Monday, February 4, 2019

Erythema Migrans Essay -- Health, Diseases, Ticks

Erythema migrans (EM) is a red, belatedly expanding rash which is associated with the bite of ticks. European physicians spy EM in patients in the early 20th century and theorized that it was caused by a tick-borne bacterium. Later the in the 1970s a physican observed a clusters of child with arthritis in and around Lyme, Conneticut. After further investigation it was discovered that the arthritis occurred subsequent to the presence of tick bites followed through with EM rash lesions. It was non until 1984 when conclusive evidence showed that the bacterium spirochete Berrelia burgdorferi caused Lyme disease. In 2002 Lyme disease caused more than than 23, 000 infections in the United States (1) . Lyme disease is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium spirochete B. burgdorferi that transmitts the bacterium to humans through the bites of western black-legged deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis). This tick is much smaller than a dog or kine tick and feed by inserting their mou ths into the skin of a host and slowly receive their vital fluid (1). Early localized Lyme disease occurs 3-30 years after the tick bites. Symptoms include EM, mild muslce aches, fever, headache, and lymphadenopathy. Early disseminated disease occurs 1-4 months subsequent to the tick bite. Symptoms include cranial-nerve facial palsy, meningitis, radiculopathy, and heart block. In the late chopine of the disease which begins 3-4 months after the tick bite. Symptoms include arthirits in big joints, buckram headache, encephalitis and cognitive disorders. Early localized Lyme disease is enured with doxycycline or amoxicillin for 14-21 days. Early disseminated and late Lyme disorder are treated for 14-28 days with either oral or parental therapy (ceft... ...ible through seasonal worker feeding activity of nymphal I. scapularis and the increase of outdoor activities tribe engage in during these months (4). In 2002 there were a total of 23,763 reported cases of Lyme disease, more than whatsoever previous year (2). Similar to previous years, the highest incidence rates occurred in northeastern, mid-Atlanatic and north central states. The largest proportion of cases were reported among ages 5-14 years and 50-59 years. Factors influences this grow in reported cases include a growing deer population, increased residential development of wodded areas, tick dispersal to new areas, improved disorder commemoration in areas where Lyme disease is endemic, and enhanced reporting (2). The NETSS system is weighty because it helps determinine who is at risk and where the highest incidence rates are that need targeted preventative measures.

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