Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 82

Summary - Essay ExampleThe put under of identifying the affected birds was abstruse by the lack of manifestation in ducks which pose potential risk to mankind in an area.The virus that cause the flu mutated from the original type that affected birds only to a complicated one that is unaffected by the immunity system of humans. The virus is spread when an avian strain meets a strain that is adapted to spreading the virus in mammals and the exchange fag take place in the body of a person or any other animal host. In the past, the flu has killed a large number of animals with a record 40million people noted to have died from it between 1918 and 1919 and showing that it can wipe very many people within a short time with few chances of option after infection.Some organisations have partnered to increase surveillance of the influenza because the former studies focused on humans, swine, moaner and horses. This is regardless of the high monetary demand that is posed in attempt to produ ce a vaccinum to curb the virus, which is very harmful to the

Monday, April 29, 2019

Promotion and Public Relations Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Promotion and Public Relations - Coursework ExampleIt provided can be determined with the help of sales revenue of the restaurant.It is Doral, Florida based restaurant. It possesses or establishments 116 Japanese prep bedness restaurants as far and wide as possible, including its lead Benihana Teppanyaki brand, and in addition the Haru (combination food) and RA Sushi restaurants. Hiroaki Aoki was founder of this restaurant.The merchandising promotion and public relation aids a restaurant to increase their sales and engage impudently customers. It also helps the restaurant organization to remain competitive in to the market, able to introduce their new serve in foods and drink. The main objective of a restaurant organization should retain their existing customers.There are many tools for consumer sales promotion of restaurant organization, such as coupon distribution, price off promotion, drop by the wayside sample distribution and offering free gifts. To being a new service in r estaurant, on that point should be free sample distribution of foods and drinks to the customers so that the customers leave alone aware of food and drink quality. dispersion of coupon and offering free gifts will help the restaurant organization to attract more customers. These activities will aid the restaurant to understand the consumer behavior and their desires and needs from restaurant (Horchover, 2002).For a restaurant, it will be intimately to do trade sales promotion. It will aid Benihana Inc restaurant to attract more customers and can allot competition to other existing restaurant in the market. Here, Benihana Inc restaurant should sale provide their service via online ordinal party website, in this the restaurant should decrease their price of foods and drinks, some rebates to existing customers and free coupons. This particular body process will increase the sales of the restaurant and helps engage more new customers (Dauster, 2007).For a Benihana Inc restaurant in the market, the owner should distribute pamphlets and flyers to the

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Pls see the attachment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Pls see the attachment - Essay ExampleSteve should have set up an agenda for his day and should have had a system to gear up his paperwork.Before the meeting, Steve received a call option on a rush job, which he had turned over to one of his production supervisors, Lucy Adams, and put stunned of his mind. He tried to reach her and discovered she was out of town and difficult to reach. He asked his secretary to forego her a message to call him. He should have told his secretary to ask Lucy about the job in case he was not in the office when she called.The rest of his day was one interruption aft(prenominal) anotheran appointment not listed, a priority job his boss had asked for that wasnt done, being new-fashioned for another meeting, missing calls from Lucyand at 430, he decided to go home, wondering how he could always get caught up.It is obvious Steve Arnold is a disaster waiting to happen. He is balancing on a nonsensical rope, and any minute hes apt to crash. He has severa l employees apparently capable of discussion projects, but Steve has never created a precedent schedule that would include early morning meetings with his staff to conception not only each day but also the condemnation lines needed to complete projects by a reasonable deadline. It would also appear that his secretary, Ruth, either has not been given the option of helping Steve organize his own scheduled priorities and putting his papers in order or she is not dependable and in all probability should be replaced. Steve does not cheek ahead to determine how to prioritize his time. He also does not look at the overall picture to see how production schedules should interact. He needs to educate himself on these matters.Steve does not appear to have much personal interaction with any of his staff nor does he schedule his time properly. He will improve greatly as a leader if he sets a preliminary schedule for his day with connections to future projects and the reminders he needs to follow up. Once he does this, he will

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Religion of the Incas Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Religion of the Incas - Essay fontThis paper approves that the holiness of the Incas greatly affected the day to day lives of the people and it withal affected the preaching that women received from the community in general. The hierarchy of the Inca society was the emperor, the royal family, the upper aristocracy, the administrators, the nobilities, the artisans then the laborers who were the least in the Inca society. Sometimes the Incas sacrificed their animals or even people to their gods especially their sun god. On the other hand the Incas religion affected the people such that there were a lot of religious sacrifices which were made following veritable events such as the death of an emperor or even an earthquake. Similarly the priests who were leading the religious ceremonies in Inca had to act like todays nuns whereby they even lived in convents which were secluded from the rest of the people. This essay makes a conclusion that similarly the Inca religion was very advanc ed in comparison to the other religions of the civilizations during the time of the civilization. This is because during this layover they had a very advanced form of worship whereby they worshipped a feline god and they also built many temples which were equipped with several underground chambers that were dedicated to the worship ceremonies. The Inca religion greatly affected the day to day lives of the people and it also affected the treatment that women received from the community in general in terms of their recreational activities, farming activities, architecture as well as the rule ship of the spiritual leaders.

Friday, April 26, 2019

One-child policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

One-child indemnity - raise Exampleture of global peace and development tend to focus on Chinas economy, its refutal and armaments buildup and Chinas access to resources and energy. Yet, the one economic factor that is often overlooked in this abbreviation is Chinas one child policy and its fast changing demography. China happens to be the worlds most populated nation. Right after the coming into existence of the Peoples Republic of China, the nation experienced a propitious universe growth owing to a go against medical c atomic number 18 and sanitation and this race growth was envisioned to be an advantage (Button 468). Mao Zedong believed that unconstipated if the population of China augmented manifold, the nation had the resources to cope up with it. However, a fast increasing population putting stress on the nations food security encouraged the government to prefer for a one child policy in 1979, a measure that had both favorable and pretty consequences for the nations economic growth, demographic configuration and socio-economic characteristics (Button 467).There is no denying the fact that in the part of underdeveloped nations, supporting and sustaining population in the light of the available scarce resources is a great challenge. In that context China had always been pursuing a very planned and systematic approach towards its population growth in a contemporary scenario. In the light of this fact, the nation introduced the one child policy in 1979, in an aggressive bid to improve its economic situation and to augment the peoples standard of living (Connor 1). The one child policy required the couples belonging to ethnic Han majority to hold themselves to a single child (Connor 1). Although, to begin with, the one child policy was intended to be a short term measure, the nations success in reducing the population count by 400 million motivated it to continue with a revised version of the one child policy till today (Connor 1). As per Chinas o ne child policy the urban couples are

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Micro Economics - Competition Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Micro Economics - Competition - Essay ExampleHowever, not all situations can the counseling plan on how to counter the competitors. In most cases, these situations arise due to unavoidable circumstances face an organization. Whenever such situations arise, an organizations management has to take drastic measures of solving the problem. How firms solve the problem of aspiration in the two scenarios forms the main discussion of this paper. Short-Run Decisions and Long Run Adjustments of Firms Facing Competition mental institution Competition blow overs in perfect foodstuffplace grammatical constructions where firms operate in a perfectly competitive food market structure. In perfect contender, many small firms involved in the proceeds of identical products with perfect vex to resources and knowledge characterize the market structure. Firms operating in a perfectly competitive market structure face a horizontal and perfectly elastic and demand curve, a situation where margin al revenues be equal to average revenue. Characteristics of perfectly competitive markets include perfect knowledge, freedom of entry and exit of firms, production of homogenous and identical units of output and many firms in operation. The structuring of a perfect market does not fertilize an opportunity to a single firm to either influence the market price or market conditions, there are no governmental regulations and the assumption there is no existence of externalities. Body face with the problem of competition, organizations have to device ways and means of preserving their relevance in the market. Various factors affect the relevance of organizations in the industry they operate. Jain and Khanna (198) assert that quality and the popularity of an organizations products among the customers determinusine the market deal out of that company in the market it operates. Competition indirectly acts as a quality controller. As companies growth their fight for a bigger cake in th e entire market, they apply a number of measures. Firstly, companies affix their focus on the quality of products provided to the market while at the same time strives to offer the outmatch prices in the market. Pricing is not an influential factor as high-end markets have indicated. Quality is the biggest factor influencing the market dynamics and purchasing behaviours of customers. Compromising quality of products adversely effects on the customers base of a company. Companies know to high quality products and services are associated with large market shares and subsequently report high revenues and profits. temporary hookup laying down strategies for winning their competition, organizations apply a number of means and ways. Although every organization social occasions alone(predicate) strategies in the market geared towards increasing its revenue sales, there are similar steps that organizations use to achieve these replys. Either, an organization can opt for long term or s hort-term competition moderateness factors. While long-term plans needs a solid strategic plan and implementation schedule, short term decisions could be spontaneous and reactive. Reaction is a situation where a company facing high competition from other firms operating in the same industry takes drastic measures of countering that competition. Mainly, the management as measures of last result takes such measures. However, the management of an organization should be adequately prepared to counter any in eventualities whenever they occur in their operations. Whenever

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Evolution of Internet Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Evolution of net Paper - Essay ExampleWith the evolution of meshing, devices used to support it have besides developed and am outstanding example of these devices is the router. In this part of question, this paper is going to research on three companies (TRENDNet, D-Link and Linksys) interchange extravagantly- make haste router products. It will also compare the most powerful routers sold, as well as elaborating meaning of the term, most powerful as with regard to routers. A router is a ne dickensrking device that analyzes data and forwards it to a certain destination. To transfer the data efficiently and accurately, a lot of activity takes place inside the router. In addition to enabling most computers to go online, it enables computer networking in the most effective way (Zdnet 2012). at that place are different companies that manufacture high speed routers. The best examples of such companies are TRENDNet, D-Link, and Linksys which deal with high speed routers. Their route rs can handle the bandwidth that one subscribes with an mesh of 1 mbps connection which can go up to 12 mbps. The TRENDNet Company in California has been supporting home and business networks. Among the products TRENDNet, Company deals with are, high speed routers like TRENDnet TW100 BRV214 and TRENDnet TW100 S4W1CA, and are connected to a modem via Ethernet port (Zdnet 2012). D-link is a nonher company which has developed technology products for two and half decades. It offers solutions for large corporations, educational and government institutions as well as home and office. The company also offers high speed routers like the D-link DI 704p and D-link DIR-130 Broadband VPN Router (Zdnet 2012). Just like the TRENDnet routers, D-links routers are connected to a modem via Ethernet. The third company that deals with high speed routers is Linksys, which has been providing technology solutions for long. The company has high speed routers with high execution like Linksys E4200 dual ba nd wireless-N router and RV042 router (Zdnet 2012). Linksys routers are slimmer than those of the other two companies. They are other software that accompanies these routers to enable the user to get the optimum benefit. High speed routers should be connected in the correct mannequin order of modem, router then computer as analyzed in the Introduction to High Speed Routers (2009). The modem connects to internet supplier, then the high speed router connects to the modem, and the computer connects to the high speed router. To me the most powerful router can be defined by the ability of the router to enable computer networking, the high speed in downloading files from the internet, the one which does not require antennae to tap signals. The router should also be able to connect wireless-G and wireless-N without complications, and should have the ability to set up a separate network for each band. Week 4 DQ 2 Since 1997 The American Registry for meshwork Numbers (ARIN) has been respo nsible for the administration of internet addresses and domains for parts of the Caribbean and North America including Canada and United states. The decision by the American government to have the US department of defense secede from the support for commercial internet inspired its formation (Comer 2000). One of its services is the Whois service, which can be used to determine address blocks for institutions deep down the United States. It can also be used to determine geographical locations of specific internet provider addresses. In this part of question,

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Discovering Professional Resources Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 2

Discovering Professional Resources - Essay ExampleThe current composition makes use of three different ledger publications and uses the articles within them to study the perceptions and conclusions of various researchers on the specific issues pertaining to prepare administration. This will include the management of eon and stress and the various methods of dealing with conflicts and the challenges of working in teams. In addition to discussing the points provided in the chosen journals with admire to each of these topics, the paper will also focus on ways to implement them in set and express opinions on their positive and negative traits.The latest issue of the preparation Administration Quarterly print in August 2009 contains publications discuss issues such as the need to foster leadership within school administration and the need to address the issues of conflict in Schools. The articles are mostly based on maing inferences through and through numerical and statistical int erpretation and the journal is associated with the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA. The information is available as a paper publication in addition to being accessible in online research portals. Given the broad throw of issues that the journal discussed in the bvarious issues pertaining to School administration, this is a resource which I would refer to frequently.as the name suggests, Education week is a weekly journal publication that adopts the approach more of a time. The latest variate pertains to the preceding week that ended August 15th, 2009. Education week can be considered as a semi-scholarly resource as it contains a whole lot of other content in addition to containing academic discussions on School Administration. Further, the magazine discusses a wide variety of other issues pertaining to Education in general. the magazine is available online through a web portal that can be reached at www.edweek.org. given its reason

Monday, April 22, 2019

Interview 1 member of the clergy and 1 academic counselor who both Assignment

Interview 1 penis of the clergy and 1 academic counselor who both interact with college students Research strategies for self-m - Assignment ExampleMost college students face divers(a) life challenges, especially when they are fresh in college because college life is a transition phase from addiction to independence. It is during college life that new students have to make independent decisions, manage finance and time, interact with people from sundry(a) social backgrounds and develop their identity. Therefore, college students face emotional, psychological and spiritual challenges. In the two interviews that involve one member of the clergy and an academic counselor, I will evaluate emotional, psychological and spiritual needs of college students. Information obtained from research on strategies for self-management, time management, and learning for college students will be incorporated with the information obtained from the two interviews to create a proposal that will meet t he emotional, psychological, and spiritual needs of college students. What are the Spiritual Needs of College Students? In an interview with a member of the clergy on the emotional, psychological and spiritual needs of college students, it was revealed that college students have various spiritual needs. The clergy, having worked in the cosmos for several years, has been interacting with college students. ... He confirmed that freshmen need a channelize to theology. The clergy further said that the place of worship that or so college students need should enable them to connect with people with whom they share their faith. This is because college students need enhance their spiritual harvest-feast while in college. Do senior college students also have spiritual needs? The clergy respondent to the brain by emphasizing that senior college students also have spiritual needs, only that the location and details close place of worship is not a challenge to them because they have stay ed for sometime, and they have sufficient knowledge. Given that most people in college have upgraded their thinking, and have learnt some abstract new concept, as students interact with others and instructors, their earlier religious beliefs may be challenged and put on inquiry. As result, these senior college students need a place where they empennage learn about spiritual truth to enhance their spiritual health and overcome either challenges to their spiritual beliefs that may be misleading. Senior college students also need to know the truth so that they can make right decisions on the spiritual paths to follow, upon getting sufficient information. The clergy further noted that during his long status service in the institution he had made significant observations. During his interactions with college students, the clergy observed that college students need a unchangeable environment and people to explain and show them the love of Jesus so that they feel they have a place to belong, when it comes to spirituality. What are the Emotional Needs of College Students? My main objective was to

Polaroid Advertising Campaign Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Polaroid Advertising Campaign - Essay ExampleThis foodstuff arose collectable to the increased demand for technology products. It is at this time of history that the world war and contestation for the worlds meager resources came to the peak. Technological growth in addition became a subject of importance an inventions became an evidence of the day. It is in record that at this point in history industrial revolution peaked (Qualters 2003). The association manufactures hires and it is on record that the recent sales were about 50 films and over 100 types of cameras worldwide. The comp either is celebrated for instant film cameras that were replaced very recently in the year 2008 due to the onset of digital cameras because of digital technology (Porter 20005). For a start, Polaroid went through the growth phases that any newly established company could undergo. As clear been noted above, the growth was propelled by apart from existence of adequate market the competitors like K odak Express also enabled the growth of the company. In fact, Polaroid, using its strong strategies displaced Kodak from the market and made Kodak flee completely from the instant film technology reach (Boone & Kurtz 2011). However much Polaroid posed stiff competition to its other competitors in their field of competition, there also existed other firms like the Nixon and Minolta who differentiated and specialized in pro ducts unique decorous to file competition for Polaroid. This made Polaroid experience technical difficulties in their operations that solvinged solely from competition from these firms. The verbalise went as far as making Polaroid apply for bankruptcy state in the United States courts in the year 2001. The bankruptcy majorly affected their summations due to overtrading that the corporation was engaged in (Bushman 2010). Almost immediately, the firm undertook a reorganization exercise where it considered acquisition procedures, it approached several firms in a bid to strengthen its operations due to partnerships and mergers. This period could not allow Polaroid to be engaged in acquisitions. The company as a result needed to employ soften strategies to increase its production of relevant products, the sales of such products to do better revenue as well as engaging in cost reduction and minimization measures. integrity way that it identified could help it form better returns was through thorough marketing try (Bushman 2010). somatic/ Marketing Campaign Normally, corporate have both general and specific corporate objectives and marketing campaign strategies. The general major corporate objectives of any company are profit maximization objective for the shareholders to realize better returns in form of dividends. This is also geared towards ensuring that the investor confidence is busted and well directed (Cant, Strydom, & Jooste 2009). The other objective of establishing any corporate organization is to maximize the wealth off the sh areholders. It is in the interest of any realistic shareholder to anticipate growth in form and nature of their firm. This growth is only doable if there is profitability and that part of the profits realized is reinvested in prospects like long-term assets that are meant to realize returns to the company. Polaroid during its formation had an objective of being the world leader in film technology. It also had the objective of diversifying its asset base by being one of the participants in

Sunday, April 21, 2019

IKEA's Global Strategy - Furnishing the World Essay

IKEAs Global Strategy - Furnishing the World - experiment ExampleThe entrance of IKEA into Germany has been unbeaten because of low prices of IKEAs products. Although Germany was a mature market and various ceremonious retailers were attracting the major consumer segments, still IKEA enlarged the market and changed the competitive position because even the set up retailers adopted the mandate of IKEA in their own operations. In Germany, unlike traditional retail stores, IKEA introduced lean organizational strategies through and through which it intensify responsibilities and freedom of employees. These strategies energized employees by increasing their motivation level. Canadian market was also a mature market, however, IKEA through its full publicizing causal agency, positive word-of-mouth and newly recruited local suppliers, energized Canadian market and successfully established its position. Moreover, in Canada, lean organizational practices were welcomed. In the huge and m ature market of U.S. IKEA established it position by catering to the local taste and tapping into local expertise through franchising, acquisitions and joint venture. Therefore, IKEAs practices insisted the competitors to reconsider their set strategies, advertising strategies, product features and management styles. It has analyzed from case study, that most of the markets which IKEA has targeted, word-of-mouth remained the best effective advertising strategy of the company however, in the U.S. market more focused media-advertising was required. IKEA through its TV advertising campaign touched the personality, life style and emotions of people and encouraged the sales of company. Through this campaign IKEA actually changed the article of furniture purchasing behavior of the consumers in the United States. The series of eight TV advertising spots was have in such a way that every consumer in the U.S. could associate himself/herself with one of the series. Therefore, after this cam paign, consumers started buying furniture not only to furnish their living space but as a motion of their lifestyle, personality and emotions. The campaign benefited IKEA because other companies in the U.S. were spending huge in advertising to stay in the business, whereas, by changing the behavior of consumers towards furniture, IKEA grew its customer base.

Saturday, April 20, 2019

American Airlines - Pressures within the industry or the competition Research Paper

American Airlines - Pressures within the industry or the competition Scandal - Research Paper fontThese and other related operational lapses in physical fleet maintenance and other aspects of operations drop resulted in many small and large problems for the company. For one, the regulators prevail levied very steep fines on American Airlines for the failures in maintenance of the fleets. Meanwhile, other operational lapses such as mishandled management of the relationship with key personnel has resulted in bad publicity for the airline. These breaches have legal dimensions moreover, in that the compromising of the security and well-being of passengers as stakeholders have legal consequences for American Airlines (Daily Mail newsman Cohn Ahles Gavett David Mutzabaugh Infocom Group Coffee McCartney Raymond). B. Industry Overview The state of the airlines industry and the pressures that argon put to bear on American Airlines as it tries to stay afloat as an on-going and financially workable concern is reflected in the most late news and analyses with regard to the planned merger between American Airlines on the one hand and US Airways on the other. ... Since that time, the stock has sunk and has been in a sheer downhill trajectory, indicating difficult financial conditions within the firm and outside for the entire industry in ordinary (Google). All these translate to an operating environment that is marked by wiped out(p) margins and losses, difficult conditions and prospects for the medium term, and low confidence on the part of the investors with regard to the desirability of airlines as an investment vehicle, and bad prospects for all stakeholders in general, including employees and passengers. These translate to large pressures put on American Airlines to continue to push forward with investments to renovate and elevate existing fleets and to keep the airplanes serviceable and airworthy. The pressure is with regard to act to operate in an environmen t where continuing investments in fleet management and maintenance add to already soaring costs that thin margins and install it difficult for American Airlines and other players to turn a profit year in and year out. The recent bankruptcy filing is the icing on the cake and proof that American Airlines as it is currently comprise is unable to thrive in a pressure-packed industry and overall airlines business environment (Daily Mail Reporter Cohn Ahles Gavett David Mutzabaugh Infocom Group Coffee McCartney Raymond). From the perspective of the immense pressures in the industry for airlines to remain profitable and financially possible concerns in the wake of record losses spanning at least a decade, continuously thinning margins from evolution costs and intense competition from other players that keep prices depressed, the problems and missteps of American Airlines can be placed in their proper perspective. One way to view

Friday, April 19, 2019

Female Genital Mutilation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

womanish Genital Mutilation - Essay ExampleIt can result in death through and through severe bleeding leading to haemorrhage shock, neurogenic shock as a result of suffering and trauma and/or severe and overwhelming transmittal and septicaemia. It is routinely traumatic. Other harmful effects complicate Failure to heal abscess formation cysts excessive growth of scar tissue urinary nerve pathway infection scar neuroma painful sexual intercourse increased susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and other blood-borne diseases reproductive tract infection pelvic inflammatory diseases infertility painful menstruation chronic urinary tract impedimenta/ bladder stones urinary incontinence obstructed labour and increased risk of bleeding and infection during childbirth. (Harrison 2001) Female genital mutilation/cutting is a fundamental violation of the rights of children and women as outlined in numerous global conventions, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Co nvention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. (WHO 2005)As a health professional who is culturally sensitive I would advise her to stick to her decision without fail. But she should reach sure that she tries her level best to explain the medical complications of this procedure to her family members to the best of her ability rather clean snubbing them by labelling them ignorant.

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Business plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 5

Business plan - Essay ExampleThe trade comprises of three main competitors, such as Abuja constructors, Oga building Limited and Okonwkwo Fabricators. The two minor competitors atomic number 18 Okocha Limited and Dibanj Holders limited. The strength of the main competitors is their long working hours, nearness to consumers and their reputation. However, most customers complain that the main competitors lose client courtesy and good communication skills. It is also apparent that they charge high prices for their products, which make consumers to revise them from other suppliers outside the region.In order to capture the market, our firm will introduce cheaper prices to counter the price strategies of the main competitors. The other strategy is to embark on an aggressive publicity, comprising of adverts in local radio station and investment magazines. The sales forecast will be directed towards the target market to ensure that the work out caters for all the costs in the startup plan. The action plan is to coordinate all departments to segment the market for possible purchase of the Granite

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Operation Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 2

Operation Management - Essay ExampleThirdly, Maielli (2005) states that the plant was aimed at addressing persistent industrial conflict. In establishing this plant, 1000 knowledge workers participated in crafting the agreement that led to the creation of the new plant. As a leading objective, the new plant was intended to address union and company industrial conflict. Besides, the existing plants had incessantly deteriorated the quality of the products, the management, therefore, set this new plant with an objective of acting as a benchmark in establishing quality production. The main goal was to foster quality, expand production, and end industrial conflicts with the unions.In addition, the objective capricious this new plant was to restore a cognitive and institutional order. Traditionally, the cable car manufacturer had suffered a great industrial unrest, in establishing the new plant the focus was establishing an industry based on realigning industrial processes and arrange under management controlled. Moreover, the objective was to streamline company operations with a view of setting car manufacturing strategy driven by astute institutional order driven by consumers intention of ameliorate quality and expanding production. Lastly, Melfi plant objective was to establish organizational turn-around that would revamp production, establish quality and promote industrial growth (Maielli 2005).The design of the Melfi plat appeared to have been substantially affected by previous experience with automation and robotics in a number of ways. The Melfi plant was significantly influenced by Post-Fordism ideas of extensive production and organizational restructuring to brook the industrial dynamics. Post-Fordism reflects a move to expand quality production the largest production plants established during the 1970s and mid-eighties were driven by this industrial ideology (Seitz &

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Erving Goffman The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life Essay Example for Free

Erving Goffman The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life EssayErving Goffman has completed a wonderful presentation of human behaviour and opposite interactions, of a number 1 meeting between two people, who may or may not bind an audience. The use of a theatrical performance to explain the interaction was indeed an ingenious idea that unploughed me intrigued until the very end. This book was written in 1959 but its referencing to human behaviour is still very oftentimes relevant to todays life style. Human behaviour patterns encounter been written about by many individuals over the years, why we do the things we do or how long we have been undertaking these behaviours. Is there any relevance to the patterns in our behaviour? It would seem there definitely appears to be. As a society, to bias how an separate mortal perceives who we argon.We give appearances and refinements of someone we want people to see, yet not particularly who we in truth are. Goffman describes this as a performance, a play that we put on to give a good first impression. This play could become a nightmare, if we do not keep it under control. It can be arduous to play the part of someone you are not, for the reason that it can rebound on you. It is better to predominate with who you are, and not reveal all of yourself in the beginning, like a good story. To present who we are, we should start at the foundation, begin with presenting an opening act. This act should be near to true life, the person you would like to be cognize as. Currently a person of importance gives the impression that they know what they are doing, example your doctor.If they were a person who, on first meeting gave the impression that they were unsure, confused and unconfident, would you go back to them? No, perhaps not. Even when they are having a bad day your doctor will always appear to be in control, so that we feel more at ease. When we first meet new people we try to acquire knowledge about them, i t is accordingly how the person delivers this selective information, that we base our assumptions. People give information verbally and non-verbally by expressions, movements, gestures and other presumably unintentional communications, like a slight smile.Our brain takes all this information into consideration then makes a personal judgment based on the material it collects. There is so much information for us to collect and make our decision on, that we sometimes need a second meeting to be able to make a correct judgement on a particular person we have meet. Goffman concludes that his own assumptions are made upon a face-to-face interaction and the result of an encounter, the performance that is given to each particular participant and their performance as a basic point of reference. In conclusion, Goffmans writings intelligibly represent how we present ourselves in everyday life today, and possibly well into the future.ReferencesErving, Goffman (1959). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, New York, Anchor Books, pp. 1-16.

Charles Darwin and the Theory of Evolution Essay Example for Free

Charles Darwin and the Theory of maturation EssayIn the 1850s, Charles Darwin proposed his theory of exploitation. His theory proposed that species evolved gradu totallyy through and through subtle changes from one generation to the near by centre of natural selection. By natural selection, the most desirable hereditary traits become much than common from one generation to the next while the less desirable, weaker traits die out. This gives rise to an organism that is much(prenominal) capablefitted toof surviving in the surrounding environment.At the time Darwin formulated his estimate beginning with his ride on the HMS Beagle in the 1830s, some scientists resorted to the idea that God had preordained life by natural laws instead than by miraculous feats. While logical and correct, the idea still refers to a divine power, indicating a religious bent, so perhaps it was obvious that the ideas addressed could lead to religious contr everyplacesy. As is common in science, Darwins sentiment arose from ideas garnered from a number of scientists of his time. Some researchers of the time call upd that natural laws were responsible for life.While Darwins ideas did not reckon for the processes believed to accounting for life at the time, there was a theory at the time thought to account for life. Most thought that species were transmuted from one species into another. The problem with transmutation, an idea that is alike(p) to evolution in some respects, is that a species may change through transmutation, but it impart still be the same species. A cut through may change into a different type of dog, but it will still be a dog likewise, for a cat or any other species. evolution dictates that the entire animal solid ground can grow through stages from one species into another over time.Birds came from reptiles, mammals came from birds and humans came from non-humans. (Lewontin, 1981) The data is unequivocal. During his voyage on HMS Beagle, Darwin gear up fossil remains of gigantic mammals that were recently extinct with no indication that their extinction had been caused by climate changes or catastrophic events. Although he believed that the remains he found were related to species in Africa or Europe, examination of the remains Darwin found showed that they were only related to other species found only in the Americas. Creationists affirm that life came about from God in six days.While most evolutionists attack creationism on the cause of scientific facts, there is another line of tell apart virtually unnoticed by those who stand up evolution theory. Historians and archeologists confirm learned that the biblical grade of creation came from the myths of another culture. Stories presented in the Bible evolved slowly over time, coherent before religions existed, and incorporated tales from many cultures. The story of the Garden of Eden, the serpent and the Tree of Life, for example, are express to have been depicted on an Akkadian Cylinder Seal nearly 2500 years before Christ.The serpent itself was viewed as a deity. Notice No one familiar with the mythologies of the primitive, past, and Oriental worlds can turn to the Bible without recognizing counterparts on every page, transformed, however, to render an argument contrary to the older faiths. In Eves scene at the tree, for example, nothing is tell to indicate that the serpent who appeared and spoke to her was a deity in his own right, who had been revered in the bolt for at least seven thousand years before the composition of the Book of Genesis. There is in the Louvre a carved green steatite vase, inscribed c. 025 BC by King Gudaea of Lagash, commit to a late Sumerian manifestation of this consort of the goddess, under his title Ningizzida, Lord of the Tree of Truth. p. 9. The Serpents Bride. Joseph Campbell. occidental Mythology, The Masks of God. Arkana. New York. Viking Penguin Books. 1964, 1991 reprint The information in the Old T estament dates from about 1450 BC until 200 BC. This means that, contrary to the strongly held beliefs of most Christians, the creation story of Genesis is actually derived from the myths of ancient Sumerians.Therefore, the story is a myth. This means that those who against Darwins ideas on religious grounds based on their beliefs in the accuracy of the story in Genesis have unknowingly chosen to accept myth over facts. While they believe the myth to be factual, archeological examine demonstrates otherwise. The scientific evidence leans heavily in admit of Darwins ideas. While we may not fully understand some aspects behind the mechanism of evolution, we are always learning more about those mechanisms. (Dobzhansky, 1973) Dobzhansky asseveratesLet me try to make crystal clear what is established beyond reasonable doubt, and what needs further study, about evolution. Evolution as a process that has always gone on in the history of the background can be doubted only by those who are swinish of the evidence or are resistant to evidence, owing to emotional blocks or to plain bigotry. By contrast, the mechanisms that diddle evolution about certainly need study and clarification. There are no alternatives to evolution as history that can withstand critical examination.Yet we are constantly learning new and key facts about evolutionary mechanisms. Theodosius Dobzhansky, Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in Light of Evolution, American Biology Teacher vol. 35 (March 1973) reprinted in Evolution versus Creationism, J. Peter Zetterberg ed. , ORYX Press, Phoenix AZ 1983. Darwin (1859) believed that whales evolved from bears based on a scenario where selective pressures might cause this evolution, but he was criticized for this idea and distant the suggestion. Gould, 1995) Today, there is much more fossil evidence for the evolution of many species thus supporting the idea of evolution as a general biological principle, including the evolution of whales from l ower animals. Evidence in support of evolution exists at many levels. There is paleontological evidence based on fossils, morphological evidence that relate the body morphology of higher animals to lower animals, evidence from molecular biology and from embryology.Added to this, the chronological supply that results is consistent with other lines of evidence. For example, the evidence for the evolution of whales from lower animals is convincing. Whales have been closely studied with respect to evolution. If evolution is valid, transitional stages from one level of evolution to another should exist. Although the fossil remains of whales spotty for a long time, recent fossil discoveries have more than adequately lent support to the concept of evolution for whales.Researchers state that independent lines of evidence from different disciplines confirm the pattern of evolution in whales. John Ray recognised that whales were mammals rather than fish in 1693 based on their similarity to t errestrial mammals. (Barnes, 1984) In 1883, Flower (see Barnes, 1984) found that whales had rudimentary characteristics in common with terrestrial mammals just as humans have vestigial tails, the coccyx. Findings similar to these led to the concept of ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. This concept is in brief rationaliseed in further detail below.Flower (1883) recognize that the whales have persistent rudimentary and vestigial features characteristic of terrestrial mammals, thus confirming that the direction of surrender was from terrestrial to marine species. On the basis of morphology, Flower also linked whales with the ungulates he seems to have been the freshman person to do so. Today, we know that whales have vestigial features in common with lower animals. For example, they have vestigial olfactory nerve, protruding hind limbs, pelvic fins and diaphragms.Like humans, during embryological development, whales develop features similar to lower animals and abandon them as d evelopment progresses. During their development, there is also evidence that whales have terrestrial ancestors. Some whales even develop pig while in the womb although they do not retain it. In 1985, Goodman et al. demonstrated that whales are more closely related to ungulates than to other animals. (Goodman, 1985 Miyamoto and Goodman, 1986) Some studies have identified genes, enzymes and other proteins that connect whales to extinct animals. (Irwin et al. 991 Irwin and Arnason, 1994 Milinkovitch, 1992 Graur and Higgins, 1994 Gatesy et al, 1996 Shimamura et al. , 1997) We have already noted above that the creation story in the Bible was taken from the text of an ancient culture that predates the Hebrew account. Rather than to openly acknowledge that the Bibles story of creation is a mythical legend that explains evolution and the appearance of life on earth, some religious groups resort to far-fetched, fictitious, more often than not ridiculous concepts such as creationism, creati on science and intelligent design to dismiss or explain away the science and replace it with fantasy.Embryology and developmental biology have a concept, ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, that simplifies and briefly but succinctly expresses the concepts presented in the first base chapter of Genesis. This is like explaining a complicated scientific concept, take purpose and birth for example, to a little child by using a fairy tale rather than detailed research information. The fairy tale is not accurate, but the general information it communicates is true. With this single phrase, the first chapter of Genesis is summarized and explained.The phrase means that the embryological processes of development, ontogeny, depict and encapsulate the evolutionary history of the species, phylogeny. For example, during development of the human embryo, the fetus briefly has gills and a tail like its phylogenetic ancestors. In other words, during development, the developing embryo goes through s ome of the same stages that humans went through as the species developed from lower animals to humans. The concept makes perfect horse sense and explains many aspects of human development.Obviously, we cannot provide a comprehensive review of the evidence support evolution in a few pages, and we certainly cannot provide realistic evidence against it in light of all that exists to support it. While the evidence in support of the evolution of whales is plentiful, much evidence exists for evolution in general, including in humans. As has been reported here, the evidence is not just from scientific research, but also from archeology and history. That evidence shows, among other things, that the biblical story of creation in Genesis predates the Bible by hundreds of years.Despite all the evidence in support of evolution and against the idea of the biblical creation as being anything more than a myth, we can be certain that the argument in support of the biblical creation as being the re al story and representing the real facts will not go away. Humans being what we are, we will always be faced with living with the Genesis myth as if it were fact, and coping with those who insist that the earth all the universe was created in six literal days. That concept certainly will never go away no matter what facts exist to disprove it.

Monday, April 15, 2019

Historical documen Essay Example for Free

Historical documen EssayDo you believe any historical document or script was true? Before, we cogitate if the historical documents or books are true first, we have to look at the historical casing with a different point of view because it is easy to get biased information if we scarcely focus on one side of the event. In the book After The Fact The View from the diffuse Rail by James West Davidson and Mark Hamilton Lytle, the authors demonstrate that discovering the historical story of the freed people is difficult because histories deal with top rail rather than the bottom rail of the lower social classes. Therefore, the freed peoples history has be recognise flawed.Writing about a historical event is exceedingly difficult, because we have to consider different points of view. Thus, if a historian focused on only one side of the story, the historical event will remain biased. For example, the history of slavery was biased and was non accurate. According to the authors, the black slaves could not construe or write during that time even if someone could read, they had to hide this skill from their masters. Then, almost of the written books or documents about slavery were written by the tweed masters. Therefore, the information was not only accurate barely also biased because the information came from white masters rather than slaves who actually know the truth.Moreover, although the interviews came from slaves, almost every interviewee experient slavery by his or her childhood therefore, the interviews were also biased because they focused on those who survived slavery. As the author explains, the average life expectancy of a slave in 1850 was slight than fifty long time(Davison and Lytle 180). Thus, when they were interviewed by someone, they were old. Two-thirds of them were over 80 years old that could lead us to assume that they were treated less harsh than other people who died early because of harsher treatment in earlier years. Moreover , as interviewees get older, their memories could fade, and they could not certainly remember the details. This is common sense that if the event occurred a long time ago, the person could not remember every detail.In addition, the interviewees couldnt answer honestly because they were scared. One interviewee says, Ive told you too much. How come they want all this stuff from the colored people anyway? Do you take any stories from the white people? (Davison and Lytle 183). Like the interviewee, other interviewees were also scared to speak out about what they really experienced because they thought speaking out frankly would put them in a trouble. Therefore, they could not answer honestly.In retrospect, the slave interviews become flawed, and it was biased, because the interviews were not considering different points of view. Additionally, there was no voice recorder, which could provide us with what the interviewees rightfully said to the interviewer. Therefore, when we look at his torical events, we have to consider different points of view thus, we do not accept everything we just find out or read. As the authors state, we cannot believe everything at face esteem before we carefully discover.

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Knowledge vs. Experience Essay Example for Free

Knowledge vs. Experience screenThe famous Indian philosopher J. Krishnamurti once said, There is no end to education. It is not that you read a book, result an examination, and finish with education. The whole of liveness, from the moment you are born to the moment you die, is a process of acquisition. (whale.to/a/krishnamurti) Krishnamurti is addressing learning as a process in which an individual tries to gain certain companionship for predestined purposes. He clearly believes that rote memorization is inferior to learning from experiences. Academic knowledge through textbooks can inculcate individuals theories about vitality. Life, however, deviates from theory frequently. The only way individuals are going to know about these deviations is when they experience the struggles and fruits of life story on their own. Similarly, in this compelling novel by Herman Hesse, Siddhartha learns that enlightenment cannot be reached through his 7 memoriseers because it cannot be in til nowed in an individuals mind -enlightenment comes from the inside(a) egotism and through the experiences in which matchless moldiness obtain cognizance from. he said it can be a little better In the opening of the novel, Siddhartha is influenced by outside takeings in his inquisition for enlightment.His father and his associated community ide bothy want him to hold up a successful Brahmin, instead of joining the Samanas. Everyone else more or less him cool it has not reached enlightenment, and Siddhartha feels that residing with them volition increase his distinctive feature regarding his presence in life.(Siddhartha to himself) He had begun to suspect that his worthy father and his other teachers, the wise Brahmins, had already passed on to him the bulk of their wisdom his soul was not at peace. (3) Siddhartha craves to better acknowledge the innermost essence of self and its connection to the orbit in a society. The knowledge passed on to him however does not ex plain this, which is why Siddhartha speculates the origins of the introduction and his place in it. When Siddhartha departs on his journey to arrive at nirvana, he joins the Samanas and accustoms quickly to their lifestyle because of the survival of the rivaltest and discipline he learned in the Brahmin rituals. He learns how to free himself from the materialistic world he was living in, losing his desire for ownership and apparel. However Siddhartha is still unsatisfied.The path of self-denial does not provide an complete solution for Siddhartha. He comes to the realization which is this the Samanas entertain been just as unsuccessful as the previous centering he has encountered. Siddharthas thirst for knowledge has only increased, as he tells his good friend, I commence thirst, Govinda, and on this long Samana path my thirst has not grown lessI bewilder always thirsted for knowledge. (15) Siddhartha is still curious, and so Govinda convinces him that they both should lea ve the Samanas and seek out the Buddha. During Siddharthas quest for enlightment, he and Govinda are looking for Gotamas whereabouts. As they are taken in, Siddhartha is informed about a teaching called the Eightfold Path and the four-spot main points in order to achieve the permanent solution of abstaining from the pleasures of the world. However, darn Govinda is entirely influenced by these teachings, Siddhartha is still not satisfied. (Gotama to Siddhartha) The teaching which you have heardis not to explain the world to those who are thirsty for knowledgeits goal is salvation from the suffering.(27) Siddhartha is still unsatisfied, and desires to comprehend the meaning of lifes purpose in the world in an accomplished way.Like the Samanas, Buddhas followers escape from reality without connecting to it. Most importantly, Siddhartha feels that he cannot achieve enlightment from an external source such as a teacher. He reasons that in order to reach enlightenment, one must learn onl y through experience and teachings by other mentors. Wisdom is gained through experience, while knowledge is taught. This is the reason he cannot tackle Buddhas teachings. At this point of the novel, Siddhartha knows he will have to depart his good friend behind to begin a search for the meaning of life which will be based on experience, rather than religious teachings. Siddhartha determines to set out on a life abstaining from meditation and to instead enter the material world to explore the physiologic pleasures of his clay. In this new world of his, Siddhartha encounters a friendly ferryman, living his free life to its fullest. After crossing the ferrymans river, he arrives to a city where a beautiful mistress named Kamala mesmerizes him. He believes she would be the most worthy one to teach him about the bodily aspects of come, but Kamala will only instruct him until he proves he can fit into the materialistic world. With her counselling, Siddhartha takes up the path of th e merchant and engages in business with a man named Kamaswami who taught him how to trade.While Siddhartha achieves the wisdom of the business world and experiences how to do business in the material world, Kamala becomes his lover and teaches him about every physical aspect of love. She taught him that lovers should not separate from each other after making loveso that no feeling of desolation arise nor the horrid feeling of misusing (54) Siddhartha renounces the spiritual path and exchanges the search for Atman to experience physical pleasures. However, Siddhartha and Kamala are both incapable to give and receive real love at this stage in the novel. Siddhartha has eliminated himself from the world completely and is not influenced by what the world has to offer him. Since both these external guides are futile to teach him wisdom, he knows he must now achieve wisdom on his own. This consciousness itself comes from his inner self. Siddhartha starts his path to seek enlightenment le aving the Brahmins, the Samanas, Gotama, and the material world because he feels unhappy with himself. As Siddhartha leaves the vitiate material world, he approaches a river and considers what direction his life has taken him.Ironically, the same ferryman whom he met years out front introduces himself with the identity as Vasudeva. Siddhartha senses inner peace and wisdom within this man, and motivates him to obtain it as well. Eventually Siddhartha resides and flora with Vasudeva until he comes to know his son was born. With his son, Siddhartha finally experiences love, but since love is a connection to the world, it threatens to distract Siddhartha from his search for enlightenment. Its not until now when Siddhartha has gained wisdom on his own without any materialistic influences, therefore the love he expresses for his son becomes a test of this wisdom. (Siddhartha to himself) It is a good thing to experience everything oneselfas a child I learned that pleasures of the world and riches were not good but I have only just go through it now (80) Siddhartha implies that the Buddhas teachings or any source of external guidance do not make one enlightened they only transfer knowledge to the society around them. Siddhartha is aware enlightenment can only be reached if he will be able to accept love, and as difficult as it might be, to even achieve nirvana.Successfully, Kamala and his son influenced him heavily and because of them, Siddhartha learned and experienced how to love the world and accept it as a whole. Siddhartha encounters many teachers of wisdom during his journey, but each fails to take on him to his goal to seek enlightenment. The ferryman however, is successful and shows Siddhartha how to find enlightenment within him by blocking out all exterior guidance. Vasudeva will not simply tell Siddhartha what he should know want the others, but a guide who will lead him where he wishes to go. After leaving the material world, Siddhartha seeks for kn owledge from the river he track and Vasudeva guides Siddhartha to listen to it for a better understanding of what the river communicates. Vasudeva does not tell Siddhartha what the river will say, but when Siddhartha discloses what the river has expressed to him, Vasudeva clearly admits that he too has received the same wisdom on his own.Now, Siddhartha realizes that he himself becomes the ferryman after reaching enlightenment. (Siddhartha speech to himself) The river is everywhere at the same time Siddhartha the boy, Siddhartha the mature man, and Siddhartha the old man are only separated by shadows, not through reality. (87) The river is compared to Siddhartha as it is considered continuous but yet always altering within, deeper below the body of water. Siddhartha now belongs to everything surrounding him instead of being classified to a particular group. At the end of the novel, Govinda returns to the river, still seeking enlightenment, and asks Siddhartha to teach him what he has learned.Siddhartha explains that neither he nor any other individual can teach the wisdom to Govinda, because spoken explanations are definite and can never communicate enlightenment as a whole. (Siddhartha to Govinda)When someone is seeking he is unable to find anythingbecause he is obsessed with his goal. (113) Govinda is confused just like he was when they met near the river after Siddhartha had considered suicide. This means he still does not understand the meaning of life because he hasnt experienced the world, remaining a follower to Buddha. Therefore, Siddharthas ultimate attainment of Nirvana does not come from external guidance communicating the wisdom to him, but instead by experiencing an internal connection with the river, which encompasses the whole universe.

Friday, April 12, 2019

Research Proposal Essay Example for Free

Research Proposal Essay punitory inmates engage in medicate-related and sexual gamble behaviors, and the transmission of HIV, hepatitis, and sexually inherited diseases occurs in punitory facilities. However, at that place is uncertainty rough the extent of transmission, and high-flown descriptions of its extent may further stigmatize inmates and elicit punitive responses. Whether infection was acquired within or outdoors punitive facilities, the prevalence of HIV and early(a) infected diseases is much higher among inmates than among those in the customary community, and the nitty-gritty of disease among inmates and releases is dis comparisonately heavy. A comprehensive response is needed, including voluntary counseling and testing on quest that is linked to high-quality treatment, disease prevention education, substance abuse treatment, and discharge planning and transitional programs for releases. General subject field being studied Sexual activity among inmates i s a complex phenomenon that occurs along a continuum, from the entirely accordant to the violently coerced.The sassy York Times detailed a gang-run dust of sexual slavery in a Texas prison, where at least 1 gay inmate claimed he was bought and sold numerous times and force into oral sex and anal sex on a daily basis. 9 Recent national legislation called for research into the prevalence and patterns of rape and other sexual victimization within correctional facilities to declare policy changes aimed at controlling these abuses. 9 A Human Rights Watch report presented accounts of sexual slavery from inmates in Texas, Illinois, Michigan, California, and Arkansas and asserted that sexual victimization threatens inmates essential human rights.Importance of the studied cranial orbit Conditions vary widely amongst correctional facilities and among these conditions is an opportunity for inmates to engage in sexual activity and drug use. Despite the denials of many correctional admi nistrators, sexual activity and illicit drug use do birth place in prisons and jails. A survey of inmates in a southeastern state prison system estimated that, on average, 44% of the inmates had sexual contact with other inmates. 1 Studies of US correctional systems published between 1982 and 2002 found that anywhere from 2% to 65% of inmates had homosexual contact while incarce positiond. Studies of incoming, current, and former inmates in New York City, Illinois, Canada, Hungary, Thailand, and many other countries showed the prevalence and the riskiness of inmates sexual and drug use behaviors. 27 Because of the general lack of condoms and sterile needles/syringes, much(prenominal) behavior may involve greater risk within correctional facilities than on the outside. 8 Stated Problem During the early years of the AIDS epidemic, prisons and jails were unremarkably called reproduction chiliad for AIDS. Such statements are still made today.A Google search on May 19, 2005, of the terms breeding ground AND HIV AND prisons yielded to a greater extent than 800 entries from newspapers, United Nations agencies, AIDS activist groups, and human rights organizations around the world. However intended, such opinions imply that unprotected sex and the sharing of drug injection equipment are rampant in prisons and that these activities commonly leave in the transmission of HIV, hepatitis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Background of problem Overall, there are uncertainties about the extent and the nature of infectious disease transmission within correctional facilities.Some of the aforementioned studies reached soft conclusions about the extent of transmission that are not supported by their analyses. Moreover, even when studies estimated the annual incidence of infection among inmates, the meaning and significance of such figures are not clear. On its face, an annual incidence rate of 0. 5% seems low. Yet, if such rates are applied to the total prison pop ulation, or even to that proportion of prisoners who engage in high-risk sexual or drug use behaviors, they may translate into literal numbers of infections.However, even such numbers do not justify the use of metaphors such as breeding ground to characterize correctional facilities. Although some inmates are clearly being infected as a result of drug-related and sexual risk behaviors while incarcerated, the vast majority of cases among inmates probably are the result of exposure while in the general community. Sexually transmitted diseases are known to be more prevalent in correctional facilities. Although, sexual activity is prohibited in prisons sex acts still takes place. patrimonial diseases are higher among jail and prison population because inmates do not have access to condoms. Correctional facilities see giving condoms to inmates as encouraging homosexuality. However, numerous local screening studies and several national lit reviews reveal that women specifically girls in juvenile facilities and women in adult correctional facilities are more in all probability to have a sexually transmitted disease than men in these type facilities (Hammett, 2009).According, to the HIV and help Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Incarceration, among Women National and Southern perspectives study the prevalence of HIV and other Sexually transmitted diseases are higher amongst female than male population in jail and prison facilities. This study advises the infectious disease HIV is three percent to two percent nationally. However HIV is found to be more common among prisoners released from correctional facilities in the south. In 1999 twenty six percent of people victuals with HIV were released from prison or jail that year.The study also reflects fifteen percent of women with HIV were correctional releases the study also suggests that incarceration rates are higher in the south than majority of other regions and most women with HIV are poor African American women from rural areas (Hammett, 2009). However, one must regard themselves does this study reflect inmates going in to serve a sentence or inmates being released from prison. Because there are several ways in which males can contract HIV.

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Italian Hours Essay Example for Free

Italian Hours EssayItalian Hours, Henry jams close acclaimed order of run stories written mingled with 1882 and 1909, is a very interesting piece of travel literature. However, it does much more than than a typical practise in the genre would do, that is describing authors visits in a foreign, usually exotic, dry land. Instead, Italian Hours can be seen as an important document from a historic and anthropological perspective, since it catalogues living conditions, attitudes, customs and traditions of Italian flock at the curio of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. There be opposite prominent examples of travel literature, such as Tocquevilles Journey to America, which provide in-depth explorations of cultural idiosyncrasies and affectionate organization of different societies Italian Hours should be seen as unity of the works in the latter category. packs opinions on mingled matters are all more interesting for the reason that his perspective, as of an American source and tourist, is an embodiment of contemporaneousness by definition (Manolescu-Oancea 2010, para. 1), while Italy is conventionally regarded to be a country that has entered the period of modernity posterior than other major European powers.In the subsequent paragraphs, a number of examples of the aforementioned will be presented. It is necessary to grip in mind that Jamess work touches upon a wide concoction of philosophical topics, which are all very intriguing yet unfortunately cannot be covered in this essay due to space constraints. This essay will focus primarily at Jamess interpretation of social conditions, developments, and debates in Italy of the aforementioned period. The concluding section will briefly discuss the manoeuvre of Italian Hours among other works of travel literature set in Italy.Along with describing natural beauties and historical sites of Italy, James devotes significant attention to analyzing peoples daily lives, which allows for a deduction about social structures that existed in Italy of those times. For instance, when describing Sienna, James (2008) talks of it as of a metropolis that is still in the 14th century, with legion(predicate) and rich nobility that is perfectly feudal and uplifted and separate (p. 242). There is no middle class, or bourgeoisie instead immediately after the aristocracy come the low people, who are very poor indeed (James 2008, p. 42). A great divide mingled with rich and poor has been very characteristic of Italy of the former(a) 19th and early 20th century. The miserable situation of poorer Italians is exacerbated by the government that wields unreasonably high taxes. up social mobility is a rare phenomenon, and most Italians born outside of the upper classes were expecting a lifetime of get by and destitution. When recollecting his time in Venice, James writes that Italians habitations are decayed their taxes heavy their pockets light their opportunities few (James 2008 , p. 13).It is necessary to keep in mind that the unification of Italy occurred quite late(a) in the 19th century. A lot of problems remained undefended following the unification, ranging from economic deprivation to epidemics of fatal disease. Most researchers name the huge material gulf between north and south (p. 168) as one of the most pressing problems of the time previously Austrian provinces of Lombardy and Venetia were more developed then southern provinces like Sicily. The following statistics give a fairly comprehensive depicting of the level of economic development in the immediate aftermath of the unification In 1870s the primary area agriculture, mining and forestry accounted for 62 percent of total employment against less than 50 percent for France, Germany and the USA. For the UK the figure was unless 22. 7 percent. Most of the industrial development was concentrated in very few areas, namely Lombardy, Piedmont and a few firms in the region of Naples (Faini Vent urini 1994, p. 74). Yet the disparities in life quality between different provinces of Italy are not salient in Jamess writings.Keen on noticing regional differences, the author of Italian Hours speaks of Italian people as generally poor, although income gap becomes more and more extreme as one moves southwards. Poor economic conditions have resulted in mass emigration of Italians to other country, mostly to the United States, which seems specially ironic in the context of Jamess observations about Italy and America. James (2008) describes Italians as simple and modest he writes of them as of people that have at once the good and the evil fortune to be conscious of few wants (p. 3). However, early modernity has already associated sophistication with having a variety of needs that are hard to satisfy. In accordance with these criteria, Italians might come across as being less fine-tune than other peoples, although such view is definitely misguided. Enjoying simple pleasures can b e a sign of erudition and contemplative salute to life although many of the pleasures Italian cities offer might seem to be facile pastimes (James 2008, p. 14), they are no less pleasurable from it.Enjoying works by great masters of the past or magnificent nature are some of the activities Italians often indulge in. One of the issues that have been heatedly debated at the times of Jamess travels was the question of whether to restore or preserve ancient ruins, and how to do it. In Italian Hours, the author presents his negative assessment of the results of renovation in Italian cities and in his criticism of the intrusions of modernity in the cityscape (Manolescu-Oancea 2010, para. 1). In his opinion, buildings should be seen as humans, having their own lifecycles and histories, and therefore mortal.Moreover, buildings have a unique mogul to tell stories of people who have once inhabited them and sometimes even have to atone for their sins Houses not only look like ageing bodies , they also seem to be permeated with the life of their former inhabitants, which lends them a dark human aura, a psyche (Manolescu-Oancea 2010, para. 6). As with cityspaces, natural landscapes for James are not further a picturesque backdrop for romantic adventurebut areendowed with some of the richness of exemplary value inherited from great historical events (Mariani 1964, p. 42).Since the richness of Italian history and nature are so impressive, James notes with regret that so many Italians live in poverty. On the other hand, he believes that being unceasingly surrounded by breathtaking beauty is a fair compensation moreover, the peculiarly lighthearted approach to life Italians have helps them cope with daily problems. Although a lot of criticism of social reality of the late 19th century and early 20th century is present in Jamess text, a comparison with his own country, America, is usually to the disadvantage of the latter.In Monte Mario outside Rome, James (2008) observes the idle cultivation and grace of Italy alone, the natural stamp of the land which has the singular privilege of making one love her unholy beauty all but as well as those features of ones own country toward which natures small allowance doubles that of ones own affection (p. 166). In comparing American and Italian cuisine, the author recollects Grotta Ferrata, a rather insignificant and unkempt village, yet al fresco food for its fair couldnt fail to suggest romantic analogies to a pilgrim from the land of no cooks (James 1995 cited in Collister 2004, p. 95). When James expresses dissatisfaction with new developments in the centre of Florence, he thinks of America again, fearful of the ancient city being disfigured under the treatment of enterprising syndics, into an ungirdled organism of the type, as they viciously say, of Chicago (James 2008, p. 257). notwithstanding in term of attitudes, James (2008) appreciates the fact that Italians are more down-to-earth and relaxed than his fellow men when he fears that a day may come when people rush about Venice as furiously as people rush about new-sprung(prenominal) York (p. 57).Thus, while modernity and speed become synonymous with the wise World, Jamess observations unmistakably point to cultural wrong-headedness and impoverishment of the America (Collister 2004, p. 196). At the same time, Italy is to James literally picturesque real life composes itself into art at every turn (Collister 2002, p. 340). Constant reminiscences of the New World serve several particular functions in Jamess writing. First of all, it appears to be symbolic of his attempts to establish an emotional data link with his readers and through his personal perspective to help establish a connection between his readers and Italy.This device is frequently employed in travel literature the reader can observe overwhelmed with descriptions of faraway places and strange cultures that bear no resemblance to their own it is therefore the ro le of a writer to create a minimum level of comfort by recalling familiar places and phenomena. In such a way, readers can comprehend the mode of life in distant lands building on their own experience in their home countries. On the other hand, such reminiscences serve another purpose, as Manolescu-Oancea (2010) argues Jamess constant references to America and to his Americanness introduce a special kind of alienated perspective, both geographical and temporal, which is by all odds American in outlook (para. 20).Jamess fascination with Italy has been enduring, yet there were moments in his life when the writer has expressed a significant degree of dissatisfaction with living conditions there. Rome is the city that has come is for the most criticism in his private letters in one of them he even writes the following I feel that I shouldnt care if I never saw the perverted place again (James 1907 cited in Lubbock 2008, p. 2). This perhaps can be attributed to the fact that his brother , William, has contracted malaria while in Rome and had to move southwards to Florence to improve his health (Gale 1959). It is indeed interesting to observe how both Jamess life and writings create a rather accurate account of what it was like to live in Italy at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century. Jamess Italian Hours is one among many other literary travelogues of Italy Sternes Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy (1768) and Dickens Pictures from Italy (1845) are perhaps the most cognise of them.What distinguishes Italian Hours, however, is that it follows no chronology and even the geographical ordering much dwelling upon Venice and a movement southwards as far as Naples with a return to Tuscany is (unlike Goethes Italienische Reise) arbitrary (Collister 2004, p. 194). At the same time, the specialisation of the narrators style gives a powerful and overarching sense of organization to this seemingly odd collection of stories.

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Can Marriage Be Saved Essay Example for Free

Can sum Be Saved EssayCan Marriage Be Saved? Written by discourteous Furstenberg Summer 2005 I chose the article Can Marriage Be Saved? written by dog-iron Furstenberg. This article was found under the topics for course papers section of our syllabus, link number four. I entangle that the article was very much true to life. I agree that marriage seems to last a aliveness for the more educated and wealthy. I see all too often preadolescent adults getting get married just because they have become pregnant or for the wrong reasons. This theory r bely seems to work.This usually causes problems for the young family because neither person is ready to take on the major responsibility that having a family at such a young age brings. This relates very close to my life because I was married and had my first tyke at the age of 16. With the lack of education and work experience that I had, it made it some impractical to support and provide for my child. Needless to say, I found myself divorced and a 16 year over-the-hill single parent six months later. The struggles of being married without an education or a career are a huge strain on a relationship.It is al nearly unheard of to have the idea, 1960s, type of life-style these days. It was very common for the woman to be the homemaker and the caregiver for the children during this time while the man worked and provided for his family. Now, it is almost forced upon most families to have a middle class lifestyle or above in order to live a comfortable life. With this being said, it is crucial for both parties of the marriage to obtain a higher education and to work full time. Adding a child to the mix of working, school and trying to understand time to be a parent piece of ass be a disaster.No wonder most marriages end almost as soon as they begin. I believe the best way we can change these old habits is to set better examples for our children and instill high values in them to get a college degree and m ake sure they have a strong career path before tackling the altercate of marriage and having a family. I believe marriage has a much higher chance of winner if you have your education and career in order first. Once you have a good relief of values in your life, then you should consider marriage and a family.

Monday, April 8, 2019

Memorandum International management associated Essay Example for Free

Memorandum multinational anxiety associated EssayBusinesses have crossed b posts, and it has been outgrowth rapidly in recent decades because of the liberalization of government policies, and technological expansion. To satisfy the international demand of customers, it requires square prudences skills, sensitivity to cultural issues, and intercultural competence. As the multinational corporations grows and improve the quality, and operate at multinational level, this is why managers should pray three critical questions, first why should I puff up internationally? Second where should I expand? Finally, how to expand? Which get out help to achieve successful strategic objectives. In this memorandum the Board of Directors for first rudiment Complete Kitchens, Inc. restores of the board of directors of the plant relative to international sales of products of for alphabet Complete Kitchens, Inc impart be examined. This memorandum analyzes the international management e stimateations associated with the plant. ABC Complete Kitchens, Inc is anticipating nearly twenty percent of the sales from the international and abroad market. Therefore, the board of directors has expressed their concerns about the management ofinternational aspects for the plant. Some issues have been identified in overseas management procedures, and considerations for the same(p) are to be provided. This memorandum expresses the concerns for the same. The ABC, Inc unavoidably to adopt international management strategies to sustain its competitive position in the market via adequate cultural, technical, political, and economic environment. Localization Concerns subsequently lettered why to expand either to increase sales or to cut costs or for an other(a)(prenominal)wise reasons . The ABC, Inc, should decide which countries to enter first, which type of countries to chose, what criteria to follow to make these choices. The best suggestion for ABC, Inc is enter the countries with the largest potential customers for its products, as yet managers should also think about how likely they are going to success in particular unconnected market, and how to measure not only the geographic distance, but diction, cultural, administrative, and economic distances as well. Language ConcernsLanguage affects the path of employees, customers and business partners communicate with individually other. Based on the level of foreign language k right offledgebasically the Englishin the countrys society, the ABC Inc. moldiness carefully decide whether it washbasin use English as a working and advertising language or if its management has to learn the countrys own language and build the strategy on that language (Kozenkow). heathen ConcernsThe habits, behaviors and consumer preferences of every society are determined with Culture. While implementing a business strategy overseas, ABC Kitchen Inc, should consider all the cultural characteristics of the targeted society. When entering sunrise(prenominal) country the t dissolute should ask if the customers want the same thing, or it leave behind have to modify the product to fit their satisfactions. . Therefore, for increasing overseas sale, ABC Inc, must plan its overseas strategy keeping in mind of the culture of the country for which the strategy is existence planned. Administrative and International Laws concernsThe ABC kitchen, Inc, need to abide and respect the different regulations,government policies, and legal systems, because countries motley widely on these dimensions, which require the firm to has a deep understanding on how to meet those regulations to empty failure, even if the firm has the best products in the markets. Technical development concernsDifferences among the technical development and facility of markets internationally or at bottom the United States determine fundamentally the opportunities of production, sales and marketing of the operating businesses. Management ca n build your advertising and promotion strategy exclusively on the Internet if the majority of the national world or local community uses the Web as its primary source of information. Economic concernsAn other important factor is economic concern which is the average of purchasing source customers in different countries, and how elastic this power is, in that locationfore, it means how much demand for the product changes, as the price goes up and down, because this is a outsized exact for the firm to know who are used to buy products in the market, where every one is wealthy. In other hands, may state with low wage should be a target. Economic differences like these have a major influence on what type of products will be demanded. tag on Chain ManagementSupply chains are an integral part of global quality and cost management initiative, because a representative companys supply chain cost can represent more than than 50% of assets and more than 80% of revenues. (Ball, 2010) , in other word, the ABC, Inc should reduce the inventory of chain supply to reduce the cost. In order to do that the Board of Directors of ABC Inc. has to expresses reconsiderations for management across business functions in supply chain management. Managing the combine of raw materials, supplies as well as finished products are equally important as the management of sales and marketing. CompetitionAnother concern is the competition in overseas market. Local products tend to be cheaper than the internationally exported products due to various forms of taxes included in them. Therefore, how will be the completion met in theoverseas market and what the management plans to do with the taxes and prices in the overseas market, the board of directors should be interested in conditioned these aspects. Finance and AccountingAnother factor that the firm should take it on consideration is the accounting practices and specimen changes across the national borders, it is an obstacle to merg e subsidiary financial results with those at the parent company, this is why there is a growing movement toward convergence of accounting standards across countries (Ball, 2010). This convergence will help the financial management to be more integrating, because the statements will be comparable. ABC complete Kitchen Finance management is particularly a concern point, as overseas countries change in observe in terms of each other based on currency exchange rates. How will the ABC Inc. comply with financial laws and regulations in the host country, the concern particularly addresses following questions to be answered What management is doing to understand how fluctuations in currency value change international business transactions? What is the process for financial tools such as derivatives, hedges, payment timing, mental picture netting, price adjustments, balance sheet neutralizing, and swaps, and how they affect business performance? When and how to pay exporters in forms oth er than capital buyers frequently prefer payment rendered in the form of goods or services (countertrade)? Human resource concernBoard of directors of ABC complete Kitchen Inc. has expressed interest and concern about the strategies of management and have questioned that how will be the needs of the resources and workers will be met across different countries. Furthermore, what is the best way to meet the needs of these employees and also best utilize their skills and talents to keep the business functioning smoothly? (Business) Ethics and Society ConcernsAfter the ABC kitchen,Inc established a business global plan for marketing, operations, and human resource management , should now establish an ethically and socially business plan among its international management considerations.The purpose of the firm is not apparently to make profit, but to create value for all of its stakeholders, business success is judged not simply by companys financial, but by how well it serves broad so cial interests (Laweren, 2008). In other words if ABC ,Inc want to successes internationally, it should adopt strategy that apply ethical values and the respect of people on its global environment and for different people that affect the company, from the stakeholder ,to the shareholders, employees, customers, and society. To achieve that the Broad Director of the firm should adopt a stakeholder theory that consists on identifying the relevant stakeholders group, determining the stake of each group, determining how the first moment of each group are met, finally look for the stakeholder interests. By following these steps the firm will build a good relationship with the shareholder, moreover will build reputation and trust that will enhance its performance. Finally, for the hiring process the ABC ,Inc should put values and ethics as requirement to hire new employees, because it will not just help the organization but the global market place. ConclusionIn summary, getting global str ategy wright can be very difficult, because it requires matching the wright reasons for going global with the wright places and the wright strategies. The ABC Complete kitchen, Inc should follow the steps suggested while managing significant differences between countries, and responding to the intense rivalry from both global and local competitors, however when the challenges are great, the ABC Inc should get it wright, to win in a really big way.ReferencesBall,G. (2010). International business The Challenge of global competition,12th Edition, New York, NY the McGraw-Hill CompaniesBoundless.com. (n.d.). Considerations-when-managing-a-global-corporation. Retrieved from https//www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management- textbook/globalization-and-business-14/managing-international-corporations- 107/considerations-when-managing-a-global-corporation-499-10752/. Business, R. f. (n.d.). International Management. Retrieved from http//www.referenceforbusiness.com/management /Gr-Int/International-Management.html.Kozenkow, J. (n.d.). International Management Challenges. Retrieved from http//smallbusiness.chron.com/international-management-challenges-56168.html. Lawerence,W. (2008). Business and Society Stakeholders, Ethics, Public Policy, 12th Edition. New York, NY The McGraw-Hill Companies.Sullivan, D. (2011). Business strategies for organizational effectiveness within the global Perspective. Pearson Education, NJ Prentice hall.

Sunday, April 7, 2019

Marketing of Haagen Dazs Essay Example for Free

Marketing of Haagen Dazs Essayew York City, but soon distribution expand throughout the east coast of the U. S. , and by 1973 Haagen-Dazs products were enjoyed by discerning customers throughout the United States. n 1976, Mr. Mattus missy Doris opened the first Haagen-Dazs Shop. it was an immediate success, and its popularity led to a rapid expansion of Haagen-Dazs Shops across the country. in 1983 Mr. Mattus concur to sell the Haagen-Dazs brand to The Pillsbury Company, which remained committed to the tradition of superior prime(a) and innovation on which Haagen-Dazs ice lick was founded. since then, it has become a global phenomenon, available in 50 countries. the same careful attention to quality that Reuben Mattus built into every Haagen-Dazs product remains today. ce cream lovers the world over now experience the unique Haagen-Dazs logo as synonymous with the ultimate super-premium ice cream. from the beginning, Haagen-Dazs ice cream has sought to insert and bring new arctic dessert experiences to its customers, including distinctive flavors such as vanilla swiss almond, butter pecan, and dulce de leche, to name just a few.Haagen-Dazs was also the first to introduce the world to ice cream veto for a grown-up palate, with the introduction of the Haagen-Dazs brand ice cream bar line in 1986. other super-premium innovations followed, with frozen yogurt in 1991 and sorbet in 1993. o this day, the Haagen-Dazs brand remains committed to developing especial(a) new super-premium frozen dessert experiences, releasing new flavors every year. Origin of brand name Mattus invented the Danish-sounding Haagen-Dazs as a tribute to Denmarks exemplary treatment of its Jews during the Second World War, and included an outline map of Denmark on early labels. The name, however, is not Danish, which has neither an umlaut nor a digraph zs nor does it have any meaning in any language or etymology before its creation. Mattus felt that Denmark was known for its dairy p roducts and had a positive scope in the U.

Saturday, April 6, 2019

Student resources Essay Example for Free

Student resources EssayBeing an suspensor comes with a genuinely(prenominal) mammoth price. Many people say collegiate bookman supporters sport it just as hard as a normal college learner. I have to disagree though. There are multiple examples that separate athletes from the constant or average student. Time constraints, stereotypes, curriculum attendance, corporeal and emotional fatigue, and also the athletic sport the student is participating in, are just few of the many burdens athletes have on the shoulders that the common student does not.Although timed students do not have it easy, I just believe student athletes have an incredible accountability to keep their grades up and do well in whichever sport they are partaking in. Athletes also have an immense amount of pressure on them, because they have to represent their school in a very unassailable way. Time is indeed one of the major obstacles between student athletes and academic success. The major student athl ete time demands include games, travelling, film and video sessions, weight training, and injury or recovery treatment.Time affects everything from field of honor time, to absolutely no free time. Being a footb each(prenominal) player, I can say from have intercourse that time is your biggest enemy. It is always against you. Waking up for seven oclock workouts, then going to having class immediately after, then going straight to practice after, then getting out late at night. There is very few hours left for occupy time. This process is an everyday cycle. Time has its biggest impact on studies and academics. For a student to learn, he or she must invest time and energy into the pursuit of learning.This demands effort, time, and perpetration to being a student. The problem with alone this is that student athletes dont have the time, as do the regular students. Having to maintain good enough grades to stay eligible on the team is already a hard enough task due to no free time. Wa nting to exceed and get all As and Bs is where athletes tend to struggle though. Normal students dont have to worry about time being against them. They have class and then able to focus on school work. Another issue with student athletes is stereotypes.Stereotypes with athletes have to deal mostly with class professors. Unfortunately athletes get around the label that they dont care about school, and academics come after athletics. A administrate of people put them in the category as arrogant and unfriendly. So not only do other students not call for to be in class with them, but also none of the professors want the athletes in their class. Also, when athletes have to leave for games during the week these certain professors allow for count the student absent and hark back them zeros for whatever was due in class that day.So, it becomes very tough for the student athlete when the teacher doesnt want to help or pass him or her. The fact of the matter is athletes want to succeed i n all areas of the classroom, and that academics come first before anything we do on the field. Fatigue is an unending feeling in an athletes career. It has an impact on both the physical and mental state of the athlete. The cumulative physical cost throughout the academic year can potentially wreak havoc on a student athletes ability to concentrate on studies.Being sore, tired, and just plain ill-defined out from either practice or games makes it hard for the student. It makes the student sloth and takes away any liking to do homework, for all he or she wants to do is rest and recuperate from the exhilarating exercise, training, and practice the athletes body takes on. Apart from the physical exhaustion, mental stress and weariness takes a huge toll on the athletes mind. Competition with other teammates or opposing teams leaves the mind tired all the time.Worrying about a starting spot on the team or not making errors on plays only hurts the weary mind. This causes the athlete t o dose dispatch in class or ill fortune to complete assignments and turn in on time. In season performance in the classroom is set about than out of season performance, because of all the stress on the athlete both physically and mentally. Research shows the athletes fine-tune at a higher percentage than non-athletes. Also, looking at students highly involved in college is very successful during their years of college education.Therefore athletics can be tied in with this. Being very involved in and athletic sport helps the students learn intermit and teaches the student athlete how to organize and be responsible for ones time and studies. I also believe that keeping the student picky with athletics can keep him or her out of trouble that the ordinary student can be faced with. Substance abuse is a huge deal with both athletes and non-athletes. Research shows though it is a much bigger deal with non-athletes though, and has a greater effect on the non-studentathletes life.In c onclusion, I have to say that athletes take on a bigger challenge. I feel as if the athlete takes on the same as the regular student and the time consuming activity of their sport. some(prenominal) will say the normal student will take harder classes or that he or she will be involved in extracurricular activities, but nothing is as time-consuming as a college sport. The time an athlete is given to get their academics done is in no range of what a non-athlete has to study and do school work.I am not making excuses though for the athlete to slack off just because the academics will be much tougher due to their dedication to athletics. I feel as if student athletes should go out of their way to engage with their professors to show them they want to learn and will respect them as a teacher. Studies also show that student engagement is related to positive outcomes such as persistence, better grades and college satisfaction. This leads to the number one motto for a student athlete, stud ent first, athlete second.

Friday, April 5, 2019

Analysing Genetic Engineering With Reference To Plato Philosophy Essay

Analysing Genetic Engineering With Reference To Plato Philosophy EssayBy definition, contagious plan is the diversifying of the genetic structure of an organism by artificial means, to obtain the closely desirable traits. Despite the legion(predicate) bioethical issues, scientists ar constantly on the lookout for ways to improve valet de chambre qualities such as intelligence, physical abilities, aesthetical appeal, or resistance to certain detrimental substances. There atomic tour 18 many who feel that human need and compulsion is far more dominant than ones obligation to stay to strict morals. Furthermore, in that location atomic number 18 strong opinions from both sides of the argument, as just about believe that human ,genetic design is a form of improving mankind while former(a)s believe that it is morally inappropriate, as it crosses a door where we Play immortal. Lives could be changed, genes could be altered, and the entire human rush could be revolutioni zed.The suggestion of eugenics first emerged in Platos generation. Platos Republic suggested that the group of Guardians should breed selectively. The Guardians lead stir families in common. Their children will be raised in common, and more or less importantly, they will not be randomly conceived. It was emotional state-or-death that the children were bred according to the most desirable traits to start out the best wrap upspring, to strengthen the future of the Guardians. E precise year, a breeding committee is selected to run a magnificence festival. Suitable mates are selected by the state during ones child bearing years by means of a lottery ticket. This idea that populace should be bred similarly as animals was referred to as eugenics.THESISPlato justifies his desires for eugenics by means of stress the benefits to the future generations. It is undeniable that the general concept of eugenics is to alter the human race for the greater wide, just it is crucial to b e aware of the consequences that this move contains. It is necessary to conserve human form instead than homogenize the community through abolishing the affairs of human genetic engineering. The usage of human genetic engineering should be hampered due(p) to the numerous controversies it brings about as considerably as the endangerment of the human species as a whole. Furthermore, human genetic engineering raises many moral distresses towards the values of the disenable, a parents rights to alter the genes of a child, aesthetic appeal, technological advances, cloning, and the risks. Ethicists have predicted that considerable margins of error will be achieved by activities which are re lated to unnatural processes such as the meddling with the roots of human temper. Moreover, the leave out of technological expertise suggests that evening the most miniscule error poses could use up to unbearable consequences in this generation as well as the future generations. The pr ocess of putting eugenics into do is much more complicated and dangerous than hypothesized. As a result, the authority to genetically alter life duration for the sake of societal progressions of humans is substantially perplexityed.DISABILITIES scientific advantages as time progressed allowed humans to fantasize about putting the idea of human genetic engineering into practice. Undesirable traits will be lost and lonesome(prenominal) the exceptional traits will reside among the human population. An article entit guide Scientists Playing God? We should Rejoice by Minette Marrin explains the optimistic facts of eugenics and the sheer volume of benefits attained from removing disabilities. Marrin states, And what is appealing about this early screening is that abortion and late abortion will be less frequently used in dealing with serious defects and disabilities. Although it is truthful that it would be easier to get rid of a tiny collection of cells, it heapnot be considered a s a victorian solution. Whether one decides to abort a tiny collection of cells or a multi-month old fetus is heretofore regarded as a decision to prevent birth due to genetic disabilities. While it is generally perceived to be true that plenty would prefer not to be born with a disability, Simone Apis of the British Council of Disabled People suggests that there are many people with disabilities who would prefer to be born. Apis besides points out that people who support the idea of playing God indicate that a incapacitate persons life is placed at a lower. military personnels have spent decades researching and enhancing their friendship in the field of eugenics, but some have disregarded the fact that disabled humans are besides humans. Life is and so a precious gift that many disabled people will fight for their rights. Although life is staring(a) for no one, it is nevertheless worth living. Who is to decide what constitutes a life worthy of living? To say to a disabled person that they are equal and worth living while at the same time aborting and preventing fetuses with the same disability is unashamed hypocrisy. By altering, killing, or discarding embryos with disabilities, eugenics is exemplified at its worst, and demonstrating the extreme in deadly contrast. Eliminating embryos that have impending disabilities is not equivalent to curing the actual distempers. Although people whitethorn be better off experiencing life without disabilities, they wouldnt be experiencing life at all if they were dead. If life was not worth living, then people would end it themselves. By providing the opportunity for each individual to inhabit life, it will be much more valued and cherished.People who attend schools with disabled children are proven to be more open-minded and innovative. being exposed to such fundamental difference is simultaneously stimulating and educating. Thus, by eliminating the disabled from society whitethorn not be as practiced as p erceived. It may have an opposite effect on society, making us more bigoted, judgmental, and self-obsessed.Peter vocalizer is one of the most influential philosophers in the world. vocaliser is known as an animal rights activist, arguing that animals should share equal moral status as humans. Ironically, he supports euthanasia and infanticide for disabled human beings, greatly contrasting deontological values with his claimed utilitarian beliefs. His utilitarian beliefs support the general quality of life and the ability to experience happiness. He suggests that perhaps for the disabled, life is not worth living, as their abilities to feel pain outweigh their abilities to feel pleasure. In his book Animal Liberation, he argues that the animals ability to experience pain is sufficient to put them on equal dry lands with humans. He wishes to abolish all types of speciesism, where valet de chambre sapiens are no longer first-class species. On the other hand, Singer creates divisi on among disabled people and non-disabled organisms. Singer is often criticized not because he includes animals in the realm of personhood, but because he leaves some humans out of it. He confirms that Its certainly nothing against people with disabilities that motivates my position. Its rather a desire to invalidate suffering. It is paradoxical that Singers theory of utilitarianism can be applied so easily to the liberation of animals, but encompasses a wide range of problematic implications when applied to humans. If he chooses to diminish the sufferings of animals through liberation, why is it that he cannot do the same for disabled infants through minimization of their pain? In 1999, an article in The New Yorker identifies a crucial contradiction in Singers ethical beliefs. When his mother was suffering immensely from Alzheimers disease, portraying her as a nonperson under Singers morals, not except did Singer not euthanize her, but he spent tens of thousands of dollars every year to provide the best care for her. Singer always believed that spending money on charities towards diseases (ie front cancer, heart disease) was a waste of money, as he would rather give his money to improve the lives of the estimable rather than try to save the doomed. Singers response to his mothers illness was very sentimental, but it completely contradicted his utilitarian ethics. Singer is indeed a superior philosopher, but who is he to decide what is normal and that his ethical views towards the disabled are correct, when his overall ethical principles and actions are paradoxical within themselves?Stephen Hawking is one of the most outstanding individuals in the 20th century. Hawking is a world renowned astrophysicist and cosmologist disabled by a motor neurone disease known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. While studying at the University of Cambridge, he was diagnosed with the motor neurone disease at the age of 21. Being a fortunate survivor, Hawking utilises a voic e synthesizer to talk due to his body paralysis. He furthermore describes himself as lucky despite his unfortunate disease, because his situation did not hinder him from having a family. It was the slow progression that provided him time to make influential discoveries. Hawking has been presented with an abundance of awards such as The Albert Einstein Medal in 1979, the Wolf Prize in Physics in 1988, The Copley Medal in 2006, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009, the highest civilian honour in the unite States. Detecting a propensity for the disease which Hawking possesses in his parents could have led to his prevention or barrierination.AESTHETICSThe improvement of applied science has not wholly attempted to eliminate weaker genes, but it has also attempted to revolutionize aesthetic appeal. A liberal society should be able to accept a wide range of exaltations of the good life. However, if a parent chooses characteristics which they intend are ideal but can cause s uffering to the child, boundaries essential be drawn to roughly define ideal. For example, if parents of a specific religious sect wanted to hinder their future childs ability to read to protect them against a likely corruption of faith, the child must be protected. With that being said, the difficulty of drawing the line is evident, as it is difficult to find a common ground in which genetic choices will justify the protection of children. In that case, restrictions which protect children from parental harm afterward birth should also be utilized for protection against parental genetic choices. Some parents might think that their children would become more successful if they were more sel tilt, competitive, and aggressive. If many parents agreed with this thought, they would alter their own children with such characteristics so that they would not be disadvantaged. Decisions as such can lead to unwanted outcomes from the very people who contributed to them. In a society bounded with consumerism and the promotion of a single ideal identity, we are approaching a world similar to Gattaca, eliminating all groups perceived as inferior. Transforming a generation as a whole based on a couple of ideal characteristics may not be so ideal after all.SAT Scores/IntelligenceAn article entitled The Egg Market indicates that in the United States egg market, SAT scores discouragemine the prices of a fair sexs eggs. Although humans are far from understanding the true complexity of human genetic engineering, market forces have made their ways into the hearts and wallets of consumers. From the Georgia impart of Technology, Professor Aaron Levine conducted a study of advertisements for egg donors. The applicants were required to submit their SAT scores and a tiny description of all their physical features. Couples are willing to pay tens of thousands of dollars to purchase an egg from a woman with a superior appearance and specific ethnicity. Couples are also willing to pay up to $5780 per light speed SAT points. To customize a child with characteristics that do not belong to the parents themselves may create problems in the future. Parents usually identify with their children. They are often pleased when they see hints of their own characteristics glow from their child. Similarities between parents and children are what define the unchanging kindred, as parents will be able to sympathize with their children and build a stronger relationship mutually. However, if the children share no mutual features with the parents, despite the increased abilities in the children, parents would lose the sense of parenthood. This moreover raises the question of whether the parents should be allowed to customize their child with perfect characteristics.ObesityRegardless of age, obese Americans suffer from constant discrimination from many aspects of life including relationships, employment, and education. In fact, weight appears to be a more persuasive form of di scrimination, even more than other appearance-related factors such as age, race, or gender. With derogatory implications with the appearance of obese individuals, other characteristics such as intelligence and compassion are often overlooked. Obesity has been paired with negative stereotypes such as dirty, lazy, ugly or stupid by children in nursery schools. In a survey conducted, it is state that 16% of adult Americans would abort a baby with untreatable obesity. Furthermore, in 1988, another study conducted demonstrated that students would rather marry an embezzler, a drug addict, a shoplifter, or a blind person than someone who was obese.Technological FlawsTo put human genetic engineering into practice is not a process that everyone can afford. As a result, only the wealthier families will be able to afford it. Individuals may be genetically engineered to be temporarily immune to certain diseases, as it is possible for another mutation of disease to arise. On the other hand, sci entists have learned from experience that progressive technology generates pressures for its use. Consequently, if genetic engineering were permitted, it is exceedingly possible that the technology would be utilized inappropriately, employed even if exercising a less risky method could feed a comparable outcome. There are also much justified concerns that genetic engineering practitioners will overemphasize the benefits while understating the risks of the overall procedure. Because of the insufficient knowledge in the field of eugenics and frequent risks, there is little justification to authorize human genetic engineering. Until this day, the potential risks to future generations outweigh the advantages to a small number of individuals. Discoveries and stabilizations of such practices can result in international recognition, awards, grants, and other measures of wealth, status, and power. These are all compelling incentives to overstate benefits, take objectionable risks, and d ismiss valid objections.Under circumstances where there is no prevention of vast harmfulness and where a large number of people are put at considerable risk, it is indispensable to be cautious. When genetically engineered organisms live among society, they put everyone at risk, not only their creators.The term playing God implies that humans should not interfere with natural pickaxe. However, it is undeniable human snag with certain aspects of natural selection led to new discoveries such as medications. On the other hand, controversies arise when there is human interference with natural selection through the alteration of genes.CloningOne of the many greatly feared outcomes of genetic engineering is cloning. It is hypothesized that cloning could lead to a utopian race as well as to the ultimate eradication of individuality. The mixing and matching of components and proteins has yet to be mastered, thus, until further knowledge is obtained, genetic engineering on humans is visib ly risky and unsafe. On July 5th, 1996, dolly the sheep was the first mammal to be cloned. Being of the Finn Dorset breed, although she had a life sentence of 11-12 years, Dolly suffered some unusual diseases which led her to live a life out of the ordinary and last at the age of six. If humans were to be cloned, would the results correspond to the fate of Dolly? The flaws of cloning suggest that there is simply not enough information and knowledge to perfect this type of genetic engineering. In addition, Dolly was created from an ewes egg and a cell from another ewes body. by means ofout this process, no semen of ram was utilized. If that were ever to be applied to human beings, it would greatly affect the morals and values of males especially in patriarchal countries. Males would no longer be necessary for reproducing and eventually the population imbalance would increase even more than presently.Through her novel, Frankenstein, Mary Shelly attempts to alert the public to the consequences of tampering with life and death, where there are strong effects seen when prickteaser with life. She furthermore presents a highly relevant caution against the dangers of the hubris that accompanies scientific knowledge. Scientists today are on the bourne of becoming Frankensteins relentless in their work and ignorant of the sanctity of creation.In the late 1990s, Dr. Hwang Woo-Suk from the Seoul issue University conducted various cloning essays, including the successes in cloning a cow, and dog, and an attempt at cloning human corporeal cells. Despite knowing of the complexity of the DNA of a primate, Dr. Hwang continued to pursue his vision of cloning a human being. Eventually, he claimed to have successfully cloned human somatic cells, but was instantly shunned when there was travel by evidence of fabricated data in his journals. As a result, he was charged with many accounts of tosh and embezzlement, throwing his entire career down the drain. In the long run , his allure to be the first scientist to break through with revolutionary discoveries eventually hindered his success. His desire for the top spot in the world of science eventually led to his dishonest actions which in turn led to his downfall as a scientist and a well prize person. Being able to clone Dolly, the first sheep, was a landmark. It is not uncommon that Dr. Hwang would want to continue that immense prestige, but sometimes the pressure of competition leads to actions that one would never think of undertaking. Morally, it is ultimately not beneficial to the human race as well as the scientific world. Similar to Dr. Hwang, many scientists are willing to risk their futures in an all or nothing gamble for the highest position. Scientists as such have defeated the overall purpose they have failed to realize that the entire reason why scientists originally supported eugenics through human genetic engineering was to improve the lives of humans, rather than fight for a prest igious position in the world of science for self fulfillment. Human genetic engineering has always been a dangerous experiment to tamper with, but with the increases of selfishness, it is becoming not only technologically dangerous, but also morally tempestuous to our society.RisksOne of the most feared outcomes of genetic engineering is the calamity of producing an organism that will escape the control of its creator. This is exemplified through genetically engineered fish. As a transgenic animal, genetically engineered fish tend to raise problems when they interbreed with other fish that havent been genetically altered. If the process continues, it can potentially change the characteristic of wild fish in the most undesirable ways. The genetic engineering of humans presents more risks. As previously mentioned, our lack of technological knowledge could result in creating an organism turns out to be not as ideal as presumed. Furthermore, it is possible that different characteristi cs are genetically linked unpredictably. If this results in producing a race that was worse than expected, we would have no choice but to attempt to cope with them. There might be pleasant intentions for creating intellectual individuals only to know that they are genetically altered to be violent. Not only will there be catastrophic consequences, but the situation would be practically irreversible. Once the process starts, there is no sack back. One must evaluate clearly forwards even entering the realms of human genetic engineering, as the great risks simply cannot justify the comparably minuscule benefits achieved. The risk of disastrous consequences should be enough to deter the uses of human genetic engineering.Philosophers or Scientists For/Against Genetic EngineeringHuman genetic engineering involves modifying the genotypes of humans before birth and manipulating certain traits of the individual. Furthermore, selective breeding as an attempt to bring out the best traits has also been practiced for centuries. The most prominent examples supporting Platos Republic is Nazi Germanys use of eugenics, eliminating the degenerates, the weak, the homosexuals, with hopes of improving the Aryan race as a whole. Adolf Hitler strongly believed that Germanys weakness originated from the weak and corrupt degenerates of society who were contaminating the German bloodstream. Adolf Hitlers use of Nazi eugenics not only sent the disabled to gas chambers, but also enforced sterilization against ones will.Sir Francis Galton was a massive supporter of eugenics. As a eugenicist, anthropologist, and proto-geneticist, Galton suggested that only by extinction of the weak can a society elevate as a whole. He wrote books such as Hereditary giving and Character (1865) and Hereditary Genius, which states, Consequently, as it is easy, notwithstanding those limitations, to obtain by careful selection a indissoluble breed of dogs or horses gifted with peculiar powers of running, o r of doing anything else, so it would be quite practicable to germinate a highly-gifted race of men by judicious marriages during several consecutive generations.Despite supporting the risks of genetic engineering, DNA code and Nobel laureate Dr. James D. Watson states that genetic engineering within humans is a proposition far too important to be left solely in the hands of the scientific and medical checkup communities.Political philosopher Michael Sandel argues that genetic engineering is indeed a problem as it represents a kind of hyperagency a Promethean aspiration to remake nature, including human nature, to serve our purposes and satisfy our desires.Nobel Prize winning biologist and Harvard Professor, George Wald, once wrote,Our ethics up to now has been to go ahead without restriction to learn all that we can about nature. Restructuring nature was not part of the bargain. For going ahead in this direction may be not only unwise but dangerous. Potentially, it could breed new animal and plant diseases, new sources of cancer, novel epidemics.Hitlers justification of enforcing eugenics is very similar to Platos justification. Both individuals wanted a pure race. In Hitlers case, he wanted a superior Aryan race and Plato wanted the Guardians to be a superior race. When Galton states that eugenics can produce a highly gifted race, he has not taken into the consideration the process behind the hypothesized result. Not only do Hitler and Galtons desire for an ideal race blind the real dangers in the progression, there is a higher possibility that the future is accelerating their fates of doom. Whether it is a Nobel laureate, a Harvard professor, or a political philosopher, the idea is the same. All three brilliant individuals understand the harm that stands in the way of enforcing eugenics through human genetic engineering. The process of altering nature can lead to dangerous and most importantly, irreversible modifications.CONCLUSIONDuring the time of Pl atos Republic, Platos intentions for eugenics were intended to create a superior race. However, he has failed to realize that eugenics, especially through the process of genetic engineering, should be deeply prohibited, as it raises too many morally vexing concerns. The technology nowadays is insufficient to control the full process of genetic engineering. Despite this, humans are pressured under societal progressions to continue the process of revolutionizing the human race. tampering with the nature of plants may result in positive and negative creations. Similarly, the genetic engineering of humans may lead to something revolutionary, but sometimes the promises of short term benefits will be plagued by long term misfortunes. The irreversible nature of human genetic engineering should be more than enough to hinder this process. Human genetic engineering leaves no room for errors, as the tiniest flaw in the processes can trigger fatal consequences that will affect the present as w ell as the future. It is necessary to conserve human diversity rather than homogenize the population. It is important to be sentimental towards the disabled, to question positive genetic engineering, as well as consider the numerous technological dangers. By enhancing intellectual skills, there could be a lack of resistance to a certain disease. In order to cope with the next century, we will have to alter and distort life of the planet, to the extent where the definition of being human is lost. Eugenics cannot be seen as the solution to eradicating disabled or aesthetically unappealing. Not only is that discrimination, but it also damages the society as a whole. With that being said, no matter how much we attempt to perfect human nature, there is bound to be a price to pay with every distortion.