Monday, September 30, 2019
Report on environmental analysis & industry consolidations Introduction This report is about the importance of environmental analysis for the companies operating in the UK alcohol industry and what kind of tools is available for analysis. Also report will highlight the industry consolidation in the light of Greene King experience.Importance of environmental analysis This analysis is used to measure the internal (Strengths and weaknesses) and external (opportunities and threats) environment factors which affect companies in future and also help to make a strategy to compete environment influences. (J&S) If companies do not analyse their internal and external environment then it would affect the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and others will have a chance to get competitive advantages. Ã¢â¬Å"Boiled frog syndromeÃ¢â¬ is a good example for understanding the importance of environmental analysis. Lecture notes 1, 28. 09. 2005) Procedure There are three models for analysing the environment: (J &S) Ã¢â¬ ¢ PESTEL analysis Ã¢â¬ ¢ Industry life cycle Ã¢â¬ ¢ PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces frame work But in this report only two models will be used for scanning the environment. PESTEL analysis recognises the opportunities & threats for companies from internal or external environment and PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces model recognises the source of competitor. Firstly this report will look at the PESTEL analysis and how could companies use this model for analysing the environment.PESTEL analysis is used to see the future impact of environmental factors. There are six categories of environmental factors in PESTEL analysis i. e. Political, Economical, SocioÃ¢â¬âcultural, Technological, Environmental and Legal. (J&S) Secondly this report will look at the PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces model for identifying the source of competitors in an industry. (J&S) Findings PESTEL analysis for environmental scanning Political factors Ã¢â¬ ¢ Government stability Ã¢â¬ ¢ Taxation policy Ã¢â¬ ¢ For eign trade regulations Ã¢â¬ ¢ Social welfare policies (Adapted from J&S)Report will show how these political concerns influence alcohol industry. According to Philip Webster and David Rose (The Times, 27. 10. 2005) Ã¢â¬Å"smoking has been banned in all pubs in Scotland and Northern Ireland and now Government is concerning to put a ban on smoking in pubs that serve food in England and WalesÃ¢â¬ . This new threat will affect the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s profitability as it has mentioned in Greene King case study. It will also affect the Government stability. Government is also planning to reduce the consumption of alcohol by putting more taxes on alcoholic drinks.Again it will affect the alcohol industry and prices of alcoholic drinks will rise. If the Government decide to put more tax on alcohol industry then they have to change the policies for tax-free product and also they have to control the black market that offers cheap cigarettes and alcohol. Otherwise new law will not be affectiv e. Therefore companies need to analyse the Government regulations that could jeopardise the profitability and plan for future strategies in order to compete those influences which they could have direct impact on companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance.Economical factors Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inflation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Interest rate Ã¢â¬ ¢ Currency fluctuation and exchange rate Ã¢â¬ ¢ Unemployment Ã¢â¬ ¢ Disposal income Ã¢â¬ ¢ Money supply (Adapted from J&S) Companies need to analyse economical factors that affect alcohol industry. For instant if the Government decide to increase the taxes on alcohol industry in order to the alcohol consumption then it will increase the prices of alcoholic drinks. PublicÃ¢â¬â¢s health is major concerned from the Government prospective but it will affect the companies profitability and their share value.Because high inflation reduces the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s spending power. (According to Greene King case) High interest rate also affects the disposal income. Because it reduces the investment in business and consumer spending power. So it is very important for companies to analyse the economic factors which they could influence the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profitability or growth. Socio-cultural factors Ã¢â¬ ¢ Change in lifestyle Ã¢â¬ ¢ Social mobility Ã¢â¬ ¢ Demographic changes Ã¢â¬ ¢ Distribution of income Ã¢â¬ ¢ Education and health (Adapted from J&S) Socio-cultural is another important factor. It needs to analyse continuously.Consumer lifestyle provides opportunities and threats to companies. But it depends how they will tackle them as a valuable opportunity and threat for future strategy. Unequal income distribution also affects the consumer power. So companies need to analyse different level of income and then make their strategy accordingly. PublicÃ¢â¬â¢s health is an important concern for alcohol industry. Therefore, they need to analyse Government policies on the industry that affect the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s health. For example in Greene King case Governmen t is more concerned about public health and safety.This is the reason they are planning to increase the taxes in order to reduce the consumption. Another social concern is increased drinking hours that could cause violence and noise. Therefore companies need to analyse those factors to make their future strategies accordingly. Technological factors Ã¢â¬ ¢ Government spending on research Ã¢â¬ ¢ Speed of technology transfer Ã¢â¬ ¢ New development Ã¢â¬ ¢ Government and industry focus on technological effort (Adapted from J&S) The technology factor can influence the companies.It is necessary for companies to make a continuous effort to develop their technologies. It has a direct impact on companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance and could jeopardise the profitability. CompaniesÃ¢â¬â¢ need to analyse external environment for updated their technologies for its future strategies. Sam SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s, an owner of chain of pubs, is using CCTV technology. According to companyÃ¢â¬â¢s spokesman Ã¢â ¬Å"it is much easier to watch every single floor at a same timeÃ¢â¬ . (Greene King case) Environmental factors Ã¢â¬ ¢ Environmental protection law Ã¢â¬ ¢ Waste disposal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Energy consumption (Adapted from J&S)Environmental factors also affect the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ reputation and performance. CompaniesÃ¢â¬â¢ should analyse the new environmental law regarding wastage and energy consumption. There are two obvious reasons, public health and environment for government. According to The World Health Organisation Ã¢â¬Å"alcohol is the third- biggest threat to public healthÃ¢â¬ (Greene King case). Resent survey shows that Ã¢â¬Å"10% increase in alcohol prices would cut the alcohol related deaths by 28. 8% for men and 37. 4% for womenÃ¢â¬ . (Greene King case) Legal factors Ã¢â¬ ¢ Monopolies legislation Heath and safety law Ã¢â¬ ¢ Employment law Ã¢â¬ ¢ Product safety (Adapted from J&S) Government is planning to introduce a complete ban on smoking publicly or in social plac es. An industry magazine reports that 42,000 pubs serve food and about 65 per cent of their customers smoke (Webster, P and Rose, D, The Times, 27. 10. 2005). If they continue to serve food then the new regulation could affect their earnings. Greene KingÃ¢â¬â¢s annual report shows that they are planning to increase the amount of no-smoking floor in their pubs and making out-door areas for smokers.The British Beer and Pub association wants to increase drinking hours. If the Government decided to increase drinking hours, then extra safety and security measure will be required (Greene king case). People will require frequent public transport after social hours to get their destination safely. Government proposal to extant drinking hours will affect employees as well. Its mean they will have to work long hours. Some times new legislation brings new competitors in the market which changed the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s monopoly in an industry. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces model for environmental scanningThere are five parts of this model. 1. Threat of entry 2. Threat of substitute 3. The power of buyer 4. The power of supplier 5. Competitive rivalry (See appendices for figure 1) Threat of entry Ã¢â¬Å"Threat of entry will depend on the extent to which there are barriers to entry. These are factors that need to be overcome by new entrant if they are to compete successfullyÃ¢â¬ . These barriers include: legislation, economies of scale, capital requirement, distribution channel, experience and relationship with supplier & customers. (J&S, page 113 to 115)In order to compete successfully companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ need to analyse following barriers: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cost of capital to enter in an industry with regards to technology and economies of scale Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strong relationship of exiting company with supplier and customer could be costly for new entry Ã¢â¬ ¢ Product differentiation or high quality services could give competitive advantage or barrier Ã¢â¬ ¢ Existing high experienced comp anies could take an advantage in terms of cost, customers and supplier loyalty Ã¢â¬ ¢ Threats of Government policies Ã¢â¬ ¢ Changes in technology would affect the competitive advantage (Source adapted from J&S page 113 to 115)Threat of substitutes Ã¢â¬Å"Substitution reduces demand for particular Ã¢â¬ËclassÃ¢â¬â¢ of product as customer switch to the alternatives. Ã¢â¬ (J&S, page 115) Threats of substitutes work when other companies provide the same product with more benefits and value. Therefore companies need to develop their products by analysing their environment. A Victorian style of pub is a good example where customers can have smoking and non-smoking floor separately. The power of buyers Buyers power likely to be high when customers could get same product at low price from different suppliers.Buyer will have more bargaining power when switching cost from one supplier to another is low. In order to reduce the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s power companyÃ¢â¬â¢s needed to develop the ir products. So they could offer more benefits and value. (Adapted from J&S) For example if Government decided to increase tax on alcoholic drinks in order to reduce the crime and consumption rates then this impact reduce the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s sales. Longer drinking hours will increase the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s power in terms of alternative. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s necessary for companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ to analyse those factors so they can reduce bargaining power. The power of supplier Supplier power likely to be high when: Limited sources and suppliers are available Ã¢â¬ ¢ High switching cost from one supplier to another Ã¢â¬ ¢ Different quality or services from alternative Ã¢â¬ ¢ Powerful brand of supplier (Adapted from J&S) Analysis of these factors can increase bargaining power with supplier. I. e. change in tax policy could affect the supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s power. In other word if Government increased the taxes on alcoholic drinks then whole production cost will change. Because supplier will charged extra and as result prices of alcoholic drinks will raise. Competitive rivalry Ã¢â¬Å"Competitive rivals are organisation with similar product and services aimed at same customer groupÃ¢â¬ . Adapted from J&S, page 118) Factors affecting competitive rivalry Ã¢â¬ ¢ High fixed cost of products may increase price war Ã¢â¬ ¢ Customer could switch to other competitor if products are undifferentiated. Ã¢â¬ ¢ High exit barriers could lead to increased in competition because of high investment in non-transferable fixed assets or high redundancy cost Ã¢â¬ ¢ Competitors are in balance-roughly equal size Ã¢â¬â lead to higher rivalry (Adapted from lecture note 2, 5. 10. 2005 and J&S) Therefore companies need to analyse those factors which are affecting on competitive rivalry. If they do not keep an eye on them then growth of company will be affected.Industry consolidation in light of the Greene King experience Industry consolidation in the light of Greene king experience is very successful. A ccording to the case study, Greene king is the British pubs and brewery group based in Suffolk. Since 1996 they have acquired 1,600 pubs (See appendices figure 2 for Greene kingÃ¢â¬â¢s acquisitions experience). Now they are taking over ScotlandÃ¢â¬â¢s oldest brewery company Ã¢â¬ËBelhavenÃ¢â¬â¢ and Essex based brewery & pubs group Ã¢â¬ËRidleyÃ¢â¬â¢. Greene King has an opportunity to enter in a competitive market and expend their operations across UK.Greene king has a large distribution channel, 2,064 owned pubs which can sell their own brewed drinks. Industry consolidation reduces per unit cost of product because of the mass production and increases the profitability. Consolidation also reduces the supplier power and increase the bargaining power with supplier. It also increases the wealth of shareholders. Small company has got benefit from being part of large company and has a chance to sale their drinks in new market. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a good step for small companies to devel op their businesses for the future. Consolidation reduces the competition in an industry and creates more jobs. Greene king case) Conclusion Environmental analysis gives better understanding for decision making and help to make positive strong future strategies. In order to competing environmental influences companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ need to analyse their environment on continuous basis. Consolidation of industry is cost effective and has wide horizon of competitive market. It also increases the interest of stakeholders. Recommendation Companies need to analyse their internal or external environment on regular basis. This report highly recommends the PESTEL analysis and PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces model for environmental analysis. These models help in decision making and companyÃ¢â¬â¢s future growth.References Ã¢â¬ ¢ Greene King annual report 2004 & 2005, access date: 20. 10. 2005 and 01. 11. 2005. www. greeneking. co. uk Ã¢â¬ ¢ Johnson, G and scholes, k (2002), Exploring Corporate Stra tegy 6th ed UK: Prentice Hall. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Webster, P and Rose, D (2005) Ã¢â¬Å"Pubs will call time on food to keep smokersÃ¢â¬ in The Times newspaper, 27. 10. 2005, page 1 and 9. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wiscarson, G, Strategic Environment, Lecture notes 1, 28. 09. 2005. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wiscarson, G, Strategic Environment, Lecture notes 2, 05. 10. 2005.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
In the next few years, I would have finished college and would soon need to earn a living to support myself and maybe the family I intend to have. Given this scenario, I will be deciding between two options: whether I would be maintaining my own business or if I would rather be employed by a big company. Having my own business sounds appealing. I would be working at my own hours and at my own pace. I have full control of my time. I can do whatever I would like to do. Nobody can tell me what I should accomplish first and what should I do last. All I have to do is to keep committed in making my business grow and expand. Whatever I do and however I do it, it will all be up to me. I decide if I wanted to start the day early, or if I should stay up late working. I determine my own hours. I pay my own wage. Maintaining a business is going to be a very challenging feat for me. I would be using my intellectual strength and my innate marketing talents to succeed. I can establish my own success. I will thrive because of my own hard work and nobody elseÃ¢â¬â¢s. My achievements will be because I did so well and I made the right decisions. I will be responsible for whatever happens, and I only have myself to account for. Managing my own business means I could also be helping others. I will have the ability to employ people; and as my business gets bigger, more people will be needed so more people will be hired. I will be able to make a lot of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives better, and I can undoubtedly contribute to the economy at that. Indeed, starting a business proposes to be a good decision at this point. However, the call of being a part of a much bigger company is deafening as well. If I decide to get a job with a corporation bigwig, I can be able to earn easily through the monthly wage they will be paying me. I would be able to utilize all my learning and my stuck knowledge. I will be a part of an institution and would carry its pride as well. I will be able to meet big and influential people; and even become friends with each of them. I will start as a normal employee aiming toward the top position of the company, and this sure mean a real test of wits and endurance. I will be engaging in a friendly and worthwhile competition with my fellow co-workers who are also aspiring to be a top-notch executive like me. And with proper strength and staying power, I believe I will be able to reach it. If I do my job well enough, I will be promoted in just a matter of several months. I will then be the head of my own department. I will be enjoying my job as I enjoy the company of my colleagues which are also my comrades. I can also become a mentor, thus I will be able to share and transfer my knowledge to my apprentices. As I leave my position to one of my subordinates, I will be going up the ladder into the executive world. I will have the ability to become one of the most respected people in the company; and I can do it the shortest time possible. Furthermore, I will make critical company decisions which could change the whole company. I will be instrumental in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s failure or success, and that is because I will become the best executive, a senior manager whose opinion is always sought and is well-considered. I will be a very powerful person both in and out of the corporate world. And because I have this ability to become powerful, being rich and famous will soon follow. I will become rich because I will be fully compensated by the company I belong to. And I will become famous because as I become the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s leader, I would need to attend business conferences as well as business lunches and parties. Right now, working for a top company seems to be a good decision for me too. Considering each of these points, it is equally advantageous holding down a job and managing a business. Although it is possible to do both, I would still need to make a decision, as to which of the two should be my primary career path. Given the points and my own personality, I believe that I will be more productive if I start off as a regular employee in a regular position, and then slowly take myself towards the top, through diligence, perseverance, and hard work. The time that is going to be required to achieve this is going to be less in a company setup. A few years should be enough to hoist myself up the corporate ladder. Being in a part of a corporation does not require that much capital either. I would only need to invest in myself, and that is not going to be too much. The risks involved in a business are also unpredictable. A business is like a gamble, you win some and you lose some. You really cannot accurately forecast the feasibility of your business decision unless the market is virtually stable, and that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really happen. The market does change, and in a volatile manner at that. If one is in a corporate setup, on the other hand, things are more constant. One knows what he is up against, and being so, one can easily devise strategies as to how to overcome it. The corporate world may have its own share of politics, but that is part of the game. I am considering that just as one of the risks that come with any of my choices. At this point, I believe that my decision will be to work for the corporate bigwigs. Its benefits weigh far too heavy than the benefits of being in the business world.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Skills Development - Essay Example Additionally, it is a task of knowing your personal weaknesses, coming up with plans of action on how you can improve them (Lumley and Wilkinson, 2014, p.1). Lumley and Wilkinson (2014, p.1) add that there are more graduates looking for jobs, therefore, a person needs to have distinct features in order to stand out of the crowd. Graduates need to provide distinctive evidence that they not only possess transferable skills, but also special kind of mindsets. Basically, a key factor for employment is a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mindset, which is characterized by varied attitudes that are often demonstrated through a range of activities. For example, the extracurricular activities that people engage in. Richard (2009, p.7) advises that, the development of accounting staff should not be neglected as this can be a long term detriment to a business. The fresh graduateÃ¢â¬â¢s portfolio needs to have a multiple knowledge base with a range of skills that are acquired through the university curriculum and then consolidated by practice. Indeed, a variety of technical skills assist professional accountants to satisfy their employers by conducting their work efficiently and effectively. Essentially, functional and technical skills involve a range of general skills and skills that are specifically tailored to the field of accountancy. The skills required include, risk analysis and decision making, numeracy skills, measurement skills, reporting skills, and compliance with regulatory and legislative necessities (Oussii and Klibi, 2013, p119). The accounting profession has faced a close scrutiny due to failure of high-profile corporates, globalization, and mutable technologies. As a result, more employers are in quest of a diverse range of attributes and skills as a requirement to offer employment (Kavanagh and Drennan, 2008, p. 280). K avanagh and Drennan (2008, p. 280) assert that,
Friday, September 27, 2019
Information Technology Infrastructure Library - Term Paper Example All these are aimed at service delivery and eliminate the errors. Incident management deals with the preparedness of the system to deal with occurrences that emerge into the system with a potential threat of causing deterrence on the operation of the system. Its main goal is to ensure that normal operations of the business are restored immediately following such a setback. Continual Service Improvement (CSI) is one set defined in the ITIL volume which aims at ensuring that IT services comply with the ever changing business environment. It should be noted that ITIL could prove very expensive and almost inappropriate for non-commercial users who could benefit from such a system of IT service management. The business world as we have it today has experienced changes in technological management and applications. The use of computer technology has become necessary in varying proportions. Consequently, computer technology has been a requisite for any business. However, the technology has come embodied with challenges and additional requirements. Companies have failed to understand to what extent they can use computer technology or information technology systems. Even in circumstances where the companies understand the scale of application of information technology they fail to understand which one is the best system to adopt. While investing in Information Technology Systems, companies should consider the costs of buying, installation and training that comes with the new technology. This should be after the company has established the suitability of the system to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations and compare the rate of return associated with the technology. In this light, the appropriate technology is one which, although not cheap to install, will give the employees and the management easy time to integrate adapt to while ensuring efficiency in business operations throughout. Therefore, methods that have been
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Leadership and Management - Essay Example Ã¢â¬Å"The quality of leadership, more than any one single factor, determines the success or failure of an organizationÃ¢â¬ (Arizona State University, 2009). It is important to analyze and understand the different traits of leadership and management for a firm to operate with success. The trait approach of leadership helps to analyze the qualities of the business personnelÃ¢â¬â¢s. It the recent era business affairs change often, so the managers must keep clear perceptions and visions for the future actions to be implemented in an organization. A good leader in a business firm must have five important traits in him; these are self confidence, intelligence, integrity, determination and sociability. The other theory for leadership is the style theory. The different leadership styles are Ã¢â¬Ëauthority compliance styleÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëcountry club management styleÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëimpoverished management styleÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëteam management styleÃ¢â¬â¢ and middle-of -the-road-ma nagementÃ¢â¬â¢ (Bush, 2010). An organization can also be operated with variable types of management methods. These types are autocratic, democratic, participative and Laissez Fair in features. The management style of Malin Global is autocratic in nature. Hugo Freinnes the CEO of the company undertakes the primary decisions of the firm by himself. Hogo had set up the satellite operation in 2010, this operation helped to facilitate its tasks in New York. However in order to successfully run the business Hugo decided to move to New York for two years. Marina Guedeline was appointed by Hugo to head the operations in the London office. He did not take the opinion of the other employees for this task. Thus, Malin Global had an autocratic form of management style. However, Marina desired to run operations by both participative and democratic pattern. She appointed various workers in the company like Li Piung Ho, Agneta Solvig etc to accomplish the jobs in the London office of Malin Globa l. At the same time, in order to conclude on business decisions, Marina took the help of other employees. Both the leaders of Malin Global, Hugo and Marina pursued efficient leadership skills. They processed the correct intelligence to analyze the changing environmental factors that could affect the business of Malin Global. They had the self confidence and determination to make changes in the business operations of Malin Global. Both of them operated the company with integrity and had the ability to instil the same values to the others. However, the sociability trait was doubted in the organization because certain workers claimed that the company is a male dominated organization and some officials were not ready to work under female heads. The success of a business firm depends on its management skills. A business firm should follow democratic principles than autocracy in it. The employees should be allowed to innovate and participate in different projects in an organization but th e officials and seniors of the association must be respect and obey. Discrimination in terms of caste, creed, religion or sex must be strictly prohibited in an organization. Motivation in Business Motivation is a physiological characteristic feature that helps an entity to execute its tasks and achieve the desired goals. The primary driving force of an organization is motivation of the employees. If the employees of an organization are not well coordinated and motivated to work then it would be almost difficult to accomplish any
Enron Corporation - Essay Example Apparently, companies in the present day scenario emphasise more on developing themselves as an improved unit both in an ethical and legal manner. Observably, business focuses more on confirming that their operational activities cause minimal negative impact on people of the external business environment (Jennings, 2010; Blythe & Zimmerman, 2005). However, with the emergence of high profile corporate breakdowns in the recent years, questions have been raised on the present rules and frameworks along with the effectiveness of the corporate governance practices amid the companies. In this regard, the corporate collapse of Enron is one of the prime example where the ineffectiveness of corporate governance practices is largely visible (KPMG, 2010; Baijal, n.d.). In order to acquire a comprehensive understanding with regard to the failure of the company i.e. Enron, this essay will highlight the corporate issues and gaps of the company prior to its downfall which ultimately resulted in its total collapse. The essay will also ensure a thorough discussion about how the laws of corporate governance have strengthened aftermath of the Enron downfall. As depicted above corporate governance is one of the most vital aspects that are associated with the operations of the business units in the modem day business context. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s scenario the reputation of any business is largely determined by its ability to assure appreciative performance in the domain of corporate governance. However, with the increasing number of accounting fraud and failures of companies to adhere to particular legal and ethical standards in conducting business, the aspect of corporate governance has emerged as one of the major issue in the business sector today. The issue of corporate governance has mostly gathered strength especially after the collapse of Enron owing to accounting frauds in the year 2001. However, in order to depict the actual reason
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Classical Realism and Neo- Realism - Essay Example Realism is basically a dimension to look at the relations between different states being insecure and constantly gaining power. In other words, it could be said that under the study of realism, states remain in state of war to exercise their power to get more privilege than other states of the world. As studied by Hans Morgenthau, all states seek power that makes them to remain in a state craft. It is the strength of realism in explaining the war that it defines the phenomenon of politics in a sole larger aspect of international system. Realism posits that it is mainly because there is no supreme authority above the states that would allow rules and policies for them to follow to restrain international relations with other states. It is because of the insecurity among states that leads to war. Realism falls short in explaining the causes of war in terms of international system being categorized in different polarity. This weakness has been addressed in theories which were coined late r. On the other hand, neo-realism refers to the causes of war being as the result of polarity of international system. This states that international systems being categorized in bipolar and multi-polar systems have different degree of probability for being at war. Under this position, multi-polar international system which is basically formed with the inclusion of more than two countries is safer and less likely to result in a war. This is merely because the bipolar international system including two states.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Analysis report of Shuttle Wagons project - Essay Example This happened due to the fact that the safety regime was not defined properly and lacked clarification at the start of the project. Some approvals took longer than expected; the safety regulators did not fully know what the environment of the Channel Tunnel was like because of the Kings Cross Fire incidents which took place in 1987. These are the main considerations of the entire project. Analysis Report of Shuttle Wagons Project Purpose of the Report The task of constructing the shuttle wagons was given to Trans Manche Link who subcontracted other manufacturers to build the wagons. The project faced a lot of business problems and the major problem was the delay in building the shuttle due to several reasons and the approval of safety regulators (Clancy 2008). The purpose of this report is to give comprehensive analytical and evaluative business recommendations and to present solutions to the problems which the Shuttle Wagon Project has faced. In this regard, it is pertinent to addre ss some issues first. Background of the report The Eurotunnel is the biggest infrastructure to be owned and financed privately in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s history. ... iven to Trans Manche Link (TML) who in turn subcontracted different manufacturers to build high speed shuttle wagons which were to transport freight as well as passengers to different parts of Europe (Clancy 2008). The project was a combination of two different functions firstly it needed the finance and secondly it needed construction contractors. So naturally there were two groups who were involved in the projects, banks and constructions companies. But despite all that there were a number of equity issues that the project was facing due to the fact that the financial institutions were risking more than they originally planned, a number of things got delayed due to the UK general elections, there were no negotiations on a credit agreement and everything was turning out to be a mess due to the delays (Harris 1996). On top of that there were various shuttle design issues and as there was no concise safety regime plan which developed the shuttle wagons were brought back to be redesign ed according to the safety regulations. Interest on payments was piling up due to the delays and it was getting difficult for the project to determine the profits. Plus there a number of problems gave birth to other problems for example as all the changes which were to be made systematically as the issue was with the product which was the shuttle, it was necessary to change other elements of their design as well which took time. Secondly there were complications in the design of the under car (Rosenberg 2012). The manufacturing of cross related products became complex, the fact that in order to make one element or design one element a number of elements had to also be re designed this caused problems for the technicians and the manufacturers who were already over burdened with the
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Effects of Welfare Reform - Research Paper Example In US history, it was the 'New Deal' policies of a Democrat, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, that created the very infrastructure for welfare. The following will examine this divisive issue. The focus of this analysis, will be reforms made to the system in the State of Georgia, and it will be argued that there is a causal relationship between 'unemployment' and the number of people who apply for welfare. Therefore, the issue itself is 'economic' and not 'ideological', and this means that the divisions that exist on welfare reform are meaningless. Further, it will be demonstrated in this analysis that in spite of a long history of welfare-reform, current levels of social assistance payment in the State of Georgia are barely sufficient for just subsistence. As mentioned, welfare in the United States (and Georgia) has its origins during the period the Depression. After the stock-market crash of 1929, what followed was the era known as the Great Depression, and one of the defining socio-econo mic features of this era, was high unemployment coupled with no social safety net. As had been a long-history to that era, if an individual or family was so destitute that they cannot even afford to subsist, they had only the Church to turn to for aid. By the 1930's, economists maintained that the only way to get out of a condition of high unemployment, was to transfer money to those who are most desperate [Weir and Orloff 155-6]. Economists, like John Maynard Keynes believed that if the poor had more or just some money to spend, they would be in a better position to help themselves find gainful employment and they would also have disposable income to put back into the economy [Weir and Orloff 154]. That is, it was maintained that even buying groceries or necessities helped the economy overall by creating employment in those areas that served the very poorest. What is important to stress, is that it was an act of kindness that prompted the government to create social assistance or w elfare, rather, the establishment of the the 'welfare state' was believed to be good for the economy overall. Thus, the establishment in 1935 of the Social Security Act represents the beginning of the welfare-state in the US [Weir and Orloff 235]. While it might seem unnecessary or a waste of space, to trace the origins of the Welfare State in the US, it is important to stress that most of the reform that has happened to Social Assistance in the last thirty-years, is based on a very focus challenge to some of the assumptions that drove the establishment of government programs in the 1930's. In particular, what has been the focus of the current agenda of reform, is a direct extension of the basic economic assumptions that were there in the 1930's. The rise of neo-liberalism or new conservative politics maintains that reducing government expenditures improves the economy. If the government taxed less, and spent less, more money would be in circulation in the private sector. Further, t he private sector itself is the very engine for job growth [Streissguth 33]. If corporations were paying less in taxes, they would have more money to spend on re-investment and growth. These factors have much to do with the creation of jobs. Thus, during the 1990's, welfare reform was driven by reducing taxes, reducing governme
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Continuing Academic Success Essay There are many steps a student or employee can take to ensure success in any endeavor they may choose to undertake. Whether you are a first-time student or someone interested in getting ahead at work, finding your personal learning style is a great place to begin. Then you have a starting off point for using your strengths and improving weaknesses. My personal learning styles, feeling and doing, indicate that I learn best when I care about what IÃ¢â¬â¢m learning, and when it applies to my life, and by physically doing something, like a lab which is usually very hands-on. Because getting my degree in order to improve my future is very important to me, caring about what IÃ¢â¬â¢m learning, no matter the subject, is quite easy. It will also apply to my life after college, so the hands-on aspect is met in that way, in that I can see how the subjects might be used in my future. Another important step for success is to set small goals. This step allows for easy opportunities to do well while making progress towards the larger main goal. Finding and using all available tools is essential for success, as is being ethical; doing the best work possible will ensure the best results. With long term goals such as Ã¢â¬Ëget a degree or Ã¢â¬Ëget a promotion a raise or both, the amount of work can be daunting. Breaking those into smaller goals makes each step much easier to obtain. Those many small accomplishments can increase self-esteem, giving the student or employee a good sense of their ability to get things done, rather than faltering because they feel overwhelmed when looking at the big picture. In my situation, my long term goals are to graduate from college with a bachelors degree, and then start a career that will allow me to take care of my family if needed. These are connected, and looking at them in the long term is very stressful, andÃ overwhelming. Instead, IÃ¢â¬â¢m just focusing on the class IÃ¢â¬â¢m in at the time. If I can do well in my Foundations class, then IÃ¢â¬â¢ll start my next session on a high note, feeling like IÃ¢â¬â¢m already on the right path, and already succeeding. I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t set any small goals for my future career yet. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s mostly because IÃ¢â¬â¢ve only just started looking at the details of where I might want to work. I donÃ¢â¬ â¢t think IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be sure what exactly I want to do until closer to graduation, and IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t know where until I know better Ã¢â¬Å"whatÃ¢â¬ . Something I learned in this first class is that there is an easy to follow format for writing and that it can be used in many formats and situations. Ã¢â¬ It can be referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"five paragraph essayÃ¢â¬ and consists of a thesis, three to five supporting paragraphs and a conclusion.Ã¢â¬ (Halusska, 2006) Learning about this basic formula was a bit of an Ã¢â¬Ëah-haÃ¢â¬â¢ moment for me. It gives a very basic way to write papers for just about any occasion that is easy to remember, and to follow. In any class where a paper is required, such as a book summary, lab results, or a short essay, this format can be applied. It also works for presentations, proposals or other professional writing settings. Using all of the resources available is a great way to ensure success. Knowing what those resources are, and how to find them is important as well. In the setting of the University of Phoenix, there are more tools for success than any college experience that Ive had before. The University Library is so much more than it seems. When I hear library, I think big building with stacks and stacks of books for all interests. The online library has that, but it also has tools like the Center for Writing Excellence (CWE), and the Center for Math Excellent (CME). I havent used the CME yet. Im fairly sure it will come into play in my next class. The CWE, however, has been an essential part of my current class. It has tutorials, live help, a grammar checker, free online plagiarism checker for students with percentage, a reference creating tool, and so much more. Another tool for success that I was introduced to recently is the ELI or Ethical Lens Inventory. Your ethical lens is your window to the world for decision making. There are several different perspectives to consider when trying to make an ethical decision, including whats best for the community (or whatever the group might be), versus whatÃ¢â¬â¢s best for yourself. In a professional setting, an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s position (whether they are management or staff) might make a difference in how they perceive a problem, and how they come to a solution.Ã A manager might have the good of the company in mind while a staff member is likely more concerned with his or herself. McNutt, and Batho (2005) say, for example, Ã¢â¬Å"Values are intimately connected with moral and ethical codes, and determine what people think ought to be done. The value set is composed of rights and duties. The distinction is reasonably straightforward. For the most part, rights and duties are the opposite ends of a given spectrum. If management [or] an employer have a duty to ensure reasonable standards of health and safety for workers, workers have a right to expect it. If it is believed or if it has become a norm that workers have a right to a minimum wage, then management as employers have a duty to pay it.Ã¢â¬ In a school setting your ELI and critical thinking come into play in other ways. It is very important to cite ones sources when using anything other than your original thoughts in a paper. Anything less is plagiarism. This includes self-plagiarism, using your own previous work without citing that, unintentional plagiarism, not properly citing your source in a paraphrase or quote, and deliberately cutting and pasting someone elses work and claiming it as your own. Plagiarism doesnt just happen school, of course. Publishers see this quite often. The good news is that its becoming much more difficult to get away with using someone elses work. A great example of plagiarism in a professional setting co mes from Micron. They had to retract an article because they discovered that a micrograph was doctored with Photoshop. (Cox, Braet, Egerton 2014). Critical thinking, or looking at a situation in a clear, rational yet open-minded way, is very important no matter your situation. A good example of using critical thinking is when you must determine if a source you want to use is credible. You must consider many factors when deciding on the source. This is one major downside of using the internet for research. A lot of sources might be biased, or not well researched. When using outside sources its a good idea to check that there are references given, and also to check those references. Its also important to look at the URL of the resource. Dot Coms are often business oriented, and less reliable due to advertising involvement. Some good websites might be college pages or non-profit organizations, with authors who are authorities in the field theyre discussing. It is never a good idea to use sites like Wikipedia. They are authored by the general public, and while some articles are well documented, the majority are not. ThinkingÃ critically can be a challenge, but it is also a learned skill, which means there are several ways to improve your ability. Knowing that youre going to have to make a decision is the first step and includes knowing what your options are. It also means acknowledging that when you have made a choice, your other options are no longer viable. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve chosen a path, and must move forward. Before you can do that, however, you must define your priorities. What is the desired outcome? The decision you make should focus on that, and move you toward some goal. If it looks like there are no good solutions, the best option might be to wait to make any decisions. Often other options will present themselves. Your situation might change, or you might think if something you hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t considered before. (Ellis Toft, 2014) All of these tools combine and work together to enhance your ability to meet your goals. They can be applied separately or together to make good choices, reach your goals, professional or academic, and succeed at life. Whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re a student or a professional, using ethics, critical thinking, formulaic writing, will lead to positive outcomes. References Halusska, J. C. (2006, Dec). In Defense of the Formula Essay. Academic Questions, 20(1), 46-55. McNutt, P. A., Batho, C. A. (2005). Code of ethics and employee governance. International Journal of Social Economics, 32(8), 656 666. Cox, G., Braet, F., Egerton, R. (2014, Feb). Ethics Issues. Elsevier, Micron 61(iv). Ellis, D., Toft, D. (2014). Becoming a Master Student (15th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning. p.221
Friday, September 20, 2019
SABMiller Company Analysis Contents (Jump to) Mission and Philosophy of SABMiller Market Analysis of SABMiller SWOT Analysis of SABMiller SABMiller Ansoff Matrix Marketing Entry Strategy of SABMiller SABMiller Foreign Direct Investment Advantages and Disadvantages of Joint Ventures Introduction SABMiller the globally active company is world second largest brewery company in the world. SABMiller hab been built through a bold yet focused programme of international development .The company head quarter is in London although it was formed in south Africa in 1895. Its brands include grolsch, miller genuine draft, peroni nastro azzurro and pilsner urquell. Today SABMiller holds 98 percent share of its beer market. It operates seven brewery in Africa with 14 brands of beer. The company maintain the measure presence in south Africa soft drink market through a 74 interest in Amalgamated beverages industries ltd, largest distributor for coca-cola products it also own 30 percent of the stake of distell group ltd the leading distributors of wine and sprits of south Africa. In 1994 as joint venture of government of Tanzania SAB invited to revatilized the government industry in Tanzania which was one of the first foreign investments. Expansion continued to Africa and other continent china, Romania, Poland, slovakia, Russia , the Czech republic , Indian and central America(2001) Mission, philosophy: SABMiller mission is to expand its market all over the world by nurturing local and international beer brand that are the first choice of the customer and become the number one brewery company in the world: To work and win in a group To create a balanced attractive global spread business Developing relevant strong brand portfolios. Raising the profitability of local business sustainably. Market characteristics: SABMiller distributes its brewery in over 60 countries across 6 continents which includes the international brands beer such as pilsner urquell , peroni nastro azzuro , miller lite , snow and tyskie. These are in the worlds top 50 brands in beer . As it is a biggest franchise bottler distributor of coca cola product including fanta , sprite. Appletiser and minute maid . it operates 41 bottling plants which is responsible for producing 5 billion litres of soft drinks per annum. SABMiller has grown from its origin south African base into global company with operation in developed market and in emergining economies such as eastern Europe china and india. In southafrica SAB ltd is the country largest producer of product coca cola company with its brand castle lager, grolsch, castle milk stout . hansa marzen gold, hansa pilsener, carling black level , castle lite, redds, skelters, brutal fruit, blakes and doyle and sarita. Company brewery operations in Africa span 31 countries. The group national brand in china , snow, is produce in partnership with china resources enterprise ltd. SABMiller has a joint venture in Vietnam and Australia and it is the second largest brewery company in India. It has the foster brand in India and Vietnamese market. In 1995 SABMiller entered into the Europe market with the acquisition of Dreher in Hungary. SABMiller was the first internation brewery to enter central America with the acquisition of Cerveceria Hondurena in Honduras. Si nce then it has extended its latin American operation in other six countries including Colombia, Peru, EI Salvador and panama. Performance: Between 1855 and 1888 the company annual productivity increased from 300 barrels to 80,000 barrels of beer. This growth continued to the present day. Its true home country south Africa where south African breweries limited was founded today holds 98 percent impressive share of its beer market. Although the underlying skills are same SABMiller intend to win activity differ from market to market. International marketing planning: Marketing planning is recognized to play a central role in anÃ enterprise. The rapid growth and dynamics changes in international business over the past numerous years have made international marketing of unprecedented. SABMiller has an incredible assortment of over 200 brands , including both globally recognised premium beers. By extending the potential of local brands, developing innovative new brands and by introducing international brands into new markets company ensure that their brands are the first choice for consumers worldwide. SABMiller offers marketing carriers across a wide series of opportunities at every level, including brand management, advance, brand communications, market development, consumer insights, market research, trade and group marketing. Their marketing seeks to support their brands to consumer it does not promotes the consumption of alcohol . alcohol marketing is the most regulated form of advertising in the world . Internal and external analysis With a leading market in central Europe, Asia , Africa, north and central America, Africa and south Africa its is known as major global player in beverage industry. Internal and external analysis can identify the company strength and weakness. Swot analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats involve in project or in business. The aim of any swot analysis is to identify the key internal and external factors. We use swot analysis tools to recognize a distinct strength and diversification of company. These are the areas where the company excels in comparison to other company or competitors. An internal weakness for miller breweing company is the worsening image of two of its major labels miller high life and millers lite beer. The company has recently instituted the new ad campaign targeted at consumer of its lite beer which can help lessen this threat. . According to a press release from the companys web page, dated May 2, 2003, We are committed to helping prevent drunk driving and share a commitment with local law enforcement and our festival partners to help keep our community safer, said Bob Bailey, General Manager of the local Miller distributor, in Atlanta Georgia. (http://www.millerbrewing.com/pressRoom/newReleasesDetails.asp?ideanumber=74) (S) Company resources, name recognition and diversification is one of the distinctive strength of the company. (W) strong competition is a weakness (O) the company can make opportunities by emerging market, by increasing the presenceon internet, by focusing on ethnic target markets and by increasing its advertise. (T) changing consumer trends, increased advertise from competitors, government taxation, lower priced imports these are the main threats of company. SWOT Analysis of SABMiller (S)trengths Strong image of brand Compete in volume compared to Coors Lite Beer taste International existence Combine services with government rules and policy Environmentally conscious Strong marketing efforts for Lite Beer. Increased occurrence on the internet (O)pportunities Growing markets in Europe Emerging markets in Central Asia Rising market in U.S. with ethnic groups Capability to purchase smaller breweries Overseas investment Increased advertising funds (W)eaknesses Weak brand qualities over time lack of advertising spotlight and regularity Not seen as high quality want for dark beer line Taste known as inferior to Budweiser Seen as a group producer Not connected with famous people Products not much differentiate from main competitors Small advertising budget compared to Anheuser-Busch Loss of brand consistency with Miller High-Life label Undifferentiated products, as compared to close opponent (T)hreats Government taxation increases Government rules and regulations added Growth by nearby contestants Lower priced introduce and local products Increase in rivalry from other beverages (e.g. water, fruit juices, etc) Changing buyer favourite Price wars from contestants Goals and objectives SABMiller is second largest brewery company in the world. As it is the second largest company and operates in many part of the world including asia, Africa Europe latin America and central America. But still it have to extend its market in some other countries . I want to pursue similar operating strategies that have succeded in other country Marketing Strategy (ANSOFF) ANSOFF product market is a marketing tool created by Igore Ansoff matrix provide four different growth strategies market penetration, market development, product development and diversification. Market penetration : the company entering with its current product to increase its market share is a market penetration. By advertising or by convincing current consumer or clients to use more of the products or service is the way to achieve this and it can be least risky for company to grow its market. Product development: The new product is marketed out to their existing customer by developing and innovating new products offering to replace existing ones . As product is new it can carry more risk than simply attempting to increase market share. Market development: If the company or the firms is expanding its product to different customers to earn more revenue for the firms this is marketing development. The best example for this is lucozated which was first marketed for sick children but later rebranded to target athletics. Diversification: it requires both product and market development and can be outside the core competency hence it is the most risky of the growth strategy. Market analysis The world is divided into 100 of sovereign nations and each nation have a potential market for products of international firms. Marketing analysis concerns with two different task considering the size of existing markets and forecasting the size of future markets. Before entering into a new market we should study the several factors like customs, tastes, the trade restriction, collecton of national statistics. Taking SABMiller to a new market involves the marketing analysis of the particular place or the chosen country. SABMiller has operated its product in some asian market including china, India, Vietnam Australia. As an international marketing manager I would like to expand my company in some asian countries. Among asian countries Im going to focus on four Asian countries, among these Im going to choose one for the future venture of my company: Nepal India Pakistan Korea 1) Nepal: Nepal is a small developing country situated between two leading countries china and india with an area 147181 sq. km and it has 30 million population. Pest analysis for Nepal Political(p): until 1990 Nepal was running under monarchy. Since from last two decades it has several political changes. The political stability of Nepal is not strong so it keeps on changing in every short period of time . due to which it has its direct impact on country GDP and other part. Economic(E): Nepal is an agriculture country 80% people depends on agriculture . economic development in social service has not made dramatic progress. young and educate people migrate to other countries in search of jobs and employment. it is a Hindu country. About 80% of the people follow Hinduism . According to Hindu religion people they dont drink alcohol. According to social belief and behaviours people they dont drink and allow alcohol in their social life. Technological: IT a poor developing countries due to political instability and lack of skilled man power country lacks technology. 2) India: SABMiller enter in Indian market in july 2000 with acquisition of jv . and it has occupied 1/3 indian market share of beer . its already in india so I want to take my company to other part of the asia. 3) Pakistan: the estimated population of Pakistan is 170.6 million. Pakistan GDP is us$167 billions. Because of the unhappy consumer credit market, slow movement of civic sector programmes, security risk Pakistan economic growth faced a serious set back in 2009. shortage of energy and power do not let the boom entered into the industrial sector. Government is unable to make different and identify the developed and non developed budget. And the major problem of the Pakistan is security .so I cant extend my market over there for this reason. 4) South Korea South Korea has a republic government with power shared between president legislation and court. South korea has a good relation with many international foroms . the republic of korea maintains diplomatic relations with more thn 170 countries and broad a network of trading relationship .Is in 15th position in the world GDP rate. It is known as asian tiger. Since from 1960 south korea had one of the world fastest growing economies . its GDP rate is expanded by more than 8% in. from US$ 2.7 billion in 1962 to us$ 230 billion in 1989. Marketing Entry Strategy Marketing entry strategy is known as a plan method of delivering gods or services. It refers to establishing and managing contracts exporting and importing services. One can choose any country that you want to go into so that u can perform identification to undertake a general overview of potential new market. Business can be achieve by entering into a new market . Now there is a several method of entering into a new market . the decision of how u going to enter a foreign market can have a significant impact on results. Expansion into foreign market can be achieved by following 4 way Exporting : the word export comes from conceptual meaning as to ship the goods and services out of the country port.It is known as traditional way of reaching our goods to foreign market. This is a direct sales of domestic product goods in another country . direct export is frequently used to enter into a new market. It is made with an agreement with distributor or trading house for the purpose of selling the product into target market. Licensing: licensing permits a company in the target country to use the property of licensor which are usually intangible such as trademark, productions technique etc. for the rights to use the intangible property and possible for technical assistance one have to pay a fee in exchange . it allows the licenser to use make and sell products. Joint venture : it is similar to business partnership with two differences first with partnership generally involves ongoing long term business relationship where an equity based joint venture which compromise a single business activity and second partner have to agree to dissolve the partnership before it comes to an end. Joint venture can be form inside own country with different firms or it can also be formed between international firms. The reason for doing joint venture is to combine the strength or to by pass legal restriction. Foreign Direct Investment: foreign direct investment is known as long term participation by one country into another country, means which function outside the domestic territory of investor. It requires a business relationship and it also helps to give rise to multinational corporations. FDI can be classified into two different types outward FDI and inward FDI. An outward FDIs is subject to tax incentives disincentives of various forms. Different economic factors like loan, tax break, subsides are inwards FDIs factors. 3.1) country profile (introduction) By analysing the situation of above 4 country that I mention. I came to the conclusion that to extend my company brand in south korea. In the past several decades the republic of korea has received notable high economic growth . the geological area of korea is 98,480 sq. km with total population 48,636,068. Korean population is one of the most ethnically and inquistically homogenous in the world language . Since from the partition in 1948 korea has developed into Asias prosperous country. Government sponsored schemes encouraged the growth of family owned industrial . the current economy of the south korea is the third largest in Asia. South korea industrial and manufacturer base include computers and computer peripheral, auto mobiles , steel production etc. 3.2) alternative entry method As it is the world second largest brewery company measured by income. I am going to enter into a Korean market by its famous brand miller Lite. About miller lite its early production was 12.8 million barrels which which quickly increased to 24.2 millions barrel by 1977. in 1991 lite beer became the biggest domestic beer in America. Under miller lite brand the company is going to produce three craft beers an amber, ablonde ale and a wheat. It contains glycol alginate, water , barley malt, corn, syrup, chemically modified hops extracts, yeast, amyloglucosidase, carbondioxide, papain enzyme, liquid sugar, potassium, metabisulfile and emka malta. Method to enter : joint venture I m going to enter into the Korean beer market by joint venture . with the help of one of the local firm I m gong to enter with my miller lite brand. This makes me easier to enter into the new market with low risk in my business. It helps to access me to local borrowing power and resources through participation of national partner. Advantages of Joint Ventures Offers opportunities to the company to get new abilities Helps to enter into a new geological market and helps to achieve new technological information Joint venture also makes low risk by sharing by sharing the economic risk with co venture In order to grow into the new market we need resources in the form of method technology and approach, it open the enue for such needs. Offers a creative way for company to exit from non core corporation Disadvantages of Joint Ventures It can take a long time or attempt to built a relationship or partnering a right partner Different culture and management way can bring poor result Co venture or partners dont offer enough leadership Can be imbalance in levels of expertise Have to agree in lot of things and these can cause this venture fall apart The profit made by you will be shared Task 4: Implementation (4Ps of marketing) The marketing decision is generally controlled by 4 categories: product, price, place, promotion. Product: if u going to do business you have to produce a product that the people going to buy. People in korea are fond of different drinks. I m going to take by brand miller lite in korea market. It has won the best world beer cup gold medal for best American style light lager in 1996, 1998, 2002 and in 2006. Price: the price must be high enough to cover the cost but it doesnt mean that it should be really high. The price of this product will be in favour to all category people so that they can enjoy its taste . Place: it will be the first market entry in Korean brewery . I want to place my product in every public place where they can enjoy and have a fun like restaurant, bar , local shops, store etc. so that I can take focus from the customer. Promotions: customer have to be made aware of the product. So I m going to advertise my product in television, papers, internet, leaflets etc so that i can make more space in he market share. Conclusion: people in the society wants different product with new taste . People of the todays world are more conscious about product brand this shows that people are conscious about their choice , health and money. All this observation shows that SABMiller extending in new market is very profitable and helps to know its products brand world wide.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
How a person envisions healthcare usually reflects a persons attitude towards Ã¢â¬Å"right or privilegeÃ¢â¬ , if they view it from a humanitarian or a financial perspective weighs heavy on how that question is answered. As a Christian who is anti-abortion, the choice of whether healthcare is a Ã¢â¬Å"right or a privilegeÃ¢â¬ is straightforward; healthcare is a fundamental right. Babies are human; we do not lose compassion for them just because they grow older. In a moral modern society, medical care is something that we all must be able to access, just as the basic needs of having air, food, and life. We frequently accept certain words or phrases, without realizing the full definition of the meaning. We should not be bogged down in the terminology of Ã¢â¬Å"rights or privilegeÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Human rightsÃ¢â¬ are not the same as Ã¢â¬Å"constitutional rightsÃ¢â¬ , as individuals, human rights are what we need for existence by virtue of being human. Some of us are taller, sma rter, or slower, but as human beings we are all equal, as our constitution states. We hold the protection of the human rights in high regard in our country, how can we not protect a quality of healthcare for our citizens as well? Our nation has provided healthcare Ã¢â¬Å"entitlementsÃ¢â¬ for the elderly, the disabled, and the very young for years, is the stretch to universal care for all ages really that far out of reach for humanitarian reasons, after all we do not just live in an economy but in a society. All humans are vulnerable to disease, so would we not all benefit socially and fiscally by the pooling of our resources to protect ourselves from the hazards of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s unknownÃ¢â¬â¢s. America is one of the few advanced countries that have no healthcare system that cares for its people. A country that is in the forefront ... ...vailable at this time. This lack of basic healthcare is one of our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s great social inequities. Blaming the poor seems to be the scapegoat of those who believe that healthcare is privilege and they do not offer any solutions of dealing with the under or uninsured. As a culture that expects quality care, we need to as a whole, create a basic healthcare system that will provide the highest standard of care and wellbeing of our upcoming generations. Our health is central to our quality of life, our independence, and even in the Ã¢â¬Å"pursuit of happinessÃ¢â¬ that our United States Constitution guaranteesÃ¢â¬â¢ its citizens, many who have given their lives to protect that right. Providing a uniform basic health system is a Ã¢â¬Å"human rightÃ¢â¬ that will serve as a resource that will enrich all of society and the common good. Health is our true wealth and it is best when it is shared.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
GREEK DRAMA: the actors The actors in ancient tragedies were hired and paid by the state and assigned to the tragic poets probably by lot. By the middle of the fifth century three actors were required for the performance of a tragedy. In descending order of importance of the roles they assumed they were called protagonist ‘first actor’ (a term also applied in modern literary criticism to the central character of a play), Dueteragonist ‘second actor’ and tritagonist “third actor’. The protagonist took the tile of the most important character in the play while the other two actors played the lesser roles. Since most plays have more than two or three characters (although never more than three speaking actors in the same seen), all three actors played multiple roles. In modern literary criticism, the term protagonist refers to the central character of the play, not the actor. Since women were not allowed to take part in dramatic productions, male actors has to play female roles. The playing of multiple roles, both male and female, was made possible by the use of masks, which prevented the audience from identifying the face of any actor with one specific character in the play and helped eliminate the physical incongruity of men impersonating women. The masks with subtle variations also helped the audience identify the sex age and social rank of the characters. The fact that the chorus remained in the orchestra throughout the play, and sang and danced choral songs between the episodes. Allowed the actors to exit after an episode in order to change mask and costume and assume a new role in the next episode without any illusion-destroying interruption in the play.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
A Comparison Between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini There is no doubt that Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini shared many similar characteristics. They shared movements that were typical of National Socialism: they adopted a radical nationalism, militaristic hierarchies, violence, the cult of charismatic leadership, contempt for individual liberties and civil rights, an anti-democratic and anti-socialist orientation, and a refusal to socialize industries. Hitler and Mussolini looked upon the new form of government, which was Totalitarianism. This form of government means there is only one leader to make decisions and thus they killed or jailed all opponents. Mussolini and Hitler used this form of government after World War One to make their countries into world powers. Perhaps the most obvious similarity would be the path they took to power. In parliament Hitler and Mussolini gathered small groups of followers they would use to bully voters, HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s SS and SA and MussoliniÃ¢â¬â¢s Brown Shirts. The point of these behind these parties was that they both expressed what voters wanted to hear. They spoke of greater job opportunities and rejuvenation of their countries. Hitler and Mussolini used violent propaganda to increase social struggle everywhere in their countries. The polarization of the society produced by this violent behavior benefited the fascist parties. Both leaders used their political strength to impose conditions on their people. Both Hitler and Mussolini were finally given the opportunity to form a government and carried out their election promises. Their ruling of power came about to be so similar because of their similar roads to power. Here we see some differences in the way Hitler and Mussolini actually came to power. Mussolini encountered many forms of resistance and had to co-exist with other competitors for power, such as the Italian monarchy and rivals even inside his own party. Hitler proved very strong right from the beginning and he brought his plans very nearly to completion, controlling the party and the country much more thoroughly than Mussolini could. The goals of these two leaders were also very alike because of their fascist ideas. The keystone of the fascist political system was the leader: every person and every group, every lobby, lay beneath him on the same level. The Italian and German fascist movements tr... ...m agreement on religion. In Italy the Catholic Church exercised a strong influence on the people. In Italy the strong presence of Catholic religion and organizations influenced MussoliniÃ¢â¬â¢s policies concerning women. Although the fascist ideology intended to abolish class struggle by establishing a new corporative society, its ideas about the role of women in such a society remained very conservative. Hitler had similar beliefs about the role of women in a Nazi society but he never tried to force them to stay home, indeed, he supported their participation in industrial production. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s rule was cold and calculating, his only joys were the tramping of military boots in Nazi parades and the huge applause at Nazi rallies. On the other hand Mussolini tried to appear o his people as a Ã¢â¬Å"supermanÃ¢â¬ . It is true that the Italian dictatorship was more conservative in its application than that of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s reign of terror. But, both the fascist ideas and rulings of these two leaders proved to have some similarities worth mentioning. Both leaders left their countries with an economic and social debt to the Allies, which is still strong in the minds of many older members of the community.
Critique of the Ã¢â¬Å"Scared Straight ProgramÃ¢â¬ The program established in the 1970s, called Scared Straight is used throughout the United States as a means of deterring Juvenile crime. This program consists of youth that are at risk visiting adult prisons, the youth then have contact with prisoners to hear about the life and reality of being locked up from inmates (Slowikowski, 2011). The programs can involve tours of the facility, living the life of a prisoner for a full day, aggressive Ã¢â¬Å"in-your-faceÃ¢â¬ presentations by inmates, and one- on-one counseling.However well intentioned these prison visit programs may be, decades of research have shown that this approach is not only ineffective, but possibly harmful to youth (Slowikowski, 2011). Now there was a study done by Anthony Petrosino and researchers at the Campbell Collaboration analyzed results from nine Scared Straight Programs and found that such programs generally increased crime up to 28 percent in the experi mental group when compared to a no-treatment control group (Slowikowski, 2011). In another analysis of Juvenile prevention and treatment programs, MarkLipsey of the Vanderbilt Institute for public Policy Studies found that youth who participate in Scared Straight and other similar deterrence programs have higher recidivism rates than youth in control groups (Slowikowski, 2011). Also there was a report done in 1997 presented to the U. S. Congress where there was 500 crime prevention evaluations and said the program Ã¢â¬Å"Scared StraightÃ¢â¬ is Ã¢â¬Å"what does not workÃ¢â¬ in preventing Juvenile crime. Yet programs like Ã¢â¬Å"Scared StraightÃ¢â¬ are continuing to be used as an approach in the United States and throughout the world.On January 13, 2011, A&E Television Networks aired the first of a multiepisode series of reality shows called Ã¢â¬Å"Beyond Scared StraightÃ¢â¬ (Slowikowski, 2011). It had become the most watched show in the United States with having an audien ce of 3. 7 million people (Sullivan, 2011). This then has parents and viewers thinking the Ã¢â¬Å"Scared StraightÃ¢â¬ programs works, which then they do not think of the other possibilities of programs that are proven to work and be more beneficial to at-risk youth in deterring Juvenile delinquency. When I think of the A&E series of Ã¢â¬Å"BeyondScared StraightÃ¢â¬ I think of it as showing at-risk youth at home with their parents what it would be like if they were a part of this program. The at-risk youth I think don't take it as serious as the show portrays it to be because in this program your getting yelled at in your face by the inmates, you have a session where the inmates share their stories with the youth and explain how they wish they would taken a different path, the youth will see their parents through video or glass windows, they may spend up to 24 hours in the facility, etc.With a program like Ã¢â¬Å"Scared StraightÃ¢â¬ there are many things we can critique. Fir st these programs require young people to project into the future. They don't think like that, they don't think logically or long term. That's why theyre kids. They are impulsive, and think short term, espically whenb it comes to punishment (Sullivan, 2011). Kids know how hit and miss the criminal Justice system is. They believe they might not get caught when they think about committing a crime. What young people react to is: How swift is the punishment in terms of the behavior?How certain is it that a consequence will occur? How severe is the punishment? The extreme nature of the punishment shown in Ã¢â¬Å"scared straightÃ¢â¬ programs doesn't match the expectations of young people. They don't picture themselves locked up (Sullivan, 2011 . ) Again a program like Ã¢â¬Å"scared straightÃ¢â¬ is something that was made by adults for young kids, but we need to realize that these young kids don't react the same was as adults do or would in a program like Ã¢â¬Å"scared straight. What these at-risk youths need are to be put in activities of everyday life that will keep them from going to prison rather than putting them in a Ã¢â¬Å"scared straightÃ¢â¬ rogram saying this is where you're going to be if you continue the road your going down. Why not show these at-risk youth what and where you should want to be in life, like a Job show them responsibility and what it is like to earn hard working money to save for something, to be able to afford the things you want, etc.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Task 1: strengthen the information systems to enhance effective communication within the business and in all departments. Benefits of effective technological systems (Sanders & Bok 2013). This facilitates effective communication with the departments in the business. The daily operations of the business need effective communication. Senior departmental managers need to communicate with supervisors and other subordinates. Communication channels such telephones and computer links facilitates transmission of information from one area to another. This saves time as managers and supervisors donÃ¢â¬â¢t take time moving from one section to the other. Safety of stored information and easier retrieval (Target, Grimshow & Powel 2009). They facilitate better storage of information within the organization. It reduces paper work and bunch of files stored in the offices. Computers stores information which can be retrieved easily through use of logs and personal codes, when they are keyed information is displayed easily. Task 2: improve the existing markets and expand through opening new branches throughout the world. Benefits of proper marketing strategies (Kerin, Hartley & Rudelius 2009). Marketing is a very essential aspect in every business. Strategies such as integrate online and offline advertising, message adaptation and contests and discounts. Proper marketing facilitates better customer relations and increase in sales. This being the key goal of any business organization, it facilitates growth and development. Meeting customer needs (Bettencourt 2010). Organizations are required to meet the needs of the customers for competitive advantages. CustomersÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction helps the business to maintain customers both in the long-run and short-run. Distribution of the products within the required time in the markets and proper pricing enhances customersÃ¢â¬â¢ maintenance are reaching the potential customers. Task 3: use of online marketing and product promotion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are many ways of reaching out customers and promoting products in the market. Use of website links and online transactions enables an organization to reach more customers all over the world. Forms of product promotions such as advertising through electronic commutations such as radios and TV, use of billboards and personal selling also helps in reaching out customers. This is very beneficial to an organization as it gets enjoys economies of scale through increased production and sales. Value added by the role of my CPO. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã My role adds a significant role in my CPO. For clear understanding of this role is added and what it is about, the learner have to be well informed on matters concerning proper marketing strategies, how to apply them and the benefits associated with such strategies. This comprises of the ways that a business put into consideration with an aim of reaching more customers and increasing the sales. Proper marketing strategies are very beneficial to the business both for proper control of internal and external environments (Fisher 2008). Some of the benefits involved include; market expansion both local and international, competitive advantages as the business is able to acquire large market share and meet the needs of the customers. My role in regard to adding value to my CPO is based on my knowledge concerning the marketing mix and segmentation. This is an area that is must have full knowledge concerning how a market is well segmented, the tools of marketing mix such as products, price, promotion and distribution. This knowledge will help me in preparing a good report to be presented to the marketing manager for better installation and implementation of the required strategies. The strategies should be based on the individuals and target groups in relation to their needs, knowledge and cultural activities (Augustine 2009). For my CPO to have a value addition, I must have full knowledge concerning the strategies used by other industries/competitors, the marketing trends and the needs of the customer. This will facilitate and enhance a better delivery of findings and recommendations to the clients and have qualities and important information that helps the marketing teams. My role is to ensure there is a proper interrelationship between the three departments that is IT, transport and marketing. They help the organization to pursue their interests effectively. Resolving allowed these departments adds value to my CPO as it enables me to come u p with better and effective strategies that are beneficial to an organization. LG3 Nature of relationships incorporated in my CPO during the completion of my task. Effective completion of tasks requires proper involvement of all the employees and the management. Employees are provided with the necessary skills across all the tasks carried out in the business. This enables an employee to perform any task across all departments. I always interacts with the marketing department when having a discussion with them on how to improve their operation or resolving an issue. I have acquired more knowledge through my team leader as I have always accompanied him when carrying out daily operations. This has enabled me to establish a strong marketing team and enhance good relationships. Proper communication that is done horizontally from the team leader to supervisors and the people on the ground. Receiving information concerning the progress of the market and the issues affecting them is another task I do carry in the organization. Organizational chart Ideas on how my CPO may effectively manage the organizational internal relationships. The marketing department has a well established IT and transport systems. This becomes an advantage as communication is well facilitated and goods are transported to the respective markets. Internal environment gaps; questions that will help me in developing an understanding of the internal environment. Are all the departments well resourced with the required facilitates? For effective implementation and carrying out of the activities, the overall departments have to be equipped well. Are all departmental managers well skilled with the required knowledge? This will help me in determining if there is need to have training of all the departmental attendants. What are the strategies used by the competitor? Are the strategies used in the organization more effective compared to those of the competitors? Key facts concerning my industry sector Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Strategic market planning is a marketing body that is focused on the content of strategy and formulation process at the unit level of a business (Kumar 2010). It also compares the role of marketing in the organizational activityÃ¢â¬â¢s sphere. This marketing body helps me in analyzing key facts concerning key facts of my organization. Skills of employees Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Employees are the key players in the organizational marketing. They need to be well skilled as they are the ones who interact with customers on their daily basis. Product packaging and branding Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Product appearance is very vital to the eyes of the customer. The organization facilitates better packaging by using amounts affordable by the customers of all aspects. Issues faced by the business world Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Political instability; Most of the countries in the world are faced with political instability. Such events are associated with chaos hence creating unfavorable marketing conditions. Market diversification: many businesses are located in different parts of the world. To have effective cooperation and proper management, the business world is facing problems of meeting the customer demands. My CPO provides strategies of ensuring that the organization has well manageable markets. External stakeholders and their significance in the relationship. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Governmental agencies of NZ, Agencies such as the tax authority and the licensing board influences the marketing operations of the business. Tax levies and restrictions imposed by the licensing board affects the rate at which the organization opens up new markets. LG 3.3 topic: entrepreneurship and communication Product promotion: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is an area that has contributed a lot towards reaching out customers in different corners of the world. It is an area that requires a lot of skills and confidentiality as it can either assist the business in reaching more customers or can lead to loss of confidence towards the business. It has been an area of my interest, as it is closely associated with my CPOÃ¢â¬â¢s discipline in its industry sector. Online transaction Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Carrying out online transactions assists the business to have safer operations. In AUT business school, I acquired knowledge and skills necessary for carrying out online transactions. It facilitates the growth of the business and should be adopted by the organization. I finds it easy to operate as it has closer connection with my CPO and its industry. Learning goal 4: ethical and social responsibility facing society and business Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ethical means to do with what is wrong and right, based on morality (Cafoliete 2010). Social responsibility is refers to an ethical theory that an individual or organization has an obligation to act for societal benefits (Amaeshi 2013). An ethical decision facilitates better services and creates a good image of an organization. My CPO and industry may consider offering training on how to ethical business characteristics and ensures customer needs are fully met (Bates 2013). Lack of enough skills may lead to a challenge in my CPO on making business decision that is ethical. LG 5: work collaboratively Developing business communication skills Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Communication is a key factor in every business organization. Communication enhances better relationships with others in the industry thus facilitating work collaborations. My strength in this aspect is that my CPO consists of the largest communication department which links with other external organizations. The major weakness is on the poor communication skills currently displayed by many of the departmental attendants. My goal is to ensure that communication has been enhanced and effective channels installed. The strategies to be put in place include; in-service training and workshops should be held regularly, installation of communication devices in all departments and skilled managers employed. In order to assess whether the goals have been achieved, it should be measured in terms of profit margin and the number of customers. Aspect 2: working effectively in teams Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Team work is a key tool in enhancing effective operations and increased productivity. It brings unity thus enhancing collaboration with others. The strengths in this aspect are that majority of the group members are of the same age thus works well as a group. The weakness is on the team leadership as my CPO industry has a few experienced managers. My goal is to develop the strongest working team in the industry. The strategies set include ensuring that more skilled managers are employed, workshops held to regular basis to train members on how to have strong working teams. Though it is hard to assess the strength of a team, my industry will check on the interrelationship between the internal and external environments to assess whether the goal has been met. References Amaeshi, K., & Nnodim, P. (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility, Entrepreneurship, and Innovation. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. Bettencourt, L. (2010). Service innovation how to go from customer needs to breakthrough services. New York: McGraw-Hill. Bok, D. C. (2013). Universities in the marketplace: the commercialization of higher education (45 ed.). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Kerin, R. A., Hartley, S. W., & Rudelius, W. (2009). Marketing (9/e [9th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Kumar, D. (2010). Enterprise Growth Strategy Vision, Planning and Execution.. Farnham: Ashgate Pub.. Oliver, S. (2010). Public relations strategy (3rd ed.). London: Kogan Page/CIPR. Targett, D., Grimshaw, D. J., & Powell, P. (2009). IT in business a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s casebook. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Amaeshi, K., & Nnodim, P. (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility, Entrepreneurship, and Innovation. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. Augustine, C. H. (2009). Improving school leadership the promise of cohesive leadership systems. Santa Monica, CA: RAND. Bates, C. G. (2013). Global social issues an encyclopedia. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. Bender, T. (2012). Discussion-based online teaching to enhance student learning: theory, practice, and assessment (2nd ed.). Sterling, Va.: Stylys. Source document
Sunday, September 15, 2019
A lot of significant discoveries have been made over the past centuries. While various discoveries in astronomy, science, physics set our lives on entirely different course, I strongly believe that the discovery of the fist antibiotic, penicillin played a crucial role in the history of mankind. Firstly, before the discovery of penicillin some diseases were incurable and any wound could result in death because of bacteria. Though different methods in medicine were used to limit outbreaks and reduce the spread of diseases, researchers did not know how to kill bacteria that caused diseases. Invented by Alexander Fleming in 1928, penicillin cured a lot of diseases that had caused so much pain and suffering. For example, such illnesses as sepsis and pneumonia were fatal in the majority of cases. Penicillin became the fist drug to defeat those illnesses. Moreover, due the use of penicillin during World War II a tremendous amount of soldiers survived. Penicillin made a major difference in the number of deaths and amputations caused by infected wounds. This antibiotic was the most powerful, the least harmful and gave quick results. Though being the most limited cure, penicillin saved countless lives during the war. Last but not the least, penicillin played an important role in the increase of world life expectancy. It prevented population from the risk of getting the fatal diseases such as fevers, sepsis and pneumonia and reduced deaths at young ages. To illustrate this, the world life expectancy has doubled over the past two centuries from 45 years in 1920 up to 67 and more nowadays. Above all, a lot of other types of antibiotics were developed from penicillin, such as amoxicillin, which, in turn has treated other serious diseases and become innovation in medicine. To conclude, the invention of penicillin became a very important event in the history of medicine. The use of penicillin helped to save lives of many people and reduce the number of losses during World War II. It is impossible to imagine the modern life without antibiotics. Due to them people are not in danger of suffering from serious diseases as they were before the invention of the life-saving cure.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
The concepts related to cultural distance and local linkages are of paramount importance to the strategies adopted by multinational companies, Tjosvold and Leung (2003) noted. These authors note that it is through placing utmost significance on the said concepts that companies would be able to ensure the success of both their international operations (those in situated in the host country) and their domestic operations (based on the home country). Luo (1999) further expounds on the topic at hand. According to this author, it is of paramount importance that a certain company, in the hopes of expanding its global reach, to be able to look into factors that would that would affect their stability in a certain region. Luo (1999) then discussed the need for multinational enterprises that have subsidiaries outside of their home country to scan and interpret the environment in order to make appropriate decisions regarding internal arrangements and external alignment. They must be able to look into the similarities between the culture of the home and host countries which has been considered important in terms of ensuring the development of a tightly knit network between the two (Luo, 1999). Aside from this, it was also maintained that it is through the careful analysis of cultural distance that multinational companies would be able to determine their competitive advantages and reduce their disadvantages that may stem out from the following: (1) their dependence on local settings, (2) their vulnerability to government interference, and (3) their bargaining power with the host government (Luo, 2002). Hence, Luo (1999; 2002), without a doubt, attributed the importance of taking cultural distance and local linkages into consideration in order to ensure the success of multinational corporations that are conducting businesses within an international context. Background of the Study Cultural distance and local linkages, without a doubt then, becomes of paramount importance to expanding businesses that seek to tap markets outside of their own domestic sphere. Understanding the cultural distance existing between the multinational enterprisesÃ¢â¬â¢ home and host countries are of paramount importance in order to ensure the success of the former and its business initiatives. In this paper, cultural distance is measured based on the model developed by Geert Hofstede which noted that the difference between two countries are more or less affected by the following factors: (1) power distance, (2) uncertainty avoidance, (3) individualism vs. collectivism, and (4) masculinity vs. femininity (Hofstede, 1991). The difference between the countries in relation to the four factors affects the manner by which multinational companies enter into businesses outside of their home country. Brouthers and Brouthers (2001), in fact, look into how cultural distance influences the instances by which affect their modes of entry. Apparently, this is due to the fact that the survival of the business venture may depend on the management of the relationships existing between the home and host countries, thereby making it of paramount importance to the business to take the said factor into consideration (Barkema & Vermeulen, 2009; Hennart & Zeng, 2002). Manev and Stevenson (2001), in line with this, also stated looking into cultural distance may eventually affect the relationships amongst the employees and the management situated in the home countries. The importance of Linkages, on the other hand, lies on its ability to provide business ventures with the competitive advantages needed in order to ensure the success of their businesses, Blomstrom and Kokko (2003) discussed. In general, local linkages refer to the relationships established by multinational relationships with the host country that serve as an anchor to their activities, Chen, Chen and Kyu (2004). The essentiality of the said linkages can also be attributed to the sharing of resources and activities in order to ensure the success of the business enterprise. Hence, local linkages once again reiterate the need for business ventures to look closely into cultural distance. Previous researchers stated the fact that a culturally distant company or corporation may significantly affect the linkages it develops with the host country, thereby threatening the formation of competitive advantage necessary to the success of their businesses. It is in line with the abovementioned discussions that this research shall focus on the manner by which cultural distance affects local linkages which could more or less pose significant implications to the formation of competitive advantages, thereby affecting the expansion of businesses. More specifically, however, this study is directed towards Dutch multinational enterprises. Statement of the Problem Cultural distance, as previously mentioned, can be measured by looking into the four factors that are contained within the model of Hofstede; namely: (1) power distance, (2) uncertainty avoidance, (3) individualism vs. collectivism, and (4) individualism vs. collectivism. In general, the difference between the home and host countries of a certain multinational enterprise tend to affect several aspects of their businesses, including their modes of entry, the manner by which human resources are managed, the development of networks, and most importantly, the relationship existing between the two. Aside from this, the discussions made in the foregoing paragraphs also noted of cultural distance as an important factor that affects the development of local linkages between the multinational enterprise and the host country, which is then important in terms of ensuring their competitive advantage and success in their expansion to a location outside of their traditional place of origin. It is for this reason that this research is devoted to the provision of answers with regard to the main research question: how does cultural distance affect the formation of local linkages, taking into consideration the experiences of Dutch multinational enterprises? To support this, the following research questions are also deemed necessary: Research Questions 1. How does cultural distance significantly affect the development of local linkages? 2. How does cultural distance significantly affect the favorability of factors relating to the local business environment, based on the experience of Dutch multinational enterprises? 3. In what way does cultural distance affect decisions with regard to modes of entry and autonomy of the subsidiaries of Dutch multinational enterprises? 4. To what extent does cultural distance affect the formation of competitive advantages of the Dutch business ventures in host countries? 5. What are the common benefits obtained by the Dutch multinational enterprises with regard to their ability to form successful local linkages? 6. What are the common disadvantages experienced by the business enterprises in relation to their inability to establish successful local linkages? Hypotheses It is in line with the abovementioned research questions and problem statement that the researcher develops the following hypotheses that this study shall either accept or reject, based on the results obtained by the latter: Main Null Hypothesis: Cultural distance does not affect the Dutch multinational enterprisesÃ¢â¬â¢ establishment of local linkages. Main Alternative Hypothesis: Cultural distance affects the Dutch multinational enterprisesÃ¢â¬â¢ establishment of local linkages. Null Hypothesis 1: Cultural distance and the establishment of local linkages are not significantly correlated with each other. Alternative Hypothesis 1: Cultural distance and the establishment of local linkages are significantly correlated with each other Null Hypothesis 2: Cultural distance does not significantly affect the favorability of factors relating to local business environment of Dutch Multinational Enterprises. Alternative Hypothesis 2: Cultural distance significantly affects the favorability of factors relating to local business environment of Dutch Multinational Enterprises. Null Hypothesis 3: Cultural distance does not affect decisions of Dutch Multinational Enterprises