Friday, February 22, 2019

Hybrid Vehicles: the Dark Side Essay

AbstractIn the past decade, intercrossed electric gondola vehicles (HEV) ingest been ma fagot a big commotion with the innovative, artillery saving technologies that accomp either them. The illusion that HEVs ar 100 percent environmentall(a)y friendly in all aspects also follows the HEV wave. Sadly the illusion often wins over unsuspecting customers the instant interrupt gas mileage is hold outed. This check out on the environmental impact of the crossbreedingizingisation electric vehicle observes the unobserved sides of the automotive green movement. The piece comp ars how an ordinary gasoline vehicle (non-HEV) bed hand gas mileage that is just as good, if non better, than the much expensive hybrid option. This reality check on the newest technologies uproots what manufacturers do non deprivation any sensation to know or think about when buying a vehicle including environmental pollution of the hybrid electric vehicle, non-HEV terminate scrimping, the lea ve out of pay-back from owning an HEV, and how the HEV lacks the level of versatility required for many another(prenominal) Ameri mountain families.Hybrid Electric VehiclesThe racy SideThesis Hybrid Electric Vehicles should cease to be garden truckd beca use up of tetrad master(prenominal) issues environmental pollution has not depressd, better fuel economy plenty be achieved in non-hybrid vehicles, in that location is no payback in owning a hybrid, and hybrid vehicles do not possess the same versatility many Ameri support families need.I. Environmental Pollution and the Hybrid Electric Vehicle A. Batteries determine Nickel, Lithium, and Lead1. Mining these materials is hazardous, causes acid rain2. Shipping these materials is bely and the expat vehicle add togethers to pollution B. Car accidents go a languish3. Vehicular accidents happen all of the time, HEV batteries be prone to damage and rouse leak harmful materials (acids) into the environment. 4. Recycling batte ries is hopeless right now. Where do the batteries go? II. Non-HEV open fire EconomyC. European Diesels vs. HEV5. For decades European automotive companies switch been producing diesel go world powered gondola cars achieving mpg in the 40-90 range depending on the size of the vehicle 6. the Statesns declargon yet to adopt this engineering referable to discrepancies in emissions controls and standards. D. Alternative Fuel Technologies7. Hydrogen power is decorous much available to the consumers in larger cities such(prenominal) as Los Angeles and New York City. 8. The engineering science is still rather expensive, notwithstanding if the government stop wasting capital on HEV development and started spending on the development of Hydrogen Power, our depending on foreign oil would diminish and we would provoke a reliable, renewable, and ecologically fail slide fastenerIII. HEVs Do non Pay To OwnE. Non-HEV vs. HEV9. Most non-HEVs leave croupe tend to pay themselves glum in a matter of geezerhood because they have excellent maintenance costs and relatively easy upkeep. 10. HEVs have many new features that are expensive to keep up in todays market, especially with limited accessibility to replacement parts. F. sustenance11. HEVs are filled with a embarrassment of new costs that can drain a wallet dry Depending on how long an HEV is own the owner must maintain dickens the electric and gas motor along with the assault and shelling. 12. A outpouring costs upwards of an expensive $2,000.IV. HEVs and the universeG. Urban creation and HEV Use13. just about Americans live in obturate cities where fuel consumption is tremendous and pollution is a major problem. 14. HEVs tolerate the convenience of shutting off the gas motor while stopped and operating tho the electric motor when in stop-and-go traffic. 15. More accidents happen in and around the metropolis it is to a greater extent homogeneously for a hybrid to be subject to accidents in the city. H. Rural Population and HEV Use16. Many people living in small towns and villages need four-wheel priming vehicles that can take hard labor. 17. Gas mileage is indispensible to this population. 18. HEV applications in trucks and bid utility vehicles have failed to deliver gas mileage commodiously select to that of non-HEVs. 19. Blue collar workers need vehicles with muscle and power, HEVs do not offer that.ConclusionHybrid Electric VehiclesThe Dark SideThe hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has become an passing popular election for many Americans in the past decade. Because it has become so popular, the HEV has lead to many new and scratchy environmental impacts on a global level. Hybrids have been viewed as the say to the United States oil dependency. Providing superior fuel economy and lower emissions, a hybrid car was sure to be a hit among city-dwelling citizens however, the popularity of the HEV is reference to look like a forged thing. HEVs require a batte ry to power the electric motor.The batteries contain chemicals that can be released into the environment in the case of an accident or disposal. This is a serious problem that necessitate to be addressed. Hybrid Electric Vehicles should cease to be produced because of four main issues environmental pollution has not minifyd, better fuel economy can be achieved in non-hybrid vehicles, at that place is no payback in owning a hybrid, and hybrid vehicles do not possess the same versatility many American families need. Environmental Pollution and the Hybrid Electric VehicleSmog infested cities have been searching for an answer to pollution the hybrid vehicle was the response or so it seemed. HEVs have been around long adequate to leave both a positive and a negative impact on the environment. A hybrid was meant to reduce fuel consumption and minimize harmful emissions and it does the personal credit line well however, the people who see a hybrid as eco-friendly do not see the polluti ng monster that hides behind the cloak. Hybrids require a plethora of different parts that normal cars do not typically need. The absolute process requires a tremendous amount of energy from other sources, such as diesel power. The process through which HEV batteries are made emits much impurities than an HEV provide produce in its lifetime. Not only(prenominal) can HEVs produce pollution forrader they are made, but they can also contribute to pollution while driving down the road. If one of these vehicles were to get in a major accident, the harmful chemicals within the battery could leak into the worldly concern and contaminate water supplies. The same thing happens when HEVs are sent to the leveling yard.The batteries are not easy to recycle and there has yet to be an high-octane and environmentally safe way to dispose of the hazardous materials. The hybrid electric vehicle has started to fuel controversy over the professedly environmental impact of such vehicles. Most b atteries found in HEVs today constitute of nickel metal hydride (NiMH), or lithium ion (Li-Ion) two very toxic chemicals. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (2011), the some environmentally vulnerable component of a hybrid vehicle is the battery. Disposing of the batteries is a major concern and manufacturers have yet to present proper disposal instructions.The largest environmental problem with batteries is the mining and manufacturing of the raw materials that go into them. Many human and implement workers are needed to extract the materials from the Earth, producing immense amounts pollution and damaging the health of the humans in the mines (para. 8). HEVs have a long way to go before becoming the optimal eco-friendly vehicle Dr. Dominic Notter of Empa Technology and Society lab (2010) writes that 15 percent of the total environmental burden can be ascribed to the battery (including its manufacture, maintenance and disposal), (para. 7). Notter su ggests that lithium batteries are not as environmentally bad as they were first understood to be.The Empa team speculates that the biggest environmental impact by HEVs is the sources where the electricity is produced to charge the batteries. The sources can be an assortment of nuclear, coal-fired, and hydroelectric power creating a heavily offset balance between the emissions of the source and the battery itself. In short, HEVs are indirectly responsible for the environmental impacts ca utilise by the batteries (Niederst, 2010).Non-HEV Fuel EconomySetting aside the problems associated with HEVs, Non-HEVs are plenty capable of achieving enormously better fuel economy. European diesel technology has come a great distance in the past ten years. Many small diesel cars are able to achieve seventy to eighty miles per congius with stock configuration, compared to standard gasoline which in most small cars only achieves thirty miles per gallon. Thirty miles per gallon by U.S. standards is pretty good, but it can be better. Today there are large trucks that can achieve cardinal miles per gallon on diesel fuel, yet smaller gas trucks will get only fifteen miles per gallon. The technology to make Non-HEVs much fuel efficient is there it just unavoidably to be utilise and executed. Part of the reason that the U.S. has not used new diesel technology is because of the emissions standards difference from Europes current standards, but there is no acceptable reason why the U.S. cannot invest bringing smaller, cleaner diesels to the market.Engineers have been improving the efficiency of upcountry combustion engines for over one cardinal years. The article Fuel Economy TodayAlt Fuels Tomorrow (2010) suggests that the king of fluid energy efficiency is diesel fuel, (para. 3). Diesel fuel is a major driving force in the U.S. economy by propulsive nearly 1.3 million long haul semi trucks on U.S. roadstead every day (Aerodynamic, 2011, para. 2). Nearly every item on todays market is delivered by either diesel tan semi truck or locomotive, which constantly raises demand for the most updated diesel technologies as the U.S. economy strives to go green. On another bet, diesel is becoming a popular option on smaller, lighter duty vehicles sum diesel could be the next gasoline.This transition could lead buyers away from the hybrid market as most small diesels provide decent fuel economy and in the long run are a better deal. According to natural gas Panic 2011 Hybrid/Electric Vehicles Not the reception (2011), Joe Wiesenfelder, senior editor of Cars.com, believes that, for economic purposes, the purchase of an HEV because of fuel costs makes junior-grade sense. Buying a Nissan Leaf or Chevy Volt now is no more logical and probably less- due to market realities. The new compacts like the Chevy Cruze, Ford Focus and Hyundai Elantra are a better choice in the long run due to lower price and dear fuel economy, asserts Wiesenfelder (para. 6). Non-HEVs m ay not be as efficient as a gas/electric hybrid, but the extra expenses associated with HEVs are enough to say that Non-HEVs are the most economically reasonable choice when purchasing a new car. Alternative energy is another way America can eliminate its dependence on foreign oil.One of the most popular developing fuels is atomic number 1. Hydrogen is an extremely efficient fuel that emits only water, while regular 87 octane gas is tremendously inefficient and it emits deplorable gases. If the U.S. strongly invested in the development of hydrogen within the next century, the area could be fully independent of foreign oil and fuel prices would be minimal. Today hydrogen vehicles are available for lease in some major cities. Currently the technology is not quite ready for chain reactor production as the system is not durable enough for heap production and the technology is still too expensive to make any giant leaps in progress. Politics are the major issue behind the slow prog ression of hydrogen fuel technologies.Jonathan Gal (2009) noted that the reason why preference energies are not being pushed for with as much excitement is because the idea is worth billions of dollars and oil companies are taking good of the situation and jacking up prices on oil-based products. Big companies know that once alternative fuels become widely available to the public the profits will straightaway disintegrate (para.3). Oil barons have been fighting against the move for alternative fuels, which is graspable however, they do see the profitability in accommodating alternative fuels and are quickly scooping up companies that want to produce the new energies.Hydrogen is a great fuel for America to renew itself. In opposition to the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, one cleverness argue that it is cold too explosive to use in a passenger car and is simply not safe the Hindenburg is a prime example of its dangerousness. The Hindenburg was a German airship that was filled with hydrogen and coated with a close-grained aluminum and iron oxide paint. The myth is that hydrogen was the main cause of the Hindenburg catastrophe. Although hydrogen was a key player, it was the high gearly reactive coating that ignited the beam to start the hydrogen on fire. Of course there is more to that story, but it proves that hydrogen is only as dangerous as the machines it is engineered into.HEVs Do Not Pay to OwnOver the last decade it has been speculated that owning an HEV will never pay to own within the lifetime of possession. The average non-HEV will typically take five years to pay for itself. Americans want a car that will be useful, reliable, and will pay to own. Typical American families will run their cars for ten to fifteen years before getting a new vehicle because with all other expenses taken into account a new car is the last expense a growing family needs to worry about. HEVs are packed with relatively new technologies that are not easily and e conomically replaced. Replacement HEV parts are tricky to scratch and are never cheap. A typical battery for a HEV can run up a bill of more than $2,000. Fleming, Privott, Taylor, and McDuffie (n.d.) have make research regarding the lifetime of a typical HEV battery. Granted many HEVs have not been around long enough to need replacement, the team used a figure of ten years to estimate the annual cost of battery maintenance and replacement.After meeting with automotive dealers to gather prices of replacement HEV batteries, the team produced the price of an HEV battery to be about $2600, there would be an additional cost of approximately $3400 for installation. Compare this information with the cost of a Non-HEV battery price of about $30-$40 and the price differential becomes extremely apparent (p.6). Expensive repairs make a vehicle incredibly difficult to pay off within the lifetime of the ownership.Non-HEVs have been around long enough to the point where paying for repairs is r elatively cheap and parts are easy to find many components are interchangeable and can be installed by anybody. The internal combustion engine, according to Virginia Techs puddle on readiness Restructuring (2007), has been the most preferred method of supplying energy to major companies globally because the machines are easy to maintain, familiar to all ages, and high dependability (para.4). Although HEVs are advertised to be the new family vehicle, it is obvious there are many issues that need to be taken into account before the HEV will truly be a family and economically friendly vehicle. HEVs and the PopulationThere are billions of people on this planet, but only a few select groups of the populace really need or want HEVs. Many of the people who live in heavily urbanized areas, such as Chicago, New York City, and Los Angeles are the only populations who could benefit from using an HEV. A convenience offered by an HEV is that it can shut off the gas motor when stopped and run s olely on the electric motor to reduce the harmful emissions that all major cities are prone to. The use of the electric motor also eliminates gas consumption during stop-and-go traffic, which is when most pollution from kill accumulates. Cities are victim to a large number of accidents every year.From buffer zone benders to pile-ups, all types of accidents are highly likely in a city setting. HEVs are equipped with all of the latest safety technologies, but what is most dangerous is the leaking and spreading of battery acid during an accident and afterword, not to list hybrids are also quieter than gas vehicles making the hearing impaired commonplace more likely to end up on the hood of an moving HEV. Joanne Silburner of NPRs Health Blog, suggests that without the engine noise, blind people and people earshot to music are the most likely to walk in front of an HEV without knowing any better. Silburner also points out that the uneducated driver of an HEV might be a possible risk to pedestrians as HEV engines shut off when the car is not moving leading to what could be a brat reaction from the driver (para.6-7).In small towns and awkward areas across the U.S. many families need fuel efficient, people-moving, and reliable vehicles that are easy to maintain. HEVs do not make the cut when it comes to meeting the needs of a rural-dwelling family. In rural areas, places and locations are commonly spaced widely apart and highways or two lane roads connect them. HEVs are known to get worsened gas mileage on the highway than in the city, which is incredibly unsympathetic to the long distance commuters. Automotive companies have tried to address these problems with hybrid trucks and sport utility vehicles however, the performance of the vehicles was too poor to achieve a tremendous upgrade in gas mileage.The failure to produce an efficient hybrid truck brought the automotive companies back to the drawing board. Today there are large diesel trucks that can achieve an impressive twenty-two miles per gallon while hauling heavy loads. According to U.S. Department of Energy (2011), diesel vehicles meet the same emissions standards and regular gas vehicles and the diesels are more powerful and fuel efficient than similar sized gas engines (about 30-35% more efficient), (para.1). With the technologies available today humans can fine-tune machines, like car engines, to run at top efficiency and still produce vast amounts of power to add both thrill and utility to the drive.ConclusionHEVs are popular it is unlikely that the major automakers of the world will even dish out pulling HEVs from their lineup of vehicles. The consequences in the marketplace would be too large. world eco-friendly is a major perk to most people companies need to conform to their respective customer base. This accommodation restricts the companies from taking back their promises and providing a true eco-friendly product. Overlooked environmental pollution, non-HEV improvem ents, HEV cost of ownership and population demands are all reminders of how the eco-friendly revolution has blinded the general public from what happens behind the green screen. It is up to the people to understand that HEVs are not the key to a happy future, but are another obstruction to achieving the real eco-vehicle.ReferencesAerodynamic add-ons reduce fuel consumption of semi trucks by 7-12%. (2011, February 16). Retrieved sue 16, 2011, from http//missionzero.org/categories/12-Transportation/saved_entries/8007-Aerodynamic-add-ons-reduce-fuel-consumption-of-semi-trucks-by-7-12- Consortium on Energy Restructuring, Virginia Tech. (2007). Internal Combustion Engines. Retrieved border district 23, 2010 from http//www.dg.history.vt.edu/ch5/ices.html Fleming, D., Privott, T., Taylor, J.R., & McDuffie, T. (n.d.). Hybrid electric vehicles vs. internal combustion engine vehicles Which gives you more bang for your buck?. Retrieved March 22, 2011 fromhttp//education.uncc.edu/cmste/summe rtime%20ventures/2010%20World%20View%20of%20Math%20and%20Data%20Analysis/THomas%20Privott-%20Davis%20Fleming.pdf Fuel economy today Alt fuels tomorrow. (2010) Fleet Equipment 36(3), 14. worldwide Reference Center Gold. Web. Retrieved March 16, 2011Gal, J. (2009, July 06). The politics of alternative energy. Retrieved March 24, 2011 from http//www.prlog.org/10275672-the-politics-of-alternative-energy.htmlGasoline Panic 2011 Hybrid/Electric Vehicles Not the Answer. (2011, March 4). PR Newswire. planetary Reference Center Gold. Web. Retrieved March 16, 2011 Niderst, R. (Ed.). (2010, August 27). The eco-balance of Li-ion rechargeable batteries for electric cars greener than expected. Retrieved from EMPA Materials comprehension and Technology, Switzerland. Retrieved February 24, 2011, from http//www.empa.ch/plugin/template/empa/*/99149//l=1Silberner, J. (2010, April 19). Hybrid cars silence just one factor in high pedestrian death rate.Retrieved on March 24, 2010 fromhttp//www.npr.org /blogs/health/2010/04/hybrid_cars_silence_just_one_f.html United States Department of Energy. (2011, March 24). Diesel Vehicles. Retrieved on March 24, 2011 from http//www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/di_diesels.shtmlUnited States Environmental Protection Agency. (2011, February 18). Environmental impacts from automobiles. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http//yosemite.epa.gov/R10/OWCM.NSF/product+stewardship/autos-impactsbatteries

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