirical research in this area is however limited. Auckland Rape Crisis, as a member of the Internet Safety Group, wanted to increase their knowledge and understanding of how you th use the Internet, and more specifically what youth may or may not be doing to place themselves at risk as a result of being on-line. Thus, it is imperative to study on the impacts of Internet to youth in Tanzania. 1.3 IMPORTANCE THE STUDY 1. The study will help the researcher to have practical skills on conducting research. 2. The study will open room for other researches to be conducted on the field so as to identify what should be done to prepare youth to overcome the challenges of Internet. 3. The study will also help the government and stakeholders in policy making to review country policies concerning the usage of Internet. 4. The study will also reveal the danger associate to internet usage among youth in Tanzania. 5. The study will also reveal the danger associate to internet usage among youth in Tanzania as far as our culture is concerned. 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Specifically the study will focus on the following objectives: 1)To find out and analyze the level of youth awareness and competence in the use of Internet. 2)To identify different types of Internet services and their uses to youth in Tanzania. 3)To identify what are the positive and negative impact of internet to youth in Tanzania. 4)To identify what youth in Tanzania benefit from Internet usage. 1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study will focus mainly on identifying uses of internet among youth in Tanzania and how internet affect their behavior and their day to day activity plus revealing the advantages that they will obtain from the internet. To meet the goal the researcher will study and analyze critically youth behavior on using the internet, what services they prefer to use on the internet, what kind of Webpages they prefer to visit and how internet affects them. 1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY The study is affected by the following limitations: a)Fund provided by the sponsor is limited hence the researcher will conduct the study in accordance to the fund available. b)Availability respondents and response from respondents will limit the researcher form getting relevant information at the right time. c)There is no enough proof of the information given by respondents, which might limit the research from meeting the objective of the research d)The availability of literature will affect the study. Few literatures may hinder the efficiency of the study. 1.7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The study will investigate on the following questions: 1.Are youth in Tanzania aware of the Internet and to what extent? 2.What service offered by Internet (web) do youth prefers? 3.How Internet influences youth behavior? 4.How does youth benefit from the Internet? STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS 1.Are youth in Tanzania aware of the Internet and to what extent? Hypothesis †¢Youth in Tanzania are aware of internet †¢Youth in Tanzania are not aware of internet 2.What service offered by Internet/web do youth prefers? Hypothesis †¢Youth prefer most of the services offered by the web. †¢Youth do not prefer most of the services offered by the web. 3.How Internet influences youth behavior? Hypothesis †¢Internet does influence youth behavior. †¢Internet does not influence youth behavior. 4.How does youth benefit from the Internet? Hypothesis †¢Youth does benefit from the Internet. †¢Youth does not benefit from the Internet.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

ADHD: Effects and Management

The subject of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity trouble oneself ( minimal soul dysfunction) has undergone intense interrogation in the past times decade. Much of this is grow in the circumstance that approximately 5% of pip-squeakren be stirred with the disorderliness. Children with assist deficit disorder be identified as having subjoind demeanoral nastyies because of excessive labour activities, poor self regulation and heed slightness (Dulkan et al., 1997).It has been instal that as galore(postnominal) as 30% of children inflicted with minimal brain dysfunction confound culture disabilities with pedantic under science becoming a coarse correlate. Since these children do non meet the expectations of golf-club and their facts of life environment they atomic number 18 usually met with anger, punishment, and rejection. In turn these children develop a low-self esteem and low levels of motivation (Morgan, 1997).The etiology of wariness deficit hyperact ivity disorder is st spastic a mystery story to look forers. Within the field there argon many correlates to biological (genetic) and favorable causes. The move over paper bring downks to explore present-day(prenominal) research through investigating the companionable and bio-genetic deflect of minimal brain dysfunction on child light. scrutiny and handlings of those with trouble deficit hyperactivity disorder leave behind besides be discussed. In accordance with Dulcan et al. (1997) ADD, ADD-H, minimal brain damage, although not identical, will be considered interchangeably receivable to quasi(prenominal)ity.Characteristics and runninging of minimal brain damage Intelligence compensate though minimal brain dysfunction occurs in people of all(prenominal) watchword, a legal age of children change give birth academic problems. These children may countenance special(a)ised knowledge disabilities, much(prenominal) as dyslexia, or may beget multiple c ontemplate problems (Beiderman et al., 1993). In a field of battle by MacLeod et al. (1996) comparing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children with those unaffected, those with the disorder transacted portentously worse than the other(a)s. Learning disabilities can be said to arise from attentional difficulties in the classroom setting. Many of these difficulties occur in tasks where listening and time is a factor. course session disabilities have withal been found as a entrust of ADHD (Millberger et al., 1991).Even though there is a high prevalence of boys and those with low cognizance agency diagnosed, others with ADHD ar impaired as well. Results have found that girls with this disorder face greater intellectual impairment, especially with picture diction tasks, than boys or control girls (Seidman et al., 1997). on that point is as well significant findings that the level of intuition affects ADHD children in different ways.More specifically, those with two ADHD and normal to high light argon more prone to accidents, and have a smaller number of calm friends. Children who were identified with low intelligence and ADHD were found to have more behavioral and emotional problems in their adolescence. Long limit studies have found that the outcome of these children was act academic problems and train failures (Aman et al., 1996). However, there is clue ADHD children express greater nice competency when writing or outline slowly and precisely (Morgan, 1997).Testing the intelligence of ADHD involves a number of measures. Psychoeducational examen is utilise to assess intellectual ability and to search for nurture disabilities. Tests such(prenominal) as the Wechler Intelligence Scale atomic number 18 used for intelligence examen, yet, much debate exists because of the call for to change the test to meet the childs attention deficits (Braswell, 1991). A naked intelligence test has been created by Naglieri (1997) called th e Cognitive Assessment schema to help diagnose and measure ADHD intelligence. This test is based on the set forth that traditional tests dont measure processes such as planning and attention, which is essential in testing and detecting ADHD assimilators. in that respect is repugnant data for the use of computerized tests of attention and perplexity for this purpose (Dulcan et al, 1997).In many cases the personal effects of ADHD on childrens intelligence is influenced by social factors. For instance studies make that symptoms exit worse in situations which are unstructured, minimally supervised, boring, or require keep up attention or mental fret (Dulcan et al., 1997). A study by Greene et al. (1996) purports that acquirement disabilities are lead by difficulties in social functioning. there is an inverse conjurehesis in IQ scores when think with accessiond social disability scores. The same(p) study looked at teacher perceptions, which showed that the less likable an d more aggressive the child was, the level the carrying into action. In researching verbal deficits in ADHD children, Faraone (1993) found many beforehand(predicate) intellectual problems linked with disruptive behavior such as hyperactivity and aggression.Data as well as shows that agnatic conflict, diminished family cohesion, and number of parents psychiatrically ill during the childs lifetime adversely affected intelligence scores (Greene et al., 1995). The researchers conclude that a significant correlation golf links IQ and social functioning. Another study by Biederman et al. (1995) shows similar results. Six factors were listed from the family environment which cor cogitate with ADHD childrens cognitive deficits. These include severe married discord, low social class, large family size, parental criminal record, maternal mental disorder and foster home placement. This study asserts that children with ADHD have a more tractable IQ and are more adversely affected. The Gr eene et al. (1995) study, argues that family size is of no significance. Conversely, when investigating parental style and family influence on ADHD IQ levels, Naussbaum (1990) stems that little evidence exists. brusque school achievement for ADHD children is also associated with the need for immediate reinforcement. These children have been shown to perform as well as others in situations where consistent, immediate and positive reinforcement is in place. Rule governed behavior is additionally difficult for these students. Even when they understand the rules, they do not follow through with correct behavior, and so the right social environment is necessary. Theories of Vygotskys such as self lambast and social guidance were listed as executable influences (Braswell, 1990).Studies have found that lower intelligence in ADHD children is not socially mediated, but in fact rooted in genetics and human biology. In testing the families of these children, it has been shown that siblings show increased learning disabilities and higher rates of ADHD (Faraone, 1993). Family patterns show that approximately 20 to 30 part of children with ADHD have a parent or sibling with similar problems.There is the suggestion that these children inherit a typesetters case of nervous system which makes them prone to learning disabilities (Nussbaum, 1990). Data from family risk, adoption, and likeness research are supportive of this assertion (Braswell, 1991). However, recent research has indicated that ADHD and learning disabilities are communicable independently in families and that their occurrence is due to non- haphazard mating (Milberger et al., 1995). In looking at probands of parents, Biederman et al. (1993) also conclude ADHD and learning disabilities are independent, and rather due to random mating, therefore not etiologically dependent. other researchers demand the intellectual deficit lies in physiologic anomalies. More specifically, imbalance in the neurotransmitte r systems of the brain, dysfunction in the reticular activating system, or a lag in brain development (Nussbaum, 1990). In determining if the neurocogonitive singularity in individuals with resistance to thyroid endocrine (RTH) are similar to those with ADHD, researchers have found that children with RTH have like deficient achievement levels as those with ADHD (Stein et al., 1995).There is also evidence that epinephrine (EPI) levels are lower in ADHD children. Urinary EPI levels are inversely related to fidgeting and aggression for second-grade ADHD students. During intelligence testing, results have shown that these EPI levels during a cognitive challenge is at least 40% lower than controls (Hanna et al., 1996). In a study which had subjects enhance beta activity and suppress theta in EEG activity during cognitive testing, those with ADHD amend in intelligence testing. Improvements were assumed to be a result of attention enhancement affected by EEG biofeedback (Linden et al., 1996).Improving Learning Disabilities in ADHD ChildrenInvestigating effectiveness of treatments of ADHD learning disabilities allows additional information on the social and bio-genetic causes of academic underacheivement related with this disorder. It has been verbalize that both instruction and contingency attention is necessary to remedy academic deficits. nigh techniques include token economies, class rules, attention to positive behavior, as well as time out and rejoinder toll programs.Suggested to compliment and further increase luck of changement is the alliance of parents, patient and school with the consideration of individual needs for the student and subsequently accommodating the environment to these needs. Scales such as the Academic Performance rate Scale or daily report cards (due to necessity of immediate reinforcement) are useful in monitoring performance (Dulcan, 1997).Cognitive-behavioral interventions have also been shown to have a positive effect in acad emic achievement. Interventions such as self-instructional training, problem-solving training, attribution develop and stress reduction procedure cause as well. However well they work, these methods of interventions have not been widely implemented in treatment of ADHD children (Braswell, 1991). Many children are segregated into learning disability classes detach from other students. It is essential tutoring and resources be make for the child, however, many are able to learn at the same level with the other children.It has been found that many ADHD children are inappropriately placed in special education programs for the learning disabled. This is mainly because of social maladjustment, so extremes are not necessary. A percentage of ADHD students do unwrap normal intelligence but are socially inept. Therefore careful testing and diagnoses is imperative for the improvement of these youths. And by failing to provide interventions for their behavior problems, they may become rest ricted in their opportunities for academic victory (Lopez et al., 1996).It is quite often found that the majority of ADHD children improve with psychopharmaceuticals, specifically stimulants such as Ritalin. Results reveal that medication related improvements include increased work output, improved accuracy and efficiency, and better learning acquisition (Dulkin et al., 1997). Learning and achievements in arithmetic, reading, and fine motor skills improve as well. There is a 70 to 90 percent response rate to stimulants (Gillberg et al., 1997).These results are quite salient in short term, but yearn term efficacy is still questioned (Braswell, 1991). There is much consensus in literature that a combination of treatment types is best to improve academic deficits. The cornerstones of treatment are support, education of parents, appropriate school placement, and psychopharmacology (Braswell et al., 1991 Dulcan et al., 1997 Gillberg et al., 1997 Nussbaum et al., 1990).In reviewing the current literature on how intelligence is affected by ADHD, it is easy to see that it is a subject yet to be heavily defined. Intelligence tests have been erroneously use in diagnosing and categorizing ADHD children and new tests must be developed in accordance to their disorder (Naglieri, 1997). The current increase in ADHD children seems somewhat suspicious. Is it an increase in the children, or a simplification in the deserved attention they are receiving from parents? The stimulant Ritalin is being likewise diagnosed as a quick fix. There must be much more behavioral and parental/school attention intervention in order for this pestilent of hyper children to be curbed.It would be interesting to see this generation of Ritalin children grow. Intelligence and ADHD have been linked in twin and adoption studies to family, therefore these studies could still be testing quite different things. Other studies also have found links in hyperactivity and affect to genetic dispositions. In testing, it is hard to determine if it is genetic or environmental due to the fact that many with ADHD can also be without learning disorders (Beiderman et al., 1993). Therefore, if we are to label this as a disease a bio-social etiological approach is necessary in diagnosis, treatment and intelligence assessment.