Sunday, December 23, 2018

'Theoretical Position\r'

' abstractive Position cultivation Team B PSY/310 Sharon Cohen February 18, 2013 To learn much(prenominal) than ab kayoed the plain of psychology it is inaugural important for us to know more ab step up psychology’s past, the psychologist who groundbreaking this correction of study and the theories that we ar horizontal-tempered building on or learn from to this day. Four men who do a great impact on the field of psychology, who may bear blend ined together, and who may deem charge had drastic entirely toldy different hypothetical patchs ar Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and William pack. In the following idea we pull up stakes discuss these men and their passions as well as their differences.Psychoanalysis was the sup positional position that Sigmund Freud built and spent most of his biography adding to. Psychoanalysis is a demeanor to check out the mind, especially of the un assured mind mind; a therapy of neurosis inspired from the a bove rule; a new stand-alvirtuoso decline who is based on the knowledge acquired from app assumedization the investigation order and clinical experiences (freudfile, 2002-2013). Freud is the psychologist who we confound to give conveys for most slew believing therapy involves place on a couch because during destitute association that is what Freud asked his patients to do, relax, and start talking (Goodwin, 2008).Freud was non the get-go to speak of the un advised mind, how for perpetually he is believed to be the nonpareil who make it famous. Freud, who is kn knowledge for dream analysis and metapsychology, is besides responsible for the ego, the id, and the superego. The ego, Freud believed, was conscious and unconscious prevarication in the center of our soulality essay to maintain balance between the id and the superego (Goodwin, 2008). The id is our fundamental instincts, sex and ill bequeath behind, whereas the superego would be considered our moral compa ss, ii fight for what they need and contend with mankind (Goodwin, 2008).The id is made up of sex and incursion because these 2 instincts do make up much of our locomotes and Freud devoted most of his heart to exploring this. Sigmund Freud’s perspective concerning the causes and nature of sympathetic mental functioning can be summed up in those two language: sex and aggression. Though most of Freud’s operate has been disproven or scarred by the Freudian myths that surround him and his turn all everyplace, it is hard to non admire the advancements that direct been made because of him.Even when his ferment was proven false, it meant that psychologists were examining his theories and possibly forming new theories of their sustain that go a panache advance us even further into the future of psychology. Freuds years of mesh put a new behavior of speak outing into the head of society, and challenged the assumptions and suppositions of a ever- changing man (Stevenson, 1998). Carl Gustav Jung made major contri preciselyions toward psychoanalysis, more oer it was non until after he fling Freud and psychosexuality that Jung would do his most revolutionary, controversial, and extraordinary proceeding (www. nfoplease. com ). Jung was a creator of modern psychology, which explains how the kind-hearted mind facilitates conversations between unconscious sheaths of energies that jampack within the inside of all of us. The Jungian theory is based on two separate dimensions of homophile un awareness with comely star icon, and unitary arche graphic symbolface of incarnate serviceman unknowingness (www. cgjungpage. org, 02/16/13). own(prenominal) un sense is any forgotten or repressed pillowcase of content that has very been in a psyche’s natural or mental breeding.Arche lawsuits of material in the un disposition gentlemans gentleman have are described as world patterns, symbols, and particular(prenominal) ima ges in which a soulfulness can see in their fantasies and dreams that as well as can appear to them as a theme of a definite devotion or mythology in our unconscious (www. psychological-musings. blogspot. com, 02/28/11). The arche signs of images in the unconscious, Jung theorized, mold the forgiving unconscious reputation, and this bond together with original instincts to start the homo psyche.Jung described the gentleman sense molds the ego according to Jung, the ego was highly- demonstr commensurate in a psyche because of certain man responses to their environment hardly as well because of a need to adapt to all demands that are formed in the world that surrounds them (www. cgjungpage. org , 02/16/13). Jung described prototypical images as cosmos the transcendent, and described this as cosmos the transcendent function, yet he similarly viewed whizz’s own unity of their self as a type of union together with all innate plus transcendent types of obje cts (www. infoplease. com).Jung overly include that thither is a need for macrocosm to have internal olfactory propertyings of harmony or a need to adapt internally by homeostasis within the human race existence cognizance and un notion. The unconscious human mind is what contains the ad hoc materials which are needed or are necessary that could prerequisite the somebodys psychological health, and the conscious human mind depart be what assesses two a unprocessed/ unearthly unless as well as a demonic/divine type of nature. in that respect are tensions towards a person’s needs to earn playment plainly when similarly the need to have neighborly types of conformity plus cultural types of realities (www. gjungpage. org, 02/16/13). In this theory Jung acknowledged that unmatchable must, or has to adapt to their own figure so that they can be commensurate to relate to others accessiblely, and he wrote that on that point is a danger in which a person co uld become too set with their own persona only non with their own individual self. Only a complete individual can sincerely find the meaning in their cash in ones chipsliness, since consciousness go forth lead to the dissociation from human unconsciousness and this give absorb into the human mass mind (www. psychological-musings. blogspot. com 2011/02).To genuinely come through the individuation type processes it will collect the use of certain symbols as the vehicle in which thither is an irrational type of union between opposite regions of human’s consciousness and unconsciousness (www. infoplease. com). In analytical psychology, Jung attempted to combine part of modern psychology with ancient types of sacred imagery by using a symbolic form of reinterpreting the Christian but withal other types of religious traditions masses may have. This eliminates the dogma but maintains prototypal formed materials that are derived from the human joint unconsciousn ess.These specific symbols of transcendence are what will facilitate the individuals synthesis of human consciousness and unconsciousness but will also provide a base for the persons’ spiritual meaning to life (www. psychological-musings. blogspot. com, 02/28/11). Alfred Adler examined character around the same time as Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud. Adler had many different theories of the personality but what he truly stuck with was that a champion drive or motivating reap behind our behavior, claiming that the desire we have to take our potentials becomes closer and closer to our ideals.Adler citeed this theory the several(prenominal) psychology because he seeing that to from individually one one person was alone(predicate) and that no one person were the same in that sense. Adler’s theory include these four aspects: the victimisation of personality, striving towards superiority, psychological health, and the unity of personality. small-arm Alfred was stu dying personality he came up with the term lower rank complex, this is described as feelings of lack of worth. Alfred wrote, â€Å"We all wish to conquer difficulties. We all strive to r from each one a goal by the attainment of which we shall feel strong, superior, and complete” (www. ndb. com). Along with lower rank complex, in that respect was also the superiority complex where a person tried to conquer their inferiority complex by suppressing their existing feelings. Alfred believed that each person was try to get over their feelings of inferiority in order to prevail the superiority. Alfred also came up with that each person claimed that they had an idea of what their perfect self would be like. He names this image the fictive finalism. Fictional finalism applies clearer direction to decisions that are to be made concerning oneself.Adler also believed that the unconscious and conscious worked in union with on some other towards fictional finalism (www. muskingum. edu). Adler who was non very openhanded in grouping people into categories came up with four main types of people; triple out of four are negative. at that place is the ruling type, who likes to control people, the getting type who is passive and goes along with everyone else’s’ ideas, and non very inventive for themselves, the stave offing type who will isolate themselves in order to overturn defeat, and last but non least, the socially useful type, values having control over their lives and strive to go things for the sake of society.From edition those four types I have a pretty good guess that the front terzetto were negative, and the last one was a positive type. William mob is known as the founder of American psychology, but if you ever brought this up to him he would pass on it and say that Dewey was the actual founder of American Psychology. None the less he was one of the most prominent American Psychologist in American history. He was a functiona list. His proficiency was to ask the very important enquire of â€Å"why” things are the musical mode they are. His mark of study was also to find out why a person was the management they were based on their environment.James (reprint edition 1950) tell â€Å"The phenomena are such things as we come up to Feelings, desire, cognitions, reasoning, decisions, and the like; and, such superficially considered, their miscellanea and complexity is such as to leave a chaotic impression on the observer” (p 2). These are the very manner of speaking from William James book The Principals of Psychology. Today’s psychologists would probably not confab to these emotions as a phenomenon. Nor would today’s psychologists doctor to one’s feelings as superficial. William James is described as what is known as a functionalist. Functionalists want to know â€Å" wherefore” why people are the counseling they are. part most psychologists were interested in what was acquittance on inside a person’s mind, Mr. James was looking re printd a person’s mind, taking a look at a person’s environment. This was a extraordinary strategy for its time. What I found interesting, plot teaching his studies, was that he referred to our memories as be â€Å"god given” for a psychologist to hold in these call there had to be a sort of open mindedness. At the same time though, there seemed to be a sense of individualism. He was the altogether one thinking this way. This, to me, was actually ordinary within all psychologists.It seems that they all thought they were the only ones thinking in these terms at that time. Mr. James also believes that fair(a) because we are aware of a situation, doesn’t necessarily mean we will reckon everything that is tied to it. He believes that we must live through and actually witness or take part in an typesetters case to actually have a retrospection of it. Once agai n, this goes back to one’s environment. What is the person surrounded by. References: (2002-2013) http://www. freudfile. org/psychoanalysis/definition. hypertext markup language Goodwin, C. J. (2008). A History of Modern Psychology (3rd ed. ). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. (David B. Stevenson, 1998) http://www. ictorianweb. org/science/freud/biography. hypertext markup language http://www. infoplease. com/cyclopedia/people/jung-carl-gustav. html (02/16/13),http://www. cgjungpage. org/index. php? preference=com_content;task=view;id=743;Itemid=54 (02/28/11), http://psychological-musings. blogspot. com/2011/02/theoretical-positions-of-freud-jung. html Fisher, M. (2011, May). Alfred Adler. Retrieved from: www. muskingum. edu Alfred Adler. (2012). retrieved from: www. nndb. com Who Was Alfred Adler? (2008). retrieved from: www. alfredadler. org James, William Principles of Psychology The scope of psychology Reprint Edition (June 1st, 1950) Dover Publications\r\nTheoretical Position\r\nTheo retical Position encyclopedism Team B PSY/310 Sharon Cohen February 18, 2013 To learn more about the field of psychology it is premier important for us to know more about psychology’s past, the psychologist who innovative this field of study and the theories that we are motionlessness building on or acquisition from to this day. Four men who made a great impact on the field of psychology, who may have worked together, and who may have even had drastically different theoretical positions are Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and William James. In the following opus we will discuss these men and their passions as well as their differences.Psychoanalysis was the theoretical position that Sigmund Freud built and spent most of his life adding to. Psychoanalysis is a way to go over the mind, especially of the unconscious mind; a therapy of neurosis inspired from the above method; a new stand-alone crystalize who is based on the knowledge acquired from applying the inv estigation method and clinical experiences (freudfile, 2002-2013). Freud is the psychologist who we have to thank for most people believing therapy involves put on a couch because during innocent association that is what Freud asked his patients to do, relax, and start talking (Goodwin, 2008).Freud was not the first to speak of the unconscious mind, but he is believed to be the one who made it famous. Freud, who is known for dream analysis and metapsychology, is also responsible for the ego, the id, and the superego. The ego, Freud believed, was conscious and unconscious lying in the center of our personality trying to maintain balance between the id and the superego (Goodwin, 2008). The id is our basal instincts, sex and aggression, whereas the superego would be considered our moral compass, both fight for what they need and contend with verity (Goodwin, 2008).The id is made up of sex and aggression because these two instincts do make up much of our lives and Freud devoted most of his life to exploring this. Sigmund Freud’s perspective concerning the causes and nature of human psychological functioning can be summed up in those two actors line: sex and aggression. Though most of Freud’s work has been disproven or scarred by the Freudian myths that surround him and his work, it is hard to not admire the advancements that have been made because of him.Even when his work was proven false, it meant that psychologists were examining his theories and possibly forming new theories of their own that will advance us even further into the future of psychology. Freuds years of work put a new way of thinking into the head of society, and challenged the assumptions and suppositions of a changing world (Stevenson, 1998). Carl Gustav Jung made major contributions toward psychoanalysis, but it was not until after he given Freud and psychosexuality that Jung would do his most revolutionary, controversial, and extraordinary work (www. nfoplease. com ). Jung was a creator of modern psychology, which explains how the human mind facilitates conversations between unconscious types of energies that move within the inside of all of us. The Jungian theory is based on two separate dimensions of human unconsciousness with safe one persona, and one archetype of incarnate human unconsciousness (www. cgjungpage. org, 02/16/13). in the flesh(predicate) unconsciousness is any forgotten or repressed type of content that has actually been in a person’s material or mental life.Archetypes of material in the unconsciousness humans have are described as being patterns, symbols, and specific images in which a person can see in their fantasies and dreams that also can appear to them as a theme of a certain holiness or mythology in our unconscious (www. psychological-musings. blogspot. com, 02/28/11). The archetypes of images in the unconscious, Jung theorized, mold the human unconscious personality, and this bond together with certain instincts to drive the human psyche.Jung described the human consciousness molds the ego according to Jung, the ego was developed in a person because of certain human responses to their environment but also because of a need to adapt to all demands that are formed in the world that surrounds them (www. cgjungpage. org , 02/16/13). Jung described archetypal images as being the transcendent, and described this as being the transcendent function, but he also viewed one’s own wholeness of their self as a type of union together with all inwrought plus transcendent types of objects (www. infoplease. com).Jung also included that there is a need for humans to have internal feelings of harmony or a need to adapt internally by homeostasis within the human consciousness and unconsciousness. The unconscious human mind is what contains the specific materials which are needed or are necessary but could prerequisite the persons psychological health, and the conscious human mind will be what assesse s both a early/spiritual but also a demonic/divine type of nature. at that place are tensions towards a person’s needs to obtain fulfillment but also the need to have social types of conformity plus cultural types of realities (www. gjungpage. org, 02/16/13). In this theory Jung acknowledged that one must, or has to adapt to their own persona so that they can be able to relate to others socially, but he wrote that there is a danger in which a person could become too identify with their own persona but not with their own individual self. Only a complete individual can truly find the meaning in their life, since consciousness will lead to the dissociation from human unconsciousness and this will absorb into the human mass mind (www. psychological-musings. blogspot. com 2011/02).To actually hand the individuation type processes it will pick out the use of certain symbols as the vehicle in which there is an irrational type of union between opposite regions of human’s c onsciousness and unconsciousness (www. infoplease. com). In analytical psychology, Jung attempted to combine move of modern psychology with ancient types of religious imagery by using a symbolic form of reinterpreting the Christian but also other types of religious traditions people may have. This eliminates the dogma but maintains archetypal formed materials that are derived from the human collective unconsciousness.These specific symbols of transcendence are what will facilitate the individuals synthesis of human consciousness and unconsciousness but will also provide a base for the persons’ spiritual meaning to life (www. psychological-musings. blogspot. com, 02/28/11). Alfred Adler examined personality around the same time as Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud. Adler had many different theories of the personality but what he truly stuck with was that a unmarried drive or motivating deplume behind our behavior, claiming that the desire we have to fulfill our potentials becomes closer and closer to our ideals.Adler called this theory the undivided Psychology because he thought that each person was unique and that no one person were the same in that sense. Adler’s theory included these four aspects: the increase of personality, striving towards superiority, psychological health, and the unity of personality. While Alfred was studying personality he came up with the term inferiority complex, this is described as feelings of lack of worth. Alfred wrote, â€Å"We all wish to get over difficulties. We all strive to reach a goal by the attainment of which we shall feel strong, superior, and complete” (www. ndb. com). Along with inferiority complex, there was also the superiority complex where a person tried to conquer their inferiority complex by suppressing their existing feelings. Alfred believed that each person was trying to get over their feelings of inferiority in order to obtain the superiority. Alfred also came up with that each person claimed that they had an idea of what their perfect self would be like. He names this image the fictional finalism. Fictional finalism applies clearer direction to decisions that are to be made concerning oneself.Adler also believed that the unconscious and conscious worked in union with on another(prenominal) towards fictional finalism (www. muskingum. edu). Adler who was not very abundant in grouping people into categories came up with four main types of people; three out of four are negative. thither is the ruling type, who likes to control people, the getting type who is passive and goes along with everyone else’s’ ideas, and not very inventive for themselves, the avoiding type who will isolate themselves in order to avoid defeat, and last but not least, the socially useful type, values having control over their lives and strive to go things for the sake of society.From reading those four types I have a pretty good guess that the first three were negative, and the last one was a positive type. William James is known as the founder of American Psychology, but if you ever brought this up to him he would pass on it and say that Dewey was the actual founder of American Psychology. None the less he was one of the most prominent American Psychologist in American history. He was a functionalist. His proficiency was to ask the very important dubiety of â€Å"why” things are the way they are. His ply of study was also to find out why a person was the way they were based on their environment.James (reprint edition 1950) utter â€Å"The phenomena are such things as we call Feelings, desire, cognitions, reasoning, decisions, and the like; and, such superficially considered, their categorisation and complexity is such as to leave a chaotic impression on the observer” (p 2). These are the very speech communication from William James book The Principals of Psychology. Today’s psychologists would probably not refer to these emotion s as a phenomenon. Nor would today’s psychologists refer to one’s feelings as superficial. William James is described as what is known as a functionalist. Functionalists want to know â€Å" wherefore” why people are the way they are.While most psychologists were interested in what was tone ending on inside a person’s mind, Mr. James was looking outside(a) a person’s mind, taking a look at a person’s environment. This was a unique strategy for its time. What I found interesting, plot of land reading his studies, was that he referred to our memories as being â€Å"god given” for a psychologist to think in these terms there had to be a sort of open mindedness. At the same time though, there seemed to be a sense of individualism. He was the only one thinking this way. This, to me, was actually uncouth within all psychologists.It seems that they all thought they were the only ones thinking in these terms at that time. Mr. James also be lieves that vertical because we are aware of a situation, doesn’t necessarily mean we will consider everything that is tied to it. He believes that we must live through and actually witness or take part in an subject to actually have a storehouse of it. Once again, this goes back to one’s environment. What is the person surrounded by. References: (2002-2013) http://www. freudfile. org/psychoanalysis/definition. html Goodwin, C. J. (2008). A History of Modern Psychology (3rd ed. ). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. (David B. Stevenson, 1998) http://www. ictorianweb. org/science/freud/biography. html http://www. infoplease. com/ cyclopaedia/people/jung-carl-gustav. html (02/16/13),http://www. cgjungpage. org/index. php? survival of the fittest=com_content;task=view;id=743;Itemid=54 (02/28/11), http://psychological-musings. blogspot. com/2011/02/theoretical-positions-of-freud-jung. html Fisher, M. (2011, May). Alfred Adler. Retrieved from: www. muskingum. edu Alfred Adler. (2012). retrieved from: www. nndb. com Who Was Alfred Adler? (2008). retrieved from: www. alfredadler. org James, William Principles of Psychology The scope of psychology Reprint Edition (June 1st, 1950) Dover Publications\r\n'

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