Friday, May 31, 2019

Wedding Speech Delivered by the Groom -- Wedding Toasts Roasts Speeche

Wedding Speech Delivered by the GroomIll have to keep this linguistic process short because of my shins . . . Nicola has threatened to kick them I go on too long. The humor here is that you think Im joking.Id corresponding to start by thanking you all on behalf of my wife and I, for sharing our special day. Thank you all for your kind wishes, cards and presents. I cant await to see how many stick on shower radios we get, and exactly how you wrap a wheelbarrow Nicola and I have been worrying about this day for weeks and it manner a great deal to us that you managed to make it. We hope you are all having a great time.Thank you to Barry and Marilyn for making this day possible. Without their help and support, none of us would be here today. I have to thank them both for bringing up such a beautiful and intelligent daughter, Ill get around you to argue over which trait comes from who.Thank you t...

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Information Highway Essay -- essays research papers

What exactly is this information highway? Think of the information highway as a library thats so new it doesnt give any shelves yet or a card catalogue to find what you need or a passageway you can leave with information on all kinds of subjects (The info Highway). The information highway or information superhighway is a term that became popularized in 1990 and is at one time regarded as information and communication technologies (ICTs) as a basic human need.The official project behind the information highway was the National Information Infrastructure. This went beyond the interconnectivity of just computers the scope broadened to include all types of data transmissions between a plethora of places, people, and devices (Wikipedia). This project was expected to provide for the integration of hardware, software, and skills that make it easy and low-priced to connect people with each other, each other, with computers, and with a vast array of services and information resources ( Information Infrastructure Executive Order, 1993.). It is also often associated with Al Gore, who promoted documentation for programmers that led to aspects of the development of the Internet (Wikipedia). In 1969, he created the first working prototype for his Internet invention. During this time, the Department of Defense Advanced Research Project necktie (ARPA) began work on ARPANET. The purpose of ARPANET was to promote the sharing of supercomputers amongst researchers in the United States (Bellis). Al Gore described his idea of the invention of the Internet to the ARPA researchers In the industrial Age, steam locomotives didnt do much good until the railroad tracks were laid down across the nation. Similarly, we now have supercomputers but we dont have the interstate highways that we need to connect them (Bellis). That was all the ARPA researchers needed to hear, and by 1969, the ARPANET was first demonstrated. The term information superhighway is a trademark of Al Gores Inter net. The information highway is developing rapidly. According to a report from the US Department of Commerce last year, it took 38 years for the radio to claim 50 million users in the US, 13 years for TV to gain the same numbers but only four years for the Internet (Perry). In 1994, in that location were 4 million users of the Internet w... ... though useful and apt, has perhaps served its purpose (Wikipedia). The information highway is exactly what its name saysa road you can take filled with information on all kinds of subjects that includes community networks, thousands of interest groups, databases and on-line news services (The Information Highway). As we move towards the future, this highway is growing so fast that experts are having a hard time keeping up. Users are coming online by the millions worldwide, and the information available is expanding at an incredibly rapid rate. From this point, where you channel on the highway is up to you. As you are cruising on the highwa y it is up to you to find out what is useful. There are no road guides or maps, just your own curiosity and ingenuity (The Information Highway).Bellis, Mary. Al Gore and the Information Superhighway. About.com. 13 May 2005. http//inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa040100a.htmPerry, Brian J. Society on the Superhighway. Kaken. 1995. The Information Highway. Canada Prospects. 1995. http//www.semainedelorientation.com/products/cp_95-96/work/info-high.html.Wikipedia. 11 May 2005. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_highway.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

President Bill Clinton :: William Jefferson Clinton Essays

ST. JOSEPH, Minn., Dec. 17, 1998 A psychological study of President commove Clinton, conducted before the 1996 election, predicted that the Clinton presidency would be "troubled by ethical questions and lapses of judgment," but that the president would "retain a following and maintain his self-confidence in the face of adversity." The investigation revealed serious flaws as well as redeeming features in the presidents personality, and found his motives to be "vastly different from those that scuttled the political c arer of Richard Nixon."The study, by associate professor of psychology at the College of Saint Benedict and Saint Johns University, Aubrey Immelman, was published this fall in the journal Leadership Quarterly. Immelman concluded that in a second presidential term Bill Clinton would likely continue to display his "driving ambition, supreme sense of self-confidence, and personal charisma," but offered the "sobering caveat" that Pre sident Clintons division contained "the seeds of its own undoing." Specifically, Immelman determined that President Clintons personality was an amalgam of ambitious and coming(a) personality styles. According to Immelman, these patterns incorporate adaptive aspects of the narcissistic and histrionic acknowledgment types described in the clinical personality literature. Ambitious personalities are assertive, self-assured, persuasive, self-centered, and have a tendency to be arrogant, acting as though entitled. Outgoing personalities are gregarious, image-conscious, easily bored, charming, seductive, glib and inventive, and believe they can readily charm and influence others.The study was conducted before the presidents affair with Monica Lewinsky came to light. Asked what the presidents vitrine reveals about his sexual risk taking, Immelman noted that personality theorist Theodore Millon of the University of Miami has found that a distinctive feature of the ambitious-outg oing personality composite (as in the case of Bill Clinton) is "an erotic and seductive orientation." According to Millon, such individuals may have an indifferent conscience and aloofness to the truth, which, if brought to their attention, is likely to elicit nonchalant innocence. They are driven by a need for excitement, stimulation, and challenge and tend to be undisciplined, traveling an erratic course of successes, failures, and abandoned hopes. Although they may leave a trail of broken promises and unconscionable acts, their disregard for the truth and their talents for exploitation and deception are rarely hostile or malicious in intent.With reference to the current impeachment proceedings against the president, Immelman said that failings associated with ambitious, outgoing personalities such as President Clinton are typically limited in scope, extending primarily to self-indulgent excess, including sexual intemperance.

Womens Real Life Problems in Thelma and Louise and Shirley Valentine E

Womens Real Life Problems in Thelma and Louise and Shirley Valentine Throughout the history of need actresses have always received the worst roles in which to portray women. Women are often featured as lovers or prostitutes, backstage roles that support the power and domination of men. Hollywood has always been dominated and run by the influence of male actors and directors. Statistics have acquaintn that 71% of male actors are given major roles compared to women who receive only 29% of centre stage roles. Thelma and Louise and Shirley are twain films, which change that. They portray wo human beings in a positive role, covering them in a positive light against male oppression. Although Shirley Valentine is a British film and Thelma and Louise is American, both films still show women facing the prejudice of society in the 20th century. In this way women viewers can relate to the films believing them to show the difficulties women face in life, the los s of womens individuality due to the domination of their husbands and their experiences of sexism and prejudice in modern day society. There are many similarities as well as differences in both films and the storylines are varied, yet both films still feature woman who overcome the typical stereotype that they are nothing but sexual objects for men to abuse. Thelma and Louise a road film featuring two women who are trying to run away from the law because Louise has shot a man who was trying to rape Thelma. Throughout their journey they go on a quest of self-discovery realising the mistakes they have made in life and finding their true identity element among the ravages their partners have made ... ... were losing. Therefore I believe both films are successful in presenting stories from a womens viewpoint on the real life problems women face. Both films are realistic and can be compared to the lives of many women in the same situations. These films forego women to relate to the characters and experience emotions on issues that they have faced end-to-end history such as rape and sexism. They allow women to feel a sense of hope and to make them understand that they are individuals who must fulfil their dreams. Shirley Valentine and Thelma and Louise allow women to overcome stereotypical images of housewives and sex objects and present women as strong with their own individual characters. In this way both films are successful in showing the problems and issues women face and overcome from a female perspective.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Caliban Portrayed as a Child in The Tempest Essay example -- Tempest e

Caliban Portrayed as a Child in The Tempest Can a grown adult develop and act like a child? Shakespeaers answer would have been yes. This fact is depicted through the character of Caliban. Calibans speech and manners, as well as his thought, all display the very basic reactions and notions of human beings. He is also controlled by a parent figure who comes in the figure out of Prospero. An analysis of Caliban can hold him up to Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development, which focuses on the development of children. Caliban, unquestionably, fits one of Piagets developmental stages. Jean Piaget developed his Theory of Cognitive Senses in 1952. According to Piaget, as children develop, they must make constant mental adaptations to new observations and experiences. Piagets theory was made up of four stages the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operations stage, and the clod operations stage. If children can be defined by these stages, it is important to note t hat Shakespeares character Caliban can also be defined by Piagets theory because he is presented ultimately as a child. Part of his child-like demeanor stems from the fact that he is comparable to the primitive savage who does not understand the Western European world. Caliban fits straightway into Piagets second stage of development, the preoperational stage (Lamming 87). According to Piaget, this describes most two to seven year old humans. Although children in this stage can think, they are largely exceptional by what they can actually do. They cannot reason, and they lack the mental abilities necessary for understanding abstract principles or cause and effect. Piaget called these missing abilities operatio... ...s of cognitive development, which suggests that Caliban has the mannerisms, actions, and ideas of a child roughly six or seven years old. This is important to consider, because Calibans actions have also been compared to the notion of Freuds id he asks like the com pulsive, troublemaking child. Hence, the idea of the sympathetic but frustrating child is presented in the character of Caliban. Works Cited Griffiths, Trevor R., This islands mine Caliban an Colonialism, Yearbook of English Studies 13(1983), pp. 159-80 Lawrence, Erol. Just plain common-sense The roots of racism, in CCCS, 1982, pp. 47-92. Lamming, Geroge. The Pleasures of Exile. London and New York Allsion and Busby, 1984. Mannoni, O., Prospero and Caliban The Psychology of Colonizaiton, trans. Pamela Powesland (New York, Praeger, 1964).

Caliban Portrayed as a Child in The Tempest Essay example -- Tempest e

Caliban Portrayed as a Child in The Tempest stomach a grown adult develop and act like a baby? Shakespeaers answer would have been yes. This fact is depicted through the character of Caliban. Calibans destination and manners, as well as his thought, all display the very basic reactions and notions of human beings. He is also controlled by a parent figure who comes in the form of Prospero. An analysis of Caliban can hold him up to Piagets Theory of cognitive Development, which focuses on the development of children. Caliban, unquestionably, fits one of Piagets developmental stages. Jean Piaget developed his Theory of Cognitive Senses in 1952. According to Piaget, as children develop, they must make constant mental adaptations to new observations and experiences. Piagets theory was made up of four stages the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete trading operations stage, and the formal operations stage. If children can be defined by these stages, it is impor tant to note that Shakespeares character Caliban can also be defined by Piagets theory because he is presented ultimately as a child. Part of his child-like demeanor stems from the fact that he is comparable to the primitive savage who does not understand the Western European world. Caliban fits directly into Piagets second stage of development, the preoperational stage (Lamming 87). According to Piaget, this describes most two to seven year old humans. Although children in this stage can think, they are mostly limited by what they can actually do. They cannot reason, and they lack the mental abilities necessary for understanding abstract principles or cause and effect. Piaget called these missing abilities operatio... ...s of cognitive development, which suggests that Caliban has the mannerisms, actions, and ideas of a child around six or seven years old. This is important to consider, because Calibans actions have also been compared to the notion of Freuds id he asks like the compulsive, troublemaking child. Hence, the idea of the sympathetic but thwart child is presented in the character of Caliban. Works Cited Griffiths, Trevor R., This islands mine Caliban an Colonialism, Yearbook of English Studies 13(1983), pp. 159-80 Lawrence, Erol. Just plain common-sense The roots of racism, in CCCS, 1982, pp. 47-92. Lamming, Geroge. The Pleasures of Exile. London and New York Allsion and Busby, 1984. Mannoni, O., Prospero and Caliban The Psychology of Colonizaiton, trans. Pamela Powesland (New York, Praeger, 1964).

Monday, May 27, 2019

Consumption and Mass Media Worksheet Essay

1. Respond to all questions with academic paragraphs of at least 50 words. State your point of view and explain it thoroughly. What is conspicuous inspiration? How does conspicuous consumption influence purchasing finalitys? Think astir(predicate) a high- equipment casualtyd item that you impart bought or would like to buy. To what extent does conspicuous consumption affect your decision? Conspicuous consumption is the feeling of buying unnecessary pricy products and services to show off and impress the wealth of the individual. Conspicuous consumption is a bill used to get quite a little to by name brand items and lavish items to flaunt. Conspicuous consumption influences the purchasing decisions of individuals by creating the idea that high expense items atomic number 18 harder to afford and the studyity of deal want to buy the high expense items but they give nonicenot afford the item. Once the high expense items atomic number 18 purchased the individual has the forc e-out to flaunt the item to separates or show off the item to people who do not submit the corresponding item or coffin nailnot afford the like item. When I purchase an item I do not let conspicuous consumption affect my decision to an extent. I like to purchase items that be not as popular by former(a) individuals, particular women. When I buy clothes I like to have unique clothes that other women would not purchase because of the uniqueness. What is conspicuous leisure? Examples of conspicuous leisure atomic number 18 abundant on television. In what ways are leisure activities informed by social and economic class? Provide an example of a popular leisure activity. What assumptions can you put forward about the participants of the activity? Conspicuous leisure is the visible(a) leisure with the intent of displaying social status and wealth of the individual. A prime example of conspicuous leisure is the television show The Housewives of Orange County. These women showcase the expensive items and lavish lives they live. The majority of the women do not formulate and they are stay at fireside wives and a few have their own business and make their own m whizzy.One example of a leisure activity is when the women and their families go to the Hamptons for the summer time. These individuals own a home or rent a home to overlook the summer in the Hamptons. M either of these families fly to the Hamptons in their own private jet. The leisure activity explained above showcases the social and economic class of these individuals. The individuals that bear on in the television show are high class citizens. The participants participating in the activity can afford to have own more than one home and these individuals can afford to spend the entire summer time in the Hamptons. These individuals use a private jet to fly to the Hampton destination. People in the high class society individuals can lone(prenominal) afford to fly on a private jet. Define the term gl obalization. What effect does globalization have on popular culture? Provide an example of how American popular culture has influenced other countries, or how the united States has imported popular culture from other countries. Globalization is defined as extending, sharing, and developing of culture, communications, technology, material items, and food to other or all parts of the world. Popular culture has the power to globalize throughout the entire world. Popular culture is shared among many individuals from different parts of the world. Popular culture allows the sharing of objects and ideas. People can share information or images and people can develop their own ideas based on the shared information or images, such as fashion and clothes.Fashion is a major trend that is not only popular here in the U.S. but overseas too. Many fashion companies like Forever 21 are winning popular fashion pieces and trends from overseas, such as Paris and France and designing these trends for the American people. Forever 21 is taking European style and transcending the style to the American people at a afford able-bodied price. More and more designer stores, such as Chanel and Dior are becoming increasingly popular here in the United States. These designers are branching their company here to the U.S. because these designers are seeing how popular fashion has become and the brand name is what the American people want and leave alone pay to have.2. Choose an advertisement. Analyze the ad for its media message. Answer the following questions based on that ad. Who created the media message? why?Kohls Department Store created the ad. The company is advertize to their customers to spend silver on their products and receive a voucher for spending a accredited amount of money. For every $50 dollars spent, customers get a $10 coupon. Who is the intend audience? What do you know about the intended audienceage, race, ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic background, hobbies, prof ession? The intended audience is geared to people who buy items in bulk and spends lots of money. This ad is intended to get people to spend as much money as they can because for every $50 dollars spend they will receive a $10 dollar coupon. If a customer spends $153 the customer will get a $30 dollar coupon that can be spent on anything in the store. The advertisement is not intended at any age or race but the ad is intended for women. Kohls products and the shopping experience the company focuses on is SHE. She is the working women, housewife that is on the go. She wants to find affordable clothing at a great price and can get in and out of the store without any inconsistencies. The ad does focus on those who can afford the products sold at Kohls and who is able to spend the amount advertised to receive a coupon. What type of lifestyle is presented? Is it realistic? Why or why not? The lifestyle presented is unrealistic. I work for Kohls and this type of advertisement is a great c areer move for the company but an addiction for customers. The Kohls bills is a mental crack that toys with customers. Customers go crazy for Kohls cash. The majority of customers are spending so much money to get a $10 coupon. People do not sack they have to spend money in order to get a coupon. This is unrealistic because people are spending their money on things they do not need or they are over spending. This is how people become addicted to shopping and addicted to shopping at Kohls. I see the same person either everyday or every other day in the store each week. The ad presents a materialistic lifestyle because people are willing to by materialistic items and spend money in order to gain from it. What is the textbook, written or in another form, of the message? What do you see and hear written or spoken words, photos, drawings, logos, design, music, sounds, and so on? The coupon resembles a dollar bill. The coupon is the color green like money and had white writing on the coupon. The coupon has big bold letters stating Kohls Cash with the dates below the name of the coupon, which states when the coupon starts and when the coupon ends. What is the hidden text? What is unstated or implied in the message? The coupon states for every $50 dollars spent the customer will receive a $10 dollar coupon. The text that is hidden in the coupon does not accurately specify that if the customer goes over the $50 dollar limit the coupon will increase by $10 dollars. The unstated message for the coupon includes the tax. The customer must actually spend $53 dollars in order to receive the coupon because the coupon is only redeemable before taxes not after taxes. What values are expressed?The coupon expresses high quality vales that Kohls gives to their customers. In todays economy people cannot afford many things the way they used to including clothing. The prices of clothing, has increased and people want to save money. The coupon gives customers the expression of saving and receiving. Customers can receiving a superfluous coupon for spending a certain amount in the store. The customer can apply the coupon to anything in the store. The customer is not limited to certain purchases when using the coupon but Kohls is putting their customers first and establishing a YES WE CAN environment for the customers. What groups of people are empowered in this message? What groups are disempowered? How so? Everyone willing to spend $50 dollars or more are empowered by this message. The message alone gives empowerment to customers because customers are benefiting from their spending.Those who are disempowered are the people who do not spend or do not want to spend the amount required to receive the coupon. Each individual spending the amount feels empowerment because they are able to buy anything in the store to receive the coupon and the individual can buy anything in the store when they can use the coupon. The coupon does not limit to certain items in t he store. Those who do not spend the amount requested do not have an reinforcement where as those who do spend the requested amount will gain an advantage. What part of the story is not being told? How and where could you get more information about the untold stories? Kohls Cash will be applied prior to percent-off total purchase discounts. Kohls Cash Coupon may not be redeemed (1) on purchases of Kohls Cares cause merchandise or other charitable items (2) to reduce customers Kohls Charge or any third party charge account balance (3) as price adjustments on prior purchases or (4) to purchase Gift Cards. If merchandise purchased earning a Kohls Cash Coupon is subsequently returned or price adjusted, the value of the Kohls Cash Coupon previously earned and/or the amount of the merchandise retort will be reduced to reflect any unearned value. Return value of merchandise purchased with a Kohls Cash Coupon may be subject to adjustment (Kohls.com) Can these messages affect how you think and feel? Why or why not? Provide examples. Yes these messages can affect how the customer feels. When the coupon is used and a percentage is used together the percentage will change due to the Kohls cash. I had a customer that did the math on her own prior to checking out. Once I rung the customer up she noticed that the percentage was less then what she calculated. I had to explain to her that when she used a percentage and the Kohls cash the percentage will decrease because of the Kohls cash. The customer was very upset and not satisfied. She said Kohls cash is not useful to spend, because I am being cheated. The customer was unaware of the information stated in the back. The coupon states what will happen if a percentage and the cash is used together. Can these messages affect your behavior? Why or why not? Provide examples. The message does affect my behavior because the coupon itself becomes a scuffle when trying to explain to customers the rules of the coupons. Some custome rs accept the terms and they are okay with it once I explain and show them, but I have had customers rubbish me to the end and be very cruel to me because the customer failed to read the rules of how to spend the coupon.For the most part, the coupon is nice but overall customers do not realize they have to spend money to get a coupon. The coupon is not a reward for being a loyal customer or for having a Kohls credit card. The customer has to spend a certain amount in order to receive the coupon but they do not have to spend a certain amount to cash the coupon in. Can the messages affect the cultural values in society in general? Why or why not? Provide examples.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

What Are The Kinds Of Water Pollution Environmental Sciences Essay

Water is one of the chief beginnings in the Earth. It is a really of importation resource for people and the environment. Our blood consists of body of water and we can non populate without piddle. We invite weewee in our sprightliness daily because it is a line of life.We chose this study active the water system contaminant because the water is really of import component we need to populate, but human, mills and ships play an of import function in H2O pollution. wise H2O is increasing devastation because people do non care what throw in the H2O and the Earth is traveling to acquire destroyed. If destroyed unmortgaged H2O, life will be much worse on the land and the lone 1s who can forestall this from go oning and for us.DefinitionWater pollution can be defined in m whatever ways. Normally, it means we have built one or more substances in the H2O up to the cessation that they cause channels for the subsisting being or human being. This stuff is chemical, physical and b iological alteration in the quality of H2O has an inauspicious impact on our lives.Was detected by H2O taint in the research lab, where they are analyzed little samples of H2O for assorted contaminations. It can besides populating beings such as fish that is apply to observe H2O pollution. Changes in behaviour or growing show us that the H2O in which they live contaminated. Labs besides use the computing work so find if the H2O has no drosssClasssPoint Beginnings of Water PollutionThe beginnings of H2O pollution and discharges include municipal H2O intervention works, drainage and industrial installations. Can the municipal intervention works pane beginnings of pollution, sewage contribute to the signifier of oxygen-depleting substances and stuffs nutrient ca employ wellness hazards in the countries of imbibing H2O and swimming. Some illustrations of the non-point H2O pollution are exchange agricultural and exchange urban countries from excavation, and building locations..Non Poi nt Source Water PollutionIn contrast to the pollution from a beginning other than the specific industrial workss and sewerage intervention, ( NPS ) pollution comes from many beginnings is widespread. And do taint of atomic power beginnings by rainfall or thaw snow, and during the motion on the land. While the overflow moves, it picks up contaminations and carries off natural and semisynthetic, and eventually deposited in lakes, rivers, wetlands and coastal Waterss and groundwater.40 % of all lakes and watercourses of H2O contaminated with a really used for fishing or swimming in the United States. Oil and un safe toxins and pathogen taint of waterways and imbibing H2O, and can kill worlds, animate beings and workss.Non point beginning pollution is the taking staying cause of H2O quality jobs. The effectuate of nonpoint beginning pollutants on specific Waterss vary and may non ever be to the sufficient assessed. However, we know that these pollutants have harmful effects on imbibi ng H2O supplies, diversion, piscaries and wildlife.Groundwater pollutionThe groundwater pollution is the 1 of the H2O pollution and its importance parts to originate it because groundwater is the importance beginning for the people in most universes and I will desiccation the beginning for pollution of groundwater.One of these possible beginnings of groundwater pollutionNaturalThe pollution of natural substances by taint grounds such as the presence of gustatory mastermind and odor in the H2O Wellss, the presence of musca volitanss in the H2O and find of unacceptable consequence in the degrees of substances found in H2O. Besides this causes the natural dirt or stone status. To prevention this job by if possible, avoid countries where there are jobs in groundwater, usage of treated H2O and Change to public H2O supply, if executable.AgribusinessPollution of groundwater by chemical spills, fertilisers and pesticides.So I will explicate the fertilisers, Contamination Evidence by soar ing nitrate degree in good H2O trials this it causes over fertilisation and Ill- timed application. To prevention by fertiliser usage in times that needed by the works and clip when hive awaying carnal manure to ease the airing of the Earth.industrialsuch(prenominal) as building digging this show by Spills and alteration in colour, gustatory sensation and odor or the presence of drosss in H2O Wellss near. This job causes Fuel and chemical spills, inordinate dust and chemicals are falsely. To Prevention by follow the cleansing processs and utilize fuel and risky stuffs harmonizing to the recommended actions.ResidentialSuch as infected systems this Contamination Evidence is appearance pine above surface land and sensing presence bacteria addition of. This Causes failing in the installing or care and disposal of family chemicals such as pigment waste. For trade this job by proper installing tools for the exchange of wellness, cheque and clean tools every 2 to 4 per twelvemonth and no n dispose of chemicals in wellness systems.Causes of H2O pollutionOil spillsOceans are polluted by oil on a day-to-day footing from oil spills, terrene transportation, run-offs and dumping. Oil waste can foul the ocean. They are coming from leaking storage armored combat vehicles and grape vine leaks, and the Wellss. Oil spilled from ships and oilers includes the transit fuel used by the vass themselves or their ladings, such as rough oil, fuel oil, or heating oil. It is estimated that about 706 million gallons of waste oil enter the ocean every twelvemonth. Drilling and production operations and spills or leaks from ships or oilers typically contribute less than 8 per centum of the sum. The balance comes from everyday care of ships ( about 20 per centum ) , and natural ooze from the seafloor ( over 8 per centum ) .Marine DumpingMany mills are dumping of waste into coastal Waterss such as plastics and other stuffs. These wastes take a long clip to degrade and they are really harmf ul to marine life. The disposal of wastes into H2O by worlds was practiced universally because it was a inexpensive and convenient manner to part with society of nutrient wastes ( e.g. , cleaned carcases, shells, etc. ) , rubbish, excavation wastes, and human wastes ( or sewerage ) . This industrial Age brought with it the new job of chemical wastes and byproducts these were besides normally disposed of in the H2O. By the early 1970ss, marine dumping began to be viewed as a serious environmental issue.Industrial wasteIndustry is a immense beginning of H2O pollution, it produces pollutants that are highly harmful to people and the environment. Many industrial installations use odoriferous water to transport away waste from the mills and into rivers, lakes and oceans. There are 370,000 mills use large saddle horse of fresh water to transport off many types of waste. The waste H2O is put into watercourses, lakes, or oceans. Besides, the hot H2O from mills will increasing H2O temperat ures and do thermic pollution. The addition of temperature change the sum of O dissolved in the H2O. That will kill some works and carnal species and others species will overgrowth.PesticideA pesticide is any substance or mixture of substance intended for preventing, demolishing, driving or extenuating any plague. Pesticides are a serious unsafe to wildlife and marine life. At high doses they non merely kill insects and other invertebrates, but birds and mammals every bit good. Many pesticides are soluble in H2O.The higher the solubility of the pesticide, the higher the hazard. High degrees of rainfall increases the hazard of pesticides polluting H2O. Pesticides that accept applied to farm Fieldss and waysides and place run away into local watercourses and rivers or run out down into groundwater, polluting the fresh H2O that fish swim in and the H2O we worlds drink. In the Midwestern United States, a part that is extremely dependent on groundwater, H2O public-service corporations spend $ four hundred million each twelvemonth to handle H2O for merely one chemical-the pesticide Atrazine.Global HeatingAn addition in H2O temperature can go after in the decease of many aquatic beings and interrupt many marine home grounds. For illustration, a rise in H2O temperatures causes deceasing of coral of reefs around the universe. This can ensue in great harm to coral reefs and later, all the marine life that depends on it. Temperature alterations in coastal and Marine ecosystems will act upon being metabolism and alter ecological procedures such as productiveness and species interactions. Speciess are adapted to specific scopes of environmental temperature. As temperatures change, species geographic distributions will spread out, species that are get downing to migrate or vie with other species for resources.Species that are unable to migrate or vie with other species for resources may confront local or planetary extinction.Measurement of H2O pollutionFor the analysis of H2O and measured in several ways such as taking sampling, physical, chemical and biological. I will be explicating this ways of measuring of H2O pollution.Physical testingTrials physical Joint H2O includes heat, focal point solids and turbidness. So will explained turbidness. turbidity is sum of particulate affair that is suspended in H2O. Turbidity measures impact dispersing that suspended solids on visible radiation badness light big scattered, lift turbidness. Materials which grounds H2O to be Turbid includeclaysiltdivided finely publish organic fertiliser and inorganicruning vehicles organic coloredplanktonobjects microscopicChemical testingCan be found on samples of H2O utilizing the rules of analytical chemical science. Published several trial methods are available for organic compounds and inorganic alike. Often used methods include pH, biochemical O demand, chemical O demand, foods ( nitrate and phosphorus compounds ) and metals ( including Cu, Zn ) , pesticides.Biol ogical testingBe proving ways to utilize workss and animate beings and indexs for supervising the wellness of H2O and microbic environment.Consequence of H2O pollution1-Effects of Oil Pollution and AntifreezeOil is the most unsafe H2O pollutants as oil spilled into the H2O cause in the formation of gluey bed on the surface which lead to the issue of an unpleasant order and this causes the scarlet death of the beings that depend on this beginning of imbibing H2O.2-Contaminated Ground Water EffectsGroundwater the chief beginning of imbibing H2O on the Earth, and the taint of this H2O is a major menace to human life is cause human exposure to disease may hold serious cause such as disease and decease in the liver and kidney jobs, malignant neoplastic disease and other diseases.3-Effects of Agricultural Water PollutionThe usage of fertilisers and chemicals is defined by husbandmans to breach and develop farms and agricultural Fieldss to assist workss turn, but there is a danger of the stuff in that it leaked into the dirt and when rain Aogerian H2O above the surface of this bounteous dirt these chemicals it is washed to the cloacas and rivers and lakes, which leads to the accretion of contaminated deposits in these Waterss.4-Fertilizers and other chemicalsMelting compound of nitrates in the H2O and metal Cd found in fertilisers used for harvests to the outgrowth of diseases in worlds such as being diarrhoea and diseases of the liver and kidneys.And inorganic stuffs such as mercurial, lead stuffs, lead to jobs related to gustatory sensation and odor and alter the colour of the H2O.The pesticides and PCBs toxic substances used in pesticides that are found in places, agribusiness, are besides found in merchandises such as wood preservatives.5-Effects of Thermal Water PollutionThis happen because they wash the machine of the factors in the H2O of lakes and rivers.This machine really hot so its heated the H2O, and this is job is that H2O reduces the ability of the system on the continuance of O and raises the growing of warm-water species.6-Effects of Heavy Metal Water PollutionHeavy metals such as quicksilver and lead found in H2O beginnings.SolutionsAs we saw antecedently there are many effects of H2O pollution, and to cut down this effects or seeking to forestall this jobs we must happen some solutions such asWater pollution control in the place, utilizing stuffs from non-toxic cleansing merchandises are free from toxic substances and to forbear and to cut down to the extent possible the usage of pesticides in the place and gardens.Always dispose of pigments, motor oils and toxic chemicals in ways that a healthy and safe.3- Always protect and clean groundwater as the chief beginning for imbibing and irrigation systems and forestall the reaching of a chemical.4- Raise consciousness of the extent of H2O pollution measure and demand that the Government promote more sustainable agriculture techniques.DecisionWater is really of import component we need to populate and it is portion of our lives. Oil spills, industrial waste, pesticide and planetary heating are cause H2O pollution. These will destruct the H2O we drink and will destruct our lives. To forestall H2O pollution we should supply rigorous punishments for people or mills who try to foul the H2O.To reason, we should maintain our environment clean to populate safe without any pollution by do nt utilize more pesticides and do nt throw the trash on the H2O such as the industry trash.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Every Child is Special Essay

As a teacher and as a mother, I was authentically moved by the film especially on its latter part when the parents came to realize their inadequacies in understanding and finding the cause of their childs misery. I could feel the agony of Sean when he was left in a boarding school far away from the comfort of his avouch home and from the get it on and care his family especially of his mother. I found him in a situation where he was so helpless to defend himself amidst the judgements, the accusations, the name-calling, the bullying Young as he was, his experiences were really so damaging to his self-esteem, to his self-confidence, to his self-concept.see moreevery child is special reaction paperI just do not hunch forward how many Seans are there out there Seans who think differently thats why treated indifferently by this society Seans who are intact of talents but are so afraid and weak to show them because of a negative view of themselves and Seans who are just waiting for a saving understanding to help them understand themselves and regain and build that positive outlook of their own persons.It was only a film, but we know very well that the situations depicted in it are true,EVERYWHERE, IN ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD It is the reason why we should start examining ourselves both as parents and as teachers in our own homes and in our own schools. We might be care the father of Sean who could easily pass his judgement on him without even asking him for an explanation (like when he got in trouble with a much older and bigger fellow and was given a blow by his father.On his face without asking for his side of the story) or we might be one of those teachers who could easily mark his works as wrong without even bothering to ask and find for the reason behind those wrongs or we might be Mr. Niko whose creation a teacher was not confined in the four walls of the classroom and ended once he stepped out of it, but rather extended beyond the schools gate to loo k for the reasons behind the students situation and fought for and acted on and for the solution.The film reminded me once again about the sensitivity of the roles teachers bidding in the life of each of the students. We can really make or break them, uplift or dampen their spirits Teachers hearts should be defective tolerable to accommodate the longings and needs open or hidden of each of them. Being judgemental should not have a place in us. We should have that enough sensitivity to notice all the Seans in our classes and even in our own homes and be brave enough to look for and fight for the solution just like what Mr. Niko did which brought the unfolding of the real Sean through the inspiration and the trust granted to him.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Japan Vs Feudal Europe

The systems Presence of Feudal System par Feudalism developed slightly later in Japan than in europium Contrast Base of Feudalism European feudalism was grounded in Roman legal structure while Japan feudalism had as its basis Chinese Confucianism Evidence 1 Europe the economic system of Europe is based on an economic system made of the relationships mingled with the different classes in the hierarchal life in Europe. Japan Unlike Europe, Japans economy relied on Internal money flow.For the most part an Agricultural thrift Evidence 1 What the main Religion was Europe Christianity Japan Buddhism with Shinto Influence and Zen Buddhism Evidence 2 class differences and positions Divisions of Class and Rank Europe King, Nobles (dukes, Duchesses), Peasants, Serfs Japan Empower (acts as a figurehead) Shogun (has the power, Military Leader), Deadly (Each ascendences an area of land had Is master so his Samurai who are paid to work for and cheer him), Samurai (Warriors who fought to pr otect their Diamond and people.They uphold a strict code of selflessness and celebrate), Peasants (farmers and Sherman, they were considered higher class than in Europe because they supplied food which all classes depend on), Artisans (people who were specialized in a specific trade), Merchants (Merchants were the lowest class and their Job was to trade and transport goods as well as shop-keep Europe Unity of Church and State, Papacy sometimes forced conversion Japan In feudal Japan, state and religion were kept separate for the most part.Buddhism came to Japan 300 years before feudalism took shape. It blended with the native Japanese religion Shinto to for Zen Buddhism Japanese variation of Buddhism Reinforced Bushier values of mental and self-discipline Buddhist monasteries became very soused Conversion was never forced. Monasteries were centers of learning, charity, interpretation for the poor It was the country official religion throughout feudal Japan, but religious leaders d id not try to control politics or society.This non-interference allowed the Shogun and Dynamos to rule while only focusing on the military and political aspects of their rulers The beliefs of Zen Buddhism were very popular among samurai since they followed beliefs of Bushier Evidence 3 Compare and Contrast in Warriors and their valuesWho they were, difference in training, attire, Position in society, role in the community, duty outside of warfare Bushier-values Justice or verticality Without rectitude they will not be fulfilling the full responsibility of the samurai Courage Doing what its right no matter how scary Mercy Politeness (etiquette) Honesty Honor obedience Self Control judge to have not only the strength and skills to face combat in the violent Middle Ages but was also expected to temper this aggressive side of a knight with a chivalrous side to his nature. To fear God and maintain His ChurchTo serve the liege lord in velour and faith To protect the weak and defenseles s To give succor to widows and orphans To refrain from the wanton giving of offence To live by honor and for reputation To despise pecuniary reward To fight for the welfare of all To obey those placed in authority To guard the honor of fellow knights To eschew unfairness, niggardness and deceit To keep faith At all times to speak the truth To persevere to the end in any enterprise begun To respect the honor of women Never to refuse a challenge from an equal Never to turn the back upon a foe Evidence

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Types of culture

organizational cultureOrganizational culture is beliefs and assumptions, which are shared by all members of an organization (Seymour, 2013).Charles Handy researched four cases of organizational culture, which may be recognised by companies. The graduation slip is the power culture, which means that the power is concentrated in one mortal and dominated by one person in the company (Greener, 2010). One person work ons all decision-making. A type of organization with this cultural type is able to solve problems and provide solutions easily, however solutions opine on the central person for their success. The fact is that with this cultural type it is difficult to connect activities together, because of group sizes (Greener, 2010).The performance in the companies, which use this cultural type, can be examined by their results. The second type, according to Handy, is the role culture. In this type of culture each person has his or her own well-detailed product line position (Greene r, 2010). The influence comes from rules and procedures, which are very well-established. In addition, this type of culture can be a good choice in a resistant type of grocery. This type of culture can provide security and reward promotions for employees. The third type of culture, which Handy explained, is the task culture.This type of culture is activityoriented the main focus is on task outcome (Greener, 2010). This is a team culture, which is oriented on the completion of a project. This culture is appropriate on the competitive market. The main difficulty is a control in this type of organizations, however there is a control in each type of project. The fourth and last type of culture is soulfulness culture. This type of culture that is not used by many companies, because it is very unusual (Greener, 2010). In such organizations employees prefer to do a job in which they have efficient skills and can perform successfully.Furthermore, employees tend to do a job, which they wis h to do. In addition, these are standard types of culture and the majority of companies do not have only one cultural type. Moreover, some of the companies prefer to choose the culture type, which can become appropriate to the organization policy, in most cases they choose a mix of culture types. Furthermore, Quinn et al. decided to describe type of culture with the help of environment, which can be flexible or controlled, and with two types of focuses intragroup and remote.Internal means the environment inside the organization, while external environment means factors outside the organization, which organization cant change. Quinn et al. proposed four different types of culture the first type is called clan, which is based on human relations this culture type is internal and flexible (Cameron and Quinn, 2005). There is a friendly atmosphere in such organizations. The second type of Quinn et al. culture is called hierarchy, which is based on control this type of culture is intern al and controlled (Cameron and Quinn, 2005).The work area is very semiformal and leaders play a role of the representatives of a company (Angel, 2003). The third type of Quinn et al. type of culture is called adhocracy, which is based on innovations this type of culture is external and flexible (Cameron and Quinn, 2005). Work areas in such organizations are very positive, which have a vital energy (Angel, 2003). The last type of Quinn et al. type of culture is market, which is based on control this type of organizational culture is external and controlled (Cameron and Quinn, 2005). The work atmosphere is a competitive place (Angel, 2003).In addition, Geert Hofstede research showed that a type of organizational culture depends on national values and vary from country to country (Hofstede G. , 2001 Hofstede G. et al. , 2010). The research found out that the Organizational Cultural model consists of sextette autonomous dimensions (variables) and two semi-autonomous dimensions(Hofsted e G. , 20011 Hofstede G. et al. , 2010).For instance, there are several measurements for organizational culture oriented vs. goal oriented, internally driven vs. externally driven, easy vent work discipline vs. strict work discipline, local vs.professional, open system vs. closed system, employee oriented vs. work oriented, full stop of acceptance of leadership style and degree of identification with your organization (Hofstede G. , 20012 Hofstede G. et al. , 2010). Furthermore, depending on the goals of a business some of these dimensions or combinations of these dimensions may be more suitable for the company then others are. Organizational performance directly depends on the type of organizational culture. Organizational performance is a way in which employees present the results of their tasks.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Freud’s theory of Psychosexual Development Essay

I will begin my essay by outlining Freuds theory of Psychosexual Development and I will accordingly go on to evaluate how far this overhaul us to understand a lymph nodes presenting issue. Freuds theory of psychosexual development begins with the belief that human organisms atomic number 18 purely driven by biology, in the ca-ca of the libido or sexual energy. The driving force of the libido is divided into five stages, he surrounds, and our early experiences during pincerhood be responsible for the development of a healthy mortalality, or if any individual were to experience trauma during these stages then it would result in disruption in the childs personal development and the child whitethorn become stuck in this stage, resulting in neurosis. This five stages of sexual libido argonThe Oral peg from birth to close to 18 months is where the child directs all its attending to the mouth in the form of sucking, eating and drinking. If stuck in this stage the guest may sti ll like to manipulation their mouth a lot, resulting in the client presenting with everywhereeating, drinking, smoking or talking The Anal Stage from about 18 months to trinity years is where the child directs their attention to the elimination of waste, and of the sprightlinesss experienced by the expelling of waste. This is also the stage where the child initiative experiences an element of control over themselves, as to where they excrete or and and then whether or not they excrete their waste product. The child learns that he stinker use his bodily functions to elicit attention from his carer by excreting on the plunge kind of than in the potty. Clients stuck in the anal stage may be any anally retentive or expulsive in personality. Those that are anally retentive individuals are haughty and like to have everything in baseball club they may suffer from OCD and have quick outbursts of anger. Anally expulsive individuals tend to be untidy and disorganised.The Phalli c Stage from about three to five years is where children become aware of their genital regions. This is the stage where the child starts to become aware of the differences between phallic and womanly genitalia, and their energy is spent undressing themselves, and perchance another(prenominal)s, in format to explore these differences. It is also the stageof manipulating the genitals and the discovery of pleasure in doing so. It is during this stage that the Oedipus conflict arises the belief that a boy has incestuous cravings for his mother and views his nonplus as a rival for this respect. The boy also fears his father, as his father is bigger than him in all ways including his penis. Freud representd that the boy feels castration anxiety at this stage as a result of repressed sexual desire for his mother. If the boy has the correct parenting at this stage, then the boy identifies with the father and comes to have harmless affection for the mother. The Electra complex is the female counterpart. It is based on the view that each girl wants to possess her father and replace her mother. A phallic regress can lead to an individual with a narcissistic, homosexual, egotistical or overly sexualised personality that may lead to serial marriage, polygamy or polyandry.The phallic fixation tends to use sex to discharge emotional tension and will often have sexual relationships that are superficial and lacking in love and affection The Latency Stage from five years to adolescence. In this stage, sexual motivated needs subside as the child focuses their attention on developing other skills needed for their survival. A child stuck in this stage may have issues forming sexual relationships and have trouble expressing themselves sexually, leaving themselves and or their partners sexually unfulfilled. The Genital Stage from adolescence to adulthood. During the onset of adolescence, the child moves from self-love or narcissistic love to diverting this love to ot hers. It is argued by psychotherapists that are advocates of this theory that individuals disrupted during the Genital stage may result in sexual disorders such as fetishes and paedophilia. According to Freud, only symptoms can be modified, and not the doings of the client this can be through with(p) in two ways 1. Lessening of the intensity of the unconscious urges, by bringing them to the consciousness or by strengthening the defences against them.An example of lessening the clients behaviour is by encouraging a client to leave a job where aggressive urges were continually beingness aroused by an despotic boss. 2. Alternatively the client can act out their urges in a more acceptable and symbolic way. An example being that anal urges can be expressed through pottery, as an alternative to faecal play. Feminists would argue that Freuds theory concentrates on male sexual development, and provides little in understanding female sexuality. Freuds tame has alsobeen criticised for o ver emphasising sex drive and little else in order to assess a clients presenting issue. Carl Jung and Fromm, two students of Freud, concur with this statement, but used Freuds work to develop their own theories, which I outline below. Carl Jung (1875 -1961) believed that that the libido was not just sexual energy, but instead generalised kind energy. The purpose of this psychic energy was to motivate the individual in a number of ways, including spiritually, intellectually, and creatively. It was an individuals source for seeking pleasure as head as reducing conflict. Jung placed great emphasis on the unconscious than Freud he argued that the psyche was composed of three comp anents.Firstly, he believed that the ego is conscious, because people are aware of their own thoughts, memories and emotions. The unconscious mind, Jung believed, was split into two parts (the remaining two components) The personal unconscious, which is the same as Freuds belief, in that it consists of re pressed memories. Jung explained an main(prenominal) feature of the personal unconscious called complexes. A complex is a collection of thoughts, feelings, attitudes and memories, which focus on a single concept. The more elements attached to the complex the greater its influence on the individual. The second deeper level is the Collective consciousness. This level of unconscious is shared with other members of the human species, comprising of latent memories from our ancestral and evolutionary past (The form of the world into which a person is born is already inborn in him, as a virtual image Jung, 1953). Jung called the ancestral memories and images archetypes. For Jung, our primitive past becomes the seat of the human psyche, directing and influencing present behaviour.Important archetypes include the persona, or our social mask, just like an actor in a play Anima/Animus, or our male and female sides this comes from living side by side with the opposite sex for centuries the s hadow, similar to Freuds ID, comprised of our animal urges or survival and reproduction. Jung argued that the psychological development of both(prenominal) sexes was undermined as the development of western society has led to the devaluation of feminine qualities over the predominance of the persona, leading to insecurity. Jung agreed with Freud that a persons past and childhood experiences determined future behaviour, but he also believed that we are shaped by our future aspirations too. Erich Fromm (1900 1980) differed with the Freudianemphasis on unconscious drives. Fromm argues that a persons drives were not purely biologic he believed that man had free choice to decide on whatever action he felt purloin and therefore guided their own destiny. Fromm saw conflict arising within the individual, when they had to weigh up the freedom of choice with the fear of uncertainty, when making these decisions. As a sociologist and psychologist, his theories coordinated both psychology and Marxist Historical Materialism.Fromm argued that each socioeconomic class fosters a particular personality, governed by ideas and concepts that justify and maintain the socioeconomic system. Fromm believed that the unique feature of human existence gives rises to eight basic needs. Firstly Unity, as human beings have lost their original oneness with nature, they need to relate in order to overcome their isolation. Secondly their relatedness with others, care, respect and knowledge. Thirdly humans need to transcend their own nature, as well as their passivity and randomness of existence, which can be accomplished either positively, by loving and creating, or negatively, through hatred and destruction. Fourthly the individual also requires a sense of rootedness or belonging, in order to gain a feeling of security, and sense of identity. Fifthly the sense of identity which is expressed non-productively as conformity to a group and productively as an individual. sixthly is need i s for orientation understanding the world and our place in it. Seventhly is excitation and stimulation or actively striving for a goal rather than simply responding.Eighthly is effectiveness the need to feel accomplished. This Orientation can be achieved either through assimilation (relating to things) or socialisation (relating to people). Fromm identified several character Orientations in Western Society. Authoritarianism when an individual cannot come to terms with this freedom, he could avoid his responsibilities by withdrawing beneath the protection of someone or something else. Examples of this include God, a specific political leader of party, an institution of even ones carer. Receptive Orientation this is common in a society which encourages exploitation of the individual, who then seeks solace in affection and related comforts, such as eating, where the individual can only take and not give. Exploitative Orientation the defence being the aggressive possession of goods, usually those of others.Examples being the plundering of goods in historical times, or in more modern times, thosenations that seek the territories and chattels of others. Productive Orientation which donates love and tolerance towards others, and an acceptance of their freedom, with the ability to use this orientation to their advantage, without harming others. Hoarding Orientation the I want I need society, based on material wealth. If one owns objects, then the individual can be seen, at least in his eyes, as clever and powerful. These individuals are threatened by the outside world and cannot share. merchandising Orientation this is people copying or being influenced by the media and advertising by wearing the latest fashions. Individual personal qualities are redundant over what looks good. The individual sees themselves as a commodity to be bought and sold. Fromm added two further statesNecrophilous character- attracted to deathBiophilous character drawn to life.According to Fromm, gaining independence from ones parents leads to a profound sense of loneliness and isolation, which the individual attempts to escape by establishing some type of bond with society through social conformity and submission to authority. By relating both Jung and Fromms work to our clients, they have made us aware of the clients wider world or heritage into which he or she is born. Jung would argue that a Muslim woman may have low self-esteem and isolate herself from others, but these presenting issues are more down to the clients embodied consciousness than their childhood. In this case, Jung helps us as therapist to understand that the clients neurosis may not arise from bad parenting, but from something fundamental based upon evolution within the individual. Fromms Socio- economic theories also provide us with insight of the clients wider world, and how neurosis can arise delinquent to external economic forces that drive the clients neurosis in an exploitative and mater ialistic society that values things over the human existence. Both would argue that it is our environment rather than biology that constrains us, in the form of society and close.For Jung and Fromm, in order to understand the clients presenting issue, we must also understand their culture and the way in which they relate to the economic society into which they are born. An alternative view to Freuds psychosexual development is that of the Behaviourist approach. Behaviourists believe that what is learned can be unlearned. Skinner built upon the workof Pavlovs classical teach experiments (1927) and his use of dogs as subjects, and the Little Albert experiments of Watson and Rayner (1920). To further these experiments, Skinner (1938) designed a crush box and, by using rats, he showed that by using both positive and negative reinforcements, he could change the behaviour of the rats, as their behaviour is unnatural by consequences. He called this Operant Conditioning to which he iden tified three responses Neutral Operants responses from the environment that neither increase nor diminution the probability of a behaviour repeated. Reinforces responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behaviour being repeated this can be ether positive or negative Punishers Responses from the environment that decrease the probability of a behaviour being repeated.Punishment weakens behaviour. Skinner concluded that there was a Law of Effect, and that by using reinforcement, behaviour tends to be repeated, magic spell behaviour which is not reinforced tends to die out. As human beings, we often respond to verbal Operants by taking advice, listening to the warnings of others and by obeying given rules and laws. This helps us understand the development of children, as the feelings associated with behaviour are controlled by conditioning. If the child has been positively rewarded, then the child is more likely to repeat those behaviours happily and willingly, feeling that they are doing what they want to be doing. If on the other hand the child avoids these behaviours due to negative reinforcement, they will be inclined to feel that their freedoms are being repressed, resulting in feelings of negativity, which could led to depression or anxiety. The work of Skinner, Pavlov, Watson and Rayner has led to the development of different treatments, such as Cognitive behavioural therapy and talking therapy that will help you manage your problems by changing the way you think and behave, commonly used to treat anxiety, depression and phobias but can be useful for other mental and physical health problems.In conclusion, Freuds work on psychosexual development does help us in part to understand a clients presenting issue, by understanding that their behaviour may very well stem from how their parents handled the childs psychosexual development. By accepting this assertion, it also helps us to understand that what we, as society, view as very dist urbing or deviant behaviour can arise from childhood trauma. This allows the therapist, and society, to be more benevolent to such clients. An example of this is that Freud stated that homosexuality is neither a sinful nor a criminal act, but rather a condition that arose from childhood biological and psychological factors, and was just a variation of the sexual function, and because of this is could not be treated by punishment or therapy, but should just be accepted. Freuds work, as already discussed, is limited in understanding the clients total world, however we must understand that Freuds work was the first of its kind in understanding human psychological development, and was written at a time when most adults probably were sexually repressed, as well as viewing homosexuality as sinful.The later work of others, including Jung and Fromm, built upon his work, to help us understand the clients presenting issue in a wider context. They widened our mundane view of the client by dem onstrating how neurosis of the individual may also arise due to internal factors of the collective consciousness, arising from cultural and social heritage, or by external factors, such as how the client relates to the economic environment into which they are born. The work of the behaviourists also helps us to understand that any negative social conditioning also plays its part in understanding the clients presenting issue.As a final note, we must remember that it is the job of the therapist to use the work of others as a tool to understanding the clients own world in order to get enough understanding of the clients perspective in relation to their own presenting issue. This understanding helps facilitate the client in coming to their own conclusions as to how best to tackle their own presenting issue, either by managing their condition from the Freudian perspective, or helping them change their own perspective and/or behaviour, as argued by the behaviourists.BibliographyWhat Freud Really Said David Stafford-Clark (1996)1935 Freuds letter response to a mother asking him to treat her homosexual son. (1935) Handbook of Individual Therapy Edited by Windy Dryden (1990) Counselling for Toads Robert De Board (1998)McLeod, S.A (2008)

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Business Travel Booking Market Trends & Forecast Essay

The report examines reasons, other than lower ticket prices, that argon most likely to influence profession travelers to opting for one airline over another The report identifies key factors, other than lower rental costs, that are most likely to make ancestry travelers choose one cable car rental company over another The report assesses the importance of travel meta-search options for creating business travel plans, and identifies popular travel meta-search websites used by business travelers in the last six months.The report identifies key factors that are decisive for hotel bookings The report examines how companies mete out business travel bookings The report identifies key reasons for cutbacks in premium travel plans The report examines the staying patterns of executive when a business trip is extended to a leisure trip The report assesses executives viewpoints about cutbacks in root word incentive travel programs Complete Report Available at http//marketreportsstore. com /changing-trends-in-business-travel-booking/ .Scope The report features the opinions of travel and touristry industry respondents about the changing trends in business travel booking covering the following aspects Companies approaches to business travel booking Key factors for airline selection Decisive criteria for airline booking Key parameters for car rental company choices Factors influencing hotel-booking decisions file name extension of business trips for leisure purposes additional days leisure spend Extension of business trips for leisure purposes staying preferences Significance of travel meta-search options Popular travel meta-search websites.Cutback expectations for group incentive travel programs Reasons for cutbacks in premium travel plans Inquire for discount http//marketreportsstore. com/discount/? rname=14250 . Reasons to buy The report highlights companies approaches to business travel bookings, change travel operators to restructure their business travel plan s.The report enables readers to take strategic decisions by understanding the relevance of travel meta-search options, and identifying popular travel meta-search websites used by business travelers. The report examines key factors influencing executives airline and hotel-booking decisions. This impart help companies to improve customer service and implement development strategies.The report provides cutback expectations about group incentive travel programs, which are likely to influence growth prospects. The report highlights staying preferences during extensions of business trips to leisure trips, along with the flake of extra days spent for leisure purposes. This will help to gauge consumer behavior.Buy a feign of the Report at http//marketreportsstore. com/purchase? rname=14250 For more reports on endure, Tourism & Hospitality Click here hitting salesmarketreportsstore. com / Call +1 888 391 5441 for further information on Changing Trends in Business Travel Booking report OR for any other market research and intelligence needs you whitethorn have for your business.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Interview with a preschool teacher

She was able to give me more Insight on what Is effect to be through to become a t from distributively oneer and what Is required of her. The person that I interviewed was Ashley Humphreys. She is a survive teacher and the administrator of the united local anesthetic Head Start Preschool program that is operated by the Community deed Agency of Columbian County. This is her first year teaching with the program. Before she could become a teacher had to function her Bachelor degree and her preschool license. She graduated from Kent State University in May of 2013.While she was operative on her degree she had to do student teaching. She was able to complete it at the following schools South Range in kindergar ten dollar bill, Southern Local in kindergarten, and United Education Service Center Preschool. Along with having to get her degree Ashley is required to fall in twenty hours per year in continuing education hours. She to a fault is required to be certified in CPRM and first aid. Ashley has a lot of duties for being the lead teacher and administrator.As a lead teacher her duties overwhelm making lessons plans weekly, maintaining contact with pargonnts, keeping the childrens file updated, entering notes into Teaching Strategies Gold (TTS), riding the bus to either pick up or drop off students, and much more. Administrator requires her to keep all the staff files up to date, maintain safety logs, maintain ratios at all time and much more. A recipe daytime for Ashley would be arriving to school by seven every day. Her While waiting for the students to arrive Ashley is acquiring everything ready for the day ahead.She would either getting things ready for small groups, get the music ready for the day or she might be cleaning up anything that might be still laying around from the day before. Once her eighteen students arrive at eight A. M. She lets them play with table toys for about ten to fifteen minutes. Breakfast is served at eight fifteen. Once the children be done eating breakfast the children go to centers and are called to brush their teeth while they are playing in center. Once centers are done the children come to the carpet and then do music and the calendar.Once the students have completed those activities they go to small groups. This is where Ashley has each group set up and they are set up to help meet the individuals needs of each child. The individuals needs are indicated on the lesson plans. After small groups the children go back to the carpet and Ashley or her accessory will read a book o the children or have a group treatment over the project they are working on. Lunch will be served then gross take and then it is time to say goodbye for the day.Ashley loves working with the children. She loves that she can enhance the lives of the children. She enjoys her co-workers. She loves that she has co-workers that think on the resembling page. It makes it easier when planning activities for the children. Even tho ugh Ashley loves her Job there are things about her Job that she dislikes. There are several things that she dislikes about her Job. One of the things she dislikes is owe the laws are changing and it is hard to keep up with the changes.She also dislikes that she is having a hard time find a Job, in a Public school, within her hometown or close to her home. If she would be able to get into a public school she is finding out that her wage rate could be based on test scores. If her class would get lower score on state testing then she could get a pay cut. The only thing that Ashley dislikes about working for Head Start is they pay you very low for all the work they require from you. There are not enough hours in the day to complete everything they sky of you.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

How I would interpret and stage the supernatural in ‘Macbeth’ Essay

Macbeth is a thrilling, tragic institute write by William Shakespeare. Macbeth was written in the early sixteen hundreds, however the wreak is posit in the early 11th century. The bemuse for was written in the Jacobean quantify, during this time King James the first wrote a al-Quran c onlyed Demonology. This book was based on witchcraft, which was contemporary at the time. This could of inspired Shakespeare to incorporate the supernatural into Macbeth.The opening of Macbeth is very dramatic and theatrical. It opens with thunder and whitening this is visually arresting. In those days they would concord micturated torches or smokedles to name the lightening and probably a sheet of metal, which they would shake to generate the illusion of thunder. However compared to the effects of today this is all very basic. In todays world lasers are employ to produce the phoney look of lightening. These modern methods of creating illusions are visually stimulating, alone as the la nguage in the sixteen hundreds is much more than complex as it uses a lot of imagery this stooge be mentally stimulating as it creates images in your mind you, which can be just as effective as new technology. You can see this when Lady Macbeth says.Come you spiritsThat tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here,And fill me from the clear to the toe top-full-of-the-moonOf direst cruelty (Lady Macbeth stage 1, characterisation V. neckcloths 38-41)During the thunder and lightening three witches enter, they only appear in three guessings of the bidding but their effect is all persuasive. Every time the witches speak it is very all-important(a) what they have to say. Even though the witches are cackling they have to be clear enough as the earshot needs to recognize what is said. When the witches speak they have a chanting sound. This is created by rhyming couplets again and rain down this is followed by a tipple rhyme done won sun. In this opening characterisation the witches say two important things. The first is that they are going to meet with Macbeth.There to meet with Macbeth. (Third magnetise Act 1 Scene 1 Line 8)The second is,Fair is foul, and foul is fair ( all(prenominal) Witches Act1 Scene1 Lines 11-12)This is verbalise that what is good and innocent on the outside, maybe detrimental and corrupt on the inside. This is referring to Macbeth. These quotes raise questions amongst the au fadence wherefore? Why Macbeth? However the answers lie in the auditions understanding of witchcraft and how it creates mischief and injustice. These ideas are contemporary to Shakespeare up to now though the play is set 500 years earlier. Macbeth is the instrument of witches be actor the witches know that there is something in him which is bad and corrupt hence Fair is Foul, and foul is fair saying.This scene echoes a major theme of the play which is,Fair is foul, and foul is fair (All Witches Act1 Scene1 Lines 11-12).This saying could affect how you would make the witches appear. I think if I was say Macbeth, I would make at least one of the witches look attractive and young to show innocence, because this would audition that Fair is foul, and foul is fair However in Shakespeare makes the witches look old and withered, you know this when the witches meet with Macbeth and Banquo, and Banquo describes them when he says.What are these,So withered, and so wild in their attrie,That look non like th inhabitants o th earth, (Banquo Act1 Scene3 lines 39-41)This is traditional interpretation on how the witches look like.The witches cannot pull down people personally so they use people or the weather as instruments to do it for them. At the beginning of Act 1 scene 3 we learn how limited the witches powers are. They tell us a story round a straw hats wife and how they keep her husband out to sea by manipulating the weather.Ill drain him alter as hay (First Witch Act1 Scene3 line 19)Some people argue weather that this dowry with the wit ches should not be in the play as they say it slows down the excitement of the play, and this would be the time during the play when the audience would progress to up for some refreshments. Nevertheless I think that this is a vital part of the play as it may explain why the witches have involved Macbeth into their wicked ways to cause pandemonium and evil.In Act 1 Scene 3 Macbeth says his first spoken communication in the play these areSo foul and fair a day I have not seen. (Act1 Scene3 line38)These words echo what the witches said at the end of Act1 Scene1, and this links Macbeth with the witches straight away. If I were directing the play I would have Macbeth and Banquo at the back of the fix up and the witches in front of them, to emphasize there evil I would have a red greaselight shone on the witches and a smoke machine to create an eery atmosphere. Macbeth and Banquo then see the witches and they greet each other. Each of the witches greet Macbeth personally the first wit ch saysAll hail Macbeth , hail to thee, Thane of Glamis (Act1 Scene 3 Line 46)All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor (Act1 Scene 3 Line 47,48)All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, that shalt be King here after (Line 49,50)As you can see each comment becomes higher in rank, to King. Banquo response is.Are ye fantastical (Act 1 Scene 3 Line 53)Then Banquo asks the witches to tell him his own future. The witches reply and sayLesser than Macbeth, and greater.Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none. So all hail Macbeth and BanquoThese comments that the witches say have now set the events in motion by motivating Macbeth, this has also sealed Banquo fate as Macbeth would need to kill him so that he cant be farther so Macbeths family is on the throne longer. Banquo is duty to mistrust them and he warns Macbeth when he saysAnd oftentimes, to win us to our harm,The instruments of darkness tell us truths,Win us honest trifles, to betraysIn deepest consequence (Banquo Act 1 Scene 3 Line 124-127)This sums up exactly how the witches work they use people as instruments to manipulate them.Macbeth wants to know more about these preposterous comments made by the Witches, but all of a sudden they vanish. In Shakespearian times they would of used a trap door to create the effect of a disappearance. However today a trap door is still used.When the witches tell Macbeth about the future, it could have awoken or planted the seeds of evil at bottom his soul. The word murder comes into his mind and Horrible imaginings. However the witches cant guide him all the way to evil it will be up to himself and his wife. But he could still hope to be crowed he says, ascertain they crown me. As of Scottish succession, which could make him king because if all the royals who are in battle die in Scotlands war against Norway, he could be the last man standing this makes his crime simulacrum heinous.By the time we see the witches again. Macbeth has murdered Duncan, his best friend Banquo an d has become a tyrant. However out front this there are two instances of the supernatural.The first is when Macbeth is about to execute the kill on King Duncan. He sees a dagger, he goes for it and Macbeths guide goes right through it.A dagger of the mind, a false creation,Proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain? (Macbeth Act 2 Scene 1 Lines 38-39)This could have been sent by the witches to give him a push but it is unnecessary as he is already going in that direction, consequently the witches influence no longer matters because he has already taken control. He then draws his own dagger, but all of a sudden the vision changes to a bloody dagger.And on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood,Which was not so before. (Macbeth Act 2 Scene 1 lines 46-47)Then Macbeth starts to talk about which craft blench Hecate and murder. In them days the stories about Pale Hecate are relevant so Shakespeare puts them in so that the audience can create there own supernatural images. However today you would not include it because of the technology available to create holograms and illusions with lasers. You can see this in Polanskis version of the play he uses lasers to create the dagger.The other instance of the supernatural is when Macbeth sees Banquos ghost in Act 3 Scene 4. You could stage this in 2 ways. You could have the actor that played Banquo made to look like a ghost, or you could have nothing there so that you would see Macbeth talk of the town to a stool. I would have him talking to a stool because if you had a ghost the audience will see that he is actually comprehend one, but if I dont, and you have Macbeth talking to a stool the audience will trust that he had gone insane. Shakespeare keeps the throne where Macbeth sits empty because this will be the adjust where the ghost appears, so he has Macbeth socializing with his friends.Ourself will mingle with society, (Macbeth Act 3 Scene 4 line 2)Then Macbeth sees that the tables full because Banquo is sitting in h is place. Only Macbeth can see the ghost and thats why Lennox saysHere is a place reserved, sir. (Lennox Act 3 Scene 4 line 45)Macbeth recognises the ghost of Banquo is sat in his place at the table he believes this is a joke by someone who may know he called for Banquos murder.Which of you have done this? (Macbeth Act 3 Scene 4 line 48)In Act 4 Scene 1 Macbeth goes to consult the witches, this own decision to do this. Therefore the witches have delighted Macbeth. The opening of this scene is really about giving the audience a thrill. The witches are conducting an evil magic spell they use horrible ingredients for it like,Wool of bat, and tongue of dog, (Second witch Act 4 Scene 1 line14)In them days this would of pleased the groundlings. If I were to stage this scene I would have a big cauldron in the middle of the stage with all the witches gathered around, I would have a red spot light shone on them all and a smoke machine so it would look like the cauldron is giving off smoke, this would create an hazy atmosphere. For the ingredients I would have them as nasty and as untempting as assertable this would make the witches even more repulsive to the audience, therefore entertaining the audience. Once they have finished the spell Macbeth knocks at the door of the witches home, then ironically a witch says,By the incision of my thumbs,Something wicked this way comes (Second witch Act 4 Scene1line 45)Macbeth enters the witchs home a he is determined to know the future, no matter what the cost.I conjure you, by that which you profess, however you come to know it, answer me. (Macbeth Act 4 Scene 1 line 50-51)The witches oblige him with three phantoms. The 1st apparition is an armed wit this could be interpreted as Macduff, or Macbeths head or the head of rebellion. The 2nd apparition is a bloody child. This is referring to Macbeth being ripped from his mothers womb untimely. This could hint that he was born via cesarean section which in them days was not nor mal this could explain why Macbeth has turned wicked. The last apparition is a child crown with a tree in his hand this could be interpreted as Malcolm or James 1st. They all assume that Malcolm is intended in that he gives the order to hew down branches, although it could be about James 1st. It was known that James 1st was crowned in the cradle, so the tree could be a family tree.Shakespeare would of stages these apparitions victimization just actors and props, for the armed head they could of used a fake head with armor on it, and for the other two apparitions they could of just used a real child and used make up to create the illusion of blood. However in the twenty-first century the effects you can create for this scene are overwhelming for the armed head its possible to have a real head floating in mid-air, this can be done using holograms. The same techniques could be used to create illusions for the rest of the apparitions.If I were to stage Macbeth today I would make a film rather than a play doing this would enable me to input more special effects. I would go along the same route as Pulaskis version because I liked how he made one of the witches young and beautiful to echo the Fair is foul saying.After reading the play, Im bewildered, how could a potential hero be so taken in, unless he wanted to be? I think from birth Macbeth had something evil in him that needed someone or something to trigger the iniquity off, so I believe that the witches were the ones that pulled the trigger that resulted in the total destruction of Macbeth.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Rational Choice Theory Essay

With the exception of a person who has a severe psychical disability, every human thinks and weighs out the benefits and the consequences of a plague they ar roughly to sanctify. nation do not cast as much credit for committing a crime as they should and this understructure result in discoverting a lesser punishment.Rational prize scheme states that law violating behavior is the result of carful judgment and planning. This hypothesis has been used by many scientists to try and get a better understanding on why people halt the pickaxes they serve. The principal(prenominal) concept of the hypothesis of reasonable choice was brought up by a man named Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham which influenced the criminal rightful(prenominal)ice system greatly giving scientists a new way to look at the criminal mind. Beccaria mainly looked at rational choice as a free get out in a way Ones ability to make choices based on certain factors. Beccarias original concept was decl ined by the end of the 19th century. subsequent in the 1960s a man named Gary Becker said that new(prenominal) that people with a severe mental illness, an individual makes a decision by looking at the good and the bad possible in the outcome of a decision.Rational choice theory denies any type of reasoning for an action other than that people weigh out possible outcome. The theory states that any and all law violating behavior should be looked at as an individual that makes a decision based on their situational factors such as precious items, money or living necessities. Crime is directly related with the choice of an individual. Rational choice theory is currently a strong bias in the decision making process in the administration system of the United States. When a severe crime is committed most investigators and lawyers tend to look for a medical answer. Now why is itthat theyre not looking at what they did and understand that it wasnt just a medical issue generating the outc ome by itself?Scientists will look into what could physically or psychologically cause an individual to commit such a crime. Lawyers dont want to actually meet out what the medical condition is to help the criminal they want to find an excuse that will make a judge really think about giving the criminal a lesser punishment. If a lawyer gets paid based on their defendants punishment being lesser they will find as yet the slightest excuse possible for why they did what they did.Lets look back to the reach trial in 1979 where Dan White, a former police officer, was accused of murdering two people. In greet the defense claimed that White was agony from a mental lapse brought on by a series of events in his life that left(a) him temporarily insane. They also related the fact that he had been eating junk food to the murders saying that he had diminished capacity. When they claimed it was cod to diminished capacity they said that he could not think critically due to the junk food. W ith this defense he actually got a lesser offense. He was initially accused of murder but only got manslaughter. This completely takes away the fact that he was using his own critical intellection to commit this murder. The court actually believed that he was not in control of the situation.These days when someone commits a nearly-planned and though out crime such as a mass murder or a shooting, the only thing the individual would pull in to do in court is plead insanity and they get a lesser sentence which takes away the deterrence of punishment. If you look into the shooter in Aurora, Colorado you can see exactly how well he planned out this mass murder. The gunman bought mass amounts of ammo online and in stores. He obtained tear gas, masks, and all necessary items to commit a mass murder. He had his apartment wired to kill any law enforcement or investigators who entered. This was a well-planned murder where he had a limited location, at a specific time, with specific weap ons. A lot of people may look at this and think that it was a well conceit out murder and some will look at it and actually think that this is because some mental illness and was not entirely his fault. He is in court and is pleading not guilty due to insanity but just recently they uncovered searches from his computers and smartphones.The main focus of his search history was rational insanity. He had actually planned out how he was going to get away with this crime after he was caught and in court. Luckily with modern engineering science investigators were able to find out all of the planning that went into this murder or the case could have end up manage a lot of cases where they plead insanity or something else that would give them a lesser sentence and in a way get away with murder. This is definitely a man who has dear problems but he is in fact a very smart man with a well thought out plan that could play out in his favor. The shooter looking up the speech communication r ational insanity, shows that he looked at the potential consequences before he committed the crime.He obviously thought that he could commit this crime and cover it up with a mental condition. When you look at cases like this you start to realize what people are actually capable of. Yes we are all humans and have minds of our own so why do we look into making it easier on a criminal who is trying to wipe out as many humans as he can taking lives? People make rational choices about everything they do. People will think about the crime they are about to commit. They will make a choice on their own and it should be put on no person or condition, but on them.Rather than what the shooter did in the Aurora, Colorado movie menage shooting some people look at the possibilities of them get away with the crime. Most people who commit crimes such as bank robbers or any thieves most likely think about the possibilities of them getting caught versus the possibilities of them getting away with the crime. To do this the criminal must look into the crime deep enough to be able to weigh out exactly what they will need to do to complete their task flawlessly. Criminals will look at the crime they are planning as sort of a challenge in a way.If they can complete the task successfully they will get some sort of pleasance out of it. Whether it is steal a small item from a convenient store or stealing hundreds of thousands from a bank or jewelry store the criminal with have a well thought out plan to make it successful. They usually know exactly what the punishment could be and also how serious. Depending on the criminals living situation this could affect the choice that is made.Rational choice is a strong topic analyze today in the criminology world.Scientists are always finding reasons and sub theories to add into rational choice. Rational choice theory doesnt directly explain reasons why people make the decisions that they do but it explains that deviate activity when viol ating a law is aimed directly at the individuals thought process. The United States should continue to carryout trials with the rational choice theory to help prevent criminals from taking advantage of pleading insanity for a lesser sentence. clobber CitedArticlesDraper, E. (n.d.). Theater shooting suspects computer used to search rational insanity The capital of Colorado Post.Colorado Breaking News, Sports, Weather, Traffic, Jobs The Denver Post. Retrieved October 15, 2013, from http//www.denverpost.com/breakingnews/ci_24282613/theater-shooting-suspect-did-computer-searches-rational-insanity Gado, M. (n.d.). The Insanity Defense Twinkies as a Defense Crime Library on truTV.com. Crime Library. Retrieved October 15, 2013, from http//www.trutv.com/library/crime/criminal_BooksSiegel, L. J. (2010). Criminology the core (4th ed.). Belmont, CA Thomson/Wadsworth. Eriksson, L. (2011). Rational choice theory potential and limits. Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan. Samenow, S. E. (1984). in ternal the criminal mind. New York Times Books.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Distillation Lab Report

Data and Conclusions The purpose of this experiment was to learn how to use distillment and gas chromatography to separate and unwrap different compounds from a given miscellany. There are several kinds of distillment methods. However, the method that we used in this experiment was fractional distillation. This method is used when trying to separate deuce different volatile compounds whose boil points differ by 40-50C or more.If the boil points are also close, this method al slump not work because the two compounds provide begin evaporating at close temperatures and will condense down to the receiving flasks at sexual congressly the same measure. This will not create an ideal separation. The implement used for this type of distillation is longer than that of a simple distillation experiment because this kind of weapon creates more efficient separation. This happens because the fractional distillation apparatus is longer, and allows for several simple distillations to oc cur within the mainstay itself to more accurately separate mobiles.The inside of the column is said to have theoretical plates, or proportionality stages that are created by the vapor and liquid stages of a compound that create this accuracy. The column must withal be insulated with cotton and aluminum to prevent any heat loss that may lead to away temperature readings or even effect the evaporation of the different compounds. When heating the stillpot, flameless heating should be used along with a magnetic stirbar. This is important to control the temperature of the mixture and musical accompaniment the heat smooth and constant.Heating the mixture too fast could result in no fractionation in the column and lead to no separation. Likewise, if the mixture is heated too slowly, the vapors might now make it all the way to the electrical condenser, and the liquid will fall back into the stillpot. If the mixture is heated correctly and constantly, the vapors should condense throug h a condenser and into a receiving flask. This condenser should have water go pastning through it at all times to keep it cool and keep the condensed vapor flowing down into the receiving flask.As a whole, the entire apparatus industrial plant dead for two different volatile liquids with 40-50C boiling point differences because as the liquid with the lower boiling point is distilled emerge, the senior high schooler boiling point liquid will remain in the stillpot as the another(prenominal) is evaporating and distilled. Then, it will be able to evaporate later as the temperature rises, after the other has more than on the whole distilled out. As I conducted this portion of the experiment, I noticed that while taking the three fractions, fraction A filled up the full 15 mL and continued distilling through fraction B, and eventually stopped.Because of this, I hypothesized that all of fraction A and most of fraction B consisted of the low boiling point compound. As I raised the te mperature of the hotplate, I was able to collect fraction C, and I predicted that it was composed of mostly the high boiling point liquid. To test this, the experiment called for the use of gas chromatography. The chromatography would not only show the relative concentrations of to each one compound in the fraction, but could also help confirm the identification of the compounds we thought were in the fractions based on the temperatures that each liquid boiled.Before trying to guess the correct compounds of the mixture, one must run each individual fraction through the machine to clearly see the composition of each. Gas chromatography works because as the liquid runs through the machine, its different components run through and exit at different times due to changes of temperatures that measure high and low boiling points. The machine records these using peaks of retention time that identify these different components. After obtaining this data, there was enough information to choo se a reasonable match for each of the components.Once both the fractions and the guessed compound were complex, the retention recordings should not differ in the number of peaks because ideally the compound mixed should have the same retention time as one of the other previous peaks. If the compounds were to differ in the number of peaks, then it shows that another compound must be present with different properties. As I conducted this portion of the experiment, I guessed cyclohexane for my low boiling point liquid and toluene or heptane for my high boiling point liquid based on the fractional distillation observations.For cyclohexane I mixed it with fraction A, since it preponderantly consisted of my low boiling point liquid, and observed two peaks in my results. Therefore I concluded that cyclohexane was the low boiling point liquid. However, for the second liquid I guessed heptane first, and my results showed three peaks. Knowing that I had guessed wrong, I time-tested toluene mixed with my fraction C and only got two peaks. The high boiling point liquid proved to be toluene. In conclusion, my results all matched the main ideas and theories presented in the experiment.From my results I was able to figure out the composition of each of the compounds in the initial mixture and compare them to those of the rest of the class. My results only varied by 3. 18%. When using the two different methods of calculating the composition, the second method using the chromatography peaks was more accurate, and compared to the first method of assuming the ideal compositions, the results differed from the class average by over 10%. Based on the consistency of our class results using the second method, the two compounds proved to have been distilled using the proper method, and is strengthened by the use of gas chromatography.